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An Analysis of the Utilization of Needs Assessments by Training and Development Professionals

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the utilization of needs assessments by training and development professionals in a large metropolitan training association. The study sought to determine (1) how frequently needs assessments were used; (2) how the results of needs assessments were used; (3) whether the needs assessment model was developed by in-house staff or outside consultants; (4) whether needs assessments were utilized more frequently within specific industry groups; and (5) the respondents' perceived level of importance placed on the needs assessment process. To accomplish these objectives, this study surveyed members of the Dallas chapter of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).
Date: May 1987
Creator: Hires, Teri Meadows

An Analysis of Trends in Higher Education and Their Perceived Probability and Desirability by Leaders in Higher Education in Texas

Description: This study is an analysis of trends in public higher education and their probability and desirability for the 1970's as perceived by persons in positions of leadership in public higher education. The purposes of this study were (1) to identify the major trends in public higher education in the United States, (2) to assess the opinions of persons in positions of leadership in the public four-year colleges and universities in Texas, (3) to determine if there were significant differences in opinions of the probability and desirability of trends for the 1970's, and (4) to develop projections of the most probable and the most desirable trends for the 1970's.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Brake, Walter L.

The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

Description: This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive development and self-concept in academic dishonesty represent major findings.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Arvidson, Cody Jean

Argumentation Used in the Sex Education Issue in the Dallas Independent School District

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to identify and describe the arguments used in the sex education controversy in the Dallas Independent School District. The issue was examined as a debate and as a social movement promoted and resisted by community rhetoricians. Arguments were elicited from interviews with rhetoricians on both sides of the issue.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Ingalls, Arthur Bradford

The Arnspiger Value-Oriented Rationale and General Education for Student Self-Understanding and Continuous Self-Development

Description: The problem of this study was to describe a conceptual design for general education with interdisciplinary qualities leading to student self-understanding and continuous self-development. This study emerged out of the need to gain some insight into the causes of decline and/or abandonment of general education programs during periods of social disorganization, and to determine whether a relationship.exists between mounting social problems and the more intense kinds of problems experienced by college-age youth during these periods.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Preas, Mary Elizabeth Foster

Arousal Responses to Specific Structured Classroom Activities and Events as Determined by Cardiac Telemetry

Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the effects of specific structured classroom activities and events on the cardiac rates of students in the classroom, (2) to determine whether or not there was a detectable difference in the cardiac rates of students involved in structured classroom activities and events and cardiac rates of students not so involved, and (3) to determine the effects on the cardiac rates of students involved in two techniques of attaining student involvement and attention to a classroom discussion or topic.
Date: June 1970
Creator: Swain, Richard Edward

Assessing the Impact of the MAXHELP Microcomputer Orientation Course on Administrator, Teacher and Non-Educator Concerns Relating to Microcomputer Acceptance

Description: The problem this descriptive study dealt with was the fear (computerphobia) administrators, teachers, and noneducators have concerning the acceptance of microcomputers in the educational setting. The MAXHELP Project is an Air University sponsored program to assist the local schools in scientific and technological education. The 12 hour MAXHELP Microcomputer Orientation Course has graduated over 500 educators from seven Alabama school districts. This study used the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). This instrument was developed at the Inter-Institutional Program for the Reasearch and Development Center for Teacher Education, The University of Texas at Austin, by Hall, George and Rutherford. The SoCQ was mailed to a random sample of 300 MAXHELP graduates. A total of 212 responses were used in the study. This report concludes that the administrator and teacher groups are moving through the stages of concern when compared with the typical "non-user." Teachers show greater concerns relating to Management and administrators have greater concerns on Consequence, Collaboration, and Refocusing. Administrators are not users of microcomputers in the classroom, but are very concerned about how to facilitate the spread of microcomputers throughout the school curriculum. In general, the data indicate more similarity of teaching concerns by age, years teaching experience, and area of specialization. Concerns relating to the demands of microcomputers upon the individual who has to use microcomputers in the classroom cannot be satisfied without the microcomputer being available. Personal stage concerns will probably remain high until more microcomputers are available in the classroom. Teachers who have been in the classroom between one to six years appear to be the most prone to resist change. Special attention needs to be given to this group to demonstrate the advantages of the microcomputer as a teaching tool and as an administrative aid at both the pre-service and in-service levels.
Date: December 1986
Creator: McGahee, James D. (James Dawson)

Assessing the Use of Microcomputers by Administrators in Higher Education in Oklahoma

Description: This study was conducted to examine the use of microcomputers and other computers by top administrators in the twenty—seven public colleges and universities in Oklahoma; to assess the impact that training and other factors have on the extent to which microcomputers are being used; and to identify trends in administrative computer usage. The survey technique was utilized in collecting the data for this study. The survey instrument was developed for use in this study from a review of the literature, an evaluation by a panel of judges, and a pilot study. The survey instrument was sent to the administrators for business, academic, and student affairs via the president of each university in the 1986 spring and summer semesters. Seventy-four of the eighty-one or 91.4 percent of the administrators responded. Following is a summary of the major findings of this study. 1. Fourteen of the seventy-four or 18.9 percent of the respondents personally use a microcomputer and 51.3 percent of the respondents have someone use a microcomputer on their behalf. 2. The most prevalent use of microcomputers is word processing; the most prevalent uses of mainframes are word processing and database management; and the majority of the respondents do not use a computer for spreadsheets, graphics, database management, telecommunications, and time management functions. Computer functions rated highly important are word processing, spreadsheets, and database management. 3. Administrators feel they need more training in the use of computers. 4. Conditions affecting the use of microcomputers are an established process for evaluating software, funding for maintenance, and practice time. 5. Age is negatively correlated to the personal use of microcomputers. 6. Administrators believe that in the near future, the use of microcomputers will increase, the use of mainframes will remain about the same, and the number of jobs done without computers will decrease.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Deel, Dickie Leon

Assessment of the Effects of Communication Training on the Adult Elderly and the Assisting Adult Child

Description: This study examined the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on affection, communication, and relationship between elderly parents and their assisting adult children. Twenty-eight pairs of parents and children were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Subjects took Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire as pre-, post-, and follow-up tests. Parents and children in the treatment groups attended a four-session STEP workshop. No significant differences were found on the 2 x 2 analysis of variance for repeated measures for the parents or adult children. Quinn's affection and relationship variables approached significance for the parents over time. His variable affection approached significance for the children over time, irrespective of group. Agreement approached significance for children in the treatment group. The results for the parents regarding affection suggest that the study may have emphasized their feelings of trust. Although the data for relationship approached significance, it was negative, indicating that parents in the treatment group may have reduced their interaction with their assisting children perhaps because they were learning new communication skills. The data for the children regarding affection approached significance, but it was negative, suggesting they felt free to question their feelings about themselves and their parents. The results for children in the treatment group regarding agreement may suggest that the study increased their awareness of areas of agreement with their parents. When the data for parents and children were compared, communication approached significance for the parents; that is, they felt more comfortable with their communication with their children than did their children. The variables affection and perception showed significance. The elderly parents perceived their relationship with their children more positively than did their children. Absence of statistically significant data may be explained because Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire was not sensitive enough. Analysis of covariance might have identified significant findings. ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Goldstein, Roberta Eisman

The Association Between Exposure to Computer Instruction and Changes in Attitudes Toward Computers

Description: The problem with which this study was concerned is the association between exposure to computer instruction and changes in attitudes toward computers. The study had a two-fold purpose. The first was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate students toward computers. The second was to determine whether exposure to information about computers and their uses is associated with changes in students' attitudes toward computers. A computer literacy test was administered to subjects as a pre-and post-test. The major findings of the study indicate that there were significant, positive attitude changes among students exposed to computer instruction. There were also significant increases in knowledge about computers among participants exposed to computer instruction. The major conclusions are that attitudes are not fixed and develop in the process of need satisfaction. Participants in the study experienced attitude changes, which supports the suggestion that attitudes are developmental. Futhermore, the attitude changes observed in the study occurred in the process of learning about computers, a process assumed to be rooted in the educational and/or career needs of the participants. Attitudes are shaped by the information to which people are exposed. Attitude modification seldom, if ever, occurs in a vacuum. Instead, it most often takes place in the context of information dissemination and exposure. In this study, attitudes toward computers changed positively and significantly as participants were exposed to information about computers.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Mansourian, Lida

The Association Between Selected Health Characteristics and Participation in Learning Projects by Retired Educators

Description: This study identified the number of learning projects undertaken by thirty-eight retired educators and examined the extent to which these experiences were associated with the body weight and the exercise patterns of the subjects. A list of 1091 names of retired educators was obtained and 400 names were randomly selected to receive a brief survey seeking responses to demographic, personal and miscellaneous questions relating to their efforts to continue to pursue learning. Interviews were arranged with thirty-eight subjects who met established criteria. The 19 8 3 Metropolitan Height and Weight Tables were used to estimate weight characteristics and a probe sheet was designed to identify the number of hours spent exercising in activities vigorous enough to increase heart beat. In-depth interviews were conducted by the investigator using the questions from Tough's Interview Schedule for Studying Some Basic Characteristics of Learning Projects, and the probe sheet designed by the investigator. The interviews focused on the efforts to continue learning during the past twelve months and on the participation in vigorous exercise during the past twelve months. Findings were analyzed by computing t-tests for independent means and the Pearson product moment method of correlation. Comparisons of the results from this study were made with the results from two previous studies, "The Older Adult and Learning," by Roger Hiemstra, ancj "A Comparative Study of Professionally Related Learning Projects of Secondary School Teachers," by N. E. Kelly. The results of this study indicate that much learning is continued past retirement and that all learning is not focused on self; some relate to the needs of the community and of churches. The data supports Hiemstra's premise that health related obstacles diminish learning activity. The Theory that older adults pursue less learning than young adults was not supported by this study.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Simmons, Anne Harris

The Association Between Testing Strategies and Performance in College Algebra, Attitude Towards Mathematics, and Attrition Rate

Description: The purposes of the study were: (1) to determine the effects of four testing strategies upon performance in college algebra, attitude towards mathematics, and attrition rate; (2) to determine the effects of two types of frequent testing upon performance, attitude, and attrition rate, (3) to determine the effects of different frequencies of in-class testing upon performance, attitude, and attrition rate; and (4) to draw conclusions which might help in selecting testing methods for college algebra classes.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Johnson, Charles W. (Charles Windle)

Attitudes and Perceptions of Community College Educators Toward the Implementation of Computers for Administrative and Instructional Purposes

Description: This study examines the main research hypothesis that there is significant interaction between the effects of computer use/non-use and level of computer training among community college educators in the state of Texas regarding attitudes toward the implementation of administrative and instructional computing. A statewide survey was conducted with deans of instruction and full-time faculty members who represented the three academic transfer departments of natural/physical sciences, social science, and humanities/fine arts. Fifty-five deans of instruction and three hundred fifty-six faculty members participated in the study. A factor analysis of data from the questionnaires revealed four factors which were identified and labeled: Factor One: Computer Applications: Advantages and Disadvantages; Factor Two: Administrative Computer Applications: Advantages and Disadvantages; Factor Three: Apprehensions About Educational Computing; Factor Four: Situational Factors Associated With Computer Applications in Education. A 4x3x2 (professional position x level of computer training x level of computer experience) multivariate analysis of variance of both main and interaction effects was then performed within and across these factors.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Weir, Mitchell Drake

Attitudes of Selected Authorities Toward Policy Statements Relative to School-Municipal Recreation Cooperation

Description: This study seeks to determine the attitudes of public school and municipal recreation authorities in the state of Texas with respect to policies pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the attitudes of selected public school and municipal recreation authorities toward certain policy statements pertaining to the joint acquisition, planning and development, and use of public school areas and facilities for school and recreational use. The second is to develop guidelines for public school and municipal recreation authorities for the resolution of possible conflicts.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Atkinson, Ralph Henry, 1933-

Attitudes toward Research and Teaching: Differences Between Faculty and Administrators at Three Saudi Arabian Universities

Description: This study is an investigation of the perceived attitudinal differences between administrators and faculty toward research and teaching at three Saudi Arabian universities, King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Islamic University (IU). The researcher also investigated the effect of several variables, such as rank, university, and academic field on administrators and faculty members' attitudes toward teaching and research. Little Attention has been given to studies that examine the differences between faculty and administrators with regard to their attitudes toward the priorities of teaching and research in Saudi Arabian institutions. Also, little research has been conducted regarding the effects of rank and academic field on faculty attitudes in Saudi Arabian institutions. The author used a mail survey and collected 518 useable responses from a total of 710 questionnaires distributed. Factor analysis, MANCOVA, MANOVA, and ANOVA were the statistical methods employed in data analysis. Five attitudes were identified as a result of factor analysis: (a) attitudes toward teaching; (b) attitudes toward research; (c) mission; (d) promotion; and (e) interest. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between faculty and administrators regarding teaching and resea4rch. Administrators showed stronger attitudes toward teaching than faculty at all three universities. There were also significant differences regarding these attitudes in terms of rank, academic field, and university. Full professors had the strongest attitude toward a research emphasis compared to assistant professors. Assistant professors had the strongest teaching orientation. In addition, faculty members in the humanities had stronger teaching orientations preferences than did those in the natural and social sciences. Regarding the universities, faculty members at IU had the strongest teaching orientation preferences, whereas faculty members at KSU had the strongest research orientation preferences.
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Date: May 2000
Creator: Alsouhibani, Mohammed A.

Authoritarianism and Selected Trait Patterns of School Administrators: Seventeen Case Studies

Description: This study was concerned with analyzing selected Texas school administrators in an attempt to locate intrapersonal patterns of (1) values, (2) leadership traits, (3) personality traits, (4) critical thinking ability, (5) perception, and authoritarianism. A second aspect was correlating these profiles with each other. The study had a threefold purpose. The first was to perform a detailed analysis of school administrators to determine selected intrapersonal patterns. The second was to determine possible relationships between these selected profiles. The third was to generate plausible hypotheses for testing the intrapersonal patterns found and for determining the magnitude of any existing relationships. The case studies revealed the uniqueness of each participant in this study. With the possible exception of one individual, certain weaknesses were evident in each of the participants. Canonical correlation and the Pearson correlation of D matrices determined that a relationship existed between many of the profiles. Eight hypotheses were presented at the close of the study as guides for additional research. The results of this study indicated that further research was justified in these particular areas. The results of this study indicated that intrapersonal patterns existed within school administrators and that these patterns or profiles are related. However, the determination of the magnitude of these relationships was left to additional research.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Davis, Walter Newton

Bias and Precision of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Nonnormal Data Conditions

Description: This dissertation: (a) investigated the degree to which the squared canonical correlation coefficient is biased in multivariate nonnormal distributions and (b) identified formulae that adjust the squared canonical correlation coefficient (Rc2) such that it most closely approximates the true population effect under normal and nonnormal data conditions. Five conditions were manipulated in a fully-crossed design to determine the degree of bias associated with Rc2: distribution shape, variable sets, sample size to variable ratios, and within- and between-set correlations. Very few of the condition combinations produced acceptable amounts of bias in Rc2, but those that did were all found with first function results. The sample size to variable ratio (n:v)was determined to have the greatest impact on the bias associated with the Rc2 for the first, second, and third functions. The variable set condition also affected the accuracy of Rc2, but for the second and third functions only. The kurtosis levels of the marginal distributions (b2), and the between- and within-set correlations demonstrated little or no impact on the bias associated with Rc2. Therefore, it is recommended that researchers use n:v ratios of at least 10:1 in canonical analyses, although greater n:v ratios have the potential to produce even less bias. Furthermore,because it was determined that b2 did not impact the accuracy of Rc2, one can be somewhat confident that, with marginal distributions possessing homogenous kurtosis levels ranging anywhere from -1 to 8, Rc2 will likely be as accurate as that resulting from a normal distribution. Because the majority of Rc2 estimates were extremely biased, it is recommended that all Rc2 effects, regardless of which function from which they result, be adjusted using an appropriate adjustment formula. If no rationale exists for the use of another formula, the Rozeboom-2 would likely be a safe choice given that it produced the greatest ...
Date: August 2006
Creator: Leach, Lesley Ann Freeny

Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet: Her Significance in Adult Education

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet's significance and development as a leader in adult education. This study provided information on her life, her individual and collaborative contributions with Harry Overstreet in adult education, and her interest in poetry. Data were collected using online database searching; review of published, unpublished, and informal documents of Bonaro Overstreet; and correspondence and interviews with professional colleagues, employers, and personal acquaintances. Interviews were conducted with current authorities in the field of adult education for informational purposes. Bonaro Overstreet did not influence or alter the course of adult education as a field of study. Her strength was in her role of practitioner and contributor to research, theory, and professional development of the adult education field. She broadened the depth of adult education as an advocate of knowing oneself and acting responsibly in the context of democratic responsibility.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Dorman, Brigid Byrne

Brain Growth Spurts and Plateau Periods in Normal Elementary School Pupils

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine whether brain growth spurts occur in normal pupils and to determine whether there was a uniform difference in head circumference between boys and girls. Subjects were 3,062 normal elementary pupils, grades one through six, from one suburban school district. Fiberglass measuring tapes were used to measure pupils' head circumference. The hypotheses of the study predicted that the relationship between head circumference and age would be linear. Further, it was predicted that the differences in head circumference between boys and girls would be uniform over seven specified ages. The first hypothesis was tested using a test for linear trend and deviation from linear trend using the General Linear Models procedure. The results indicated that there was a significant linear trend between head circumference and age. The test for deviation from the linear trend was not significant. This would suggest that any deviation from a straight line observed in the data can be attributed to chance. It was concluded that since there was no significant deviation from linear trend, it would suggest a continuous growth of the brain for the ages included in this study. A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the second hypothesis. The results indicated that the male mean head circumference was significantly larger than that of the female in all age groups. As the interaction of sex and age groups was tested, there was no interaction between sex and age groups. It was concluded that since the interaction between sex and age groups was not significant, there is no indication of differences in the rates of brain growth between boys and girls.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Bhulpat, Cheerapan

Bureaucracy and Social Interaction: A Study in the Perceived Interaction Between a Superintendent and Campus Principals

Description: Effective relationships among the levels of educational administrators will support the emphasis on academic excellence at national, state, and local levels. Recognizing the factors involved and understanding the interactions of those factors is a complex process. This study examined the bureaucratic leadership style of a superintendent in the organizational structure and the social interaction between the superintendent and campus principals in that organization as perceived by the principals. Quantitative data were collected by using two instruments: (1) the Administration Organi zationa1 Inventory to define the superintendent's bureaucratic leadership style and (2) the Perceived Social Interaction Questionnaire to determine the degree of social interaction between the superintendent and the campus principals. The study included the superintendent and the forty-three principals of a Texas suburban public school. Data analysis examined the leadership style and its relationship to the social interaction and both style and social interaction in relationship to age, sex, elementary or secondary level, and years of experience as a principal. Results of the study did not clearly define the superintendent's leadership style in a bureaucratic organization and indicated no significant difference between the style and social interaction and the four biographical variables. However, analysis of the data revealed that more principals perceived the superintendent as a Professional with a high degree of expertise and low degree of authority when biographical data were considered. Principals who perceived the superintendent as having a high degree of expertise also indicated they had a warm and friendly social relationship with the superintendent. Further analysis revealed that older, male, secondary principals with more than ten years of experience had a warm and friendly social interaction with the superintendent. This study attempted to provide greater knowledge of the organizational structures and the inward workings of a school system so that other administrators might better understand essential ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Helms, Mildred K. (Mildred Kunkel)

Burnout Among Student Affairs Professionals at Metropolitan Universities

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of burnout among student affairs professionals at the 52 U.S. member institutions of the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Packets containing the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Moos Work Environment Scale (WES), and a demographic survey were mailed to 371 senior student affairs administrators at the member institutions, with a completed response rate of 58.22%. The senior student affairs administrators surveyed included the chief student affairs officers and the professional staff who reported to them. The research design employed t-tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson's Product Moment correlations. The scores obtained from the MBI and WES subscales were compared overall and along 9 independent variablestitle of position, size of institution, appointment, salary, years in current position, years in profession, age, gender, and highest degree attained. Average levels of burnout were found on each of the MBI subscores. Contrary to earlier studies, women did not suffer from statistically significant higher levels of burnout than men, and burnout levels decreased with age and years in the profession for both sexes. Lower scores on the MBI depersonalization subscale were found in employees in mid-career and in professionals from smaller schools. Emotional exhaustion was not a factor. Environmental factors relating to burnout and job satisfaction were also explored. Statistically significant differences on the WES were found on all of the independent variables except the years in the current position variable. The metropolitan environment may have been effective in reducing the amount of burnout felt by this group of student affairs professionals. The study underscored the need for continuing research in burnout for student affairs professionals and for continued professional development throughout the career span.
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Murphy, Lynda

The Campus Ombudsman as Perceived by College and University Presidents, Vice-Presidents of Student Affairs, Study Body Presidents and Functioning Campus Ombudsmen

Description: The purposes of this study are (1) to ascertain whether the implementation of a campus ombudsman is viewed differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, and student body presidents, and (2) to determine whether the ombudsman concept itself is perceived differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, student body presidents, and functioning campus ombudsmen.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Johnson, Thomas Frank, 1940-

Candidates' Perception of Training and Self-Efficacy in Traditional and Alternative Teacher Preparation Programs.

Description: This research was encouraged by the tremendous demand for teachers. Two million new teachers will be needed in the United States over the next decade. The teacher shortage has school administration, school boards, education agencies, and institutions of higher education investigating how to train and retain more teachers. Alternative certification programs have been developed to address the teacher shortage. This study examined the effectiveness of traditionally and alternatively certified teachers in two separate programs with regard to their self-efficacy, perception of their training, and their ExCET scores. Traditional candidates (10) and alternative candidates (74) were examined using survey research. According to this data on self-efficacy, perception of training, and ExCET passing rates, there is no significant difference between those teachers who receive traditional training and those who are trained in alternative certification programs.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Thompson, Tierney M.

Career Path Patterns of Public School District Superintendents in the State of Texas and Perceptions of Superintendents and a Panel of Experts Regarding Desirable Professional Development and Experience for the Superintendency

Description: The purposes of this study were to determine the predominant career paths of superintendents within the State of Texas and to determine the most important professional positions and areas of professional development as perceived by superintendents and educational experts. The study also compares actual experience and professional development of superintendents with those perceived as most important.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Peters, Melonae