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The Acute Hormonal Response to the Kettlebell Swing Exercise
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to a bout of kettlebell swing exercise. Ten healthy men (19-30 y, 23.6 ± 3.5 y, 174.6 ± 5.7 cm, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) who were engaged in resistance training at least twice per week but were inexperienced with kettlebell swings participated in this study. Participants were familiarized with the kettlebell swing exercise during an initial visit. During the subsequent experimental protocol visit, participants performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16-kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of every round of swings. Fasted blood samples were collected pre-exercise (PRE), immediately post (IP), 15 minutes post (P15), and 30 minutes post exercise (P30) and analyzed for total testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and lactate concentrations. Participants completed a total of 227 ± 23 swings (average swings per round: 19 ± 2). HR and RPE increased significantly (P < 0.05) throughout the exercise protocol. Lactate concentrations were significantly increased at all post exercise time points compared to PRE. T was significantly increased at IP compared to PRE. GH was significantly increased at IP, P15, and P30 compared to PRE. Cortisol was significantly increased at IP and P15 compared to PRE. 12 rounds of 30 seconds of kettlebell swing exercise induced an acute increase in T, GH, and cortisol concentrations in resistance trained men. Additionally, this exercise protocol induced a large increase in HR and lactate concentration. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide an effective method for simultaneous endurance and resistance training.
N-Acylethanolamine Metabolism During Seed Germination: Molecular Identification of a Functional N-Acylethanolamine Amidohydrolase
N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid metabolites that occur in a variety of dry seeds, and their levels decline rapidly during the first few hours of imbibition (Chapman et al., 1999, Plant Physiol., 120:1157-1164). Biochemical studies supported the existence of an NAE amidohydrolase activity in seeds and seedlings, and efforts were directed toward identification of DNA sequences encoding this enzyme. Mammalian tissues metabolize NAEs via an amidase enzyme designated fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Based on the characteristic amidase signature sequence in mammalian FAAH, a candidate Arabidopsis cDNA was identified and isolated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. The Arabidopsis cDNA was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein indeed hydrolyzed a range of NAEs to free fatty acids and ethanolamine. Kinetic parameters for the recombinant protein were consistent with those properties of the rat FAAH, supporting identification of this Arabidopsis cDNA as a FAAH homologue. Two T-DNA insertional mutant lines with disruptions in the Arabidopsis NAE amidohydrolase gene (At5g64440) were identified. The homozygous mutant seedlings were more sensitive than the wild type to exogenously applied NAE 12:0. Transgenic seedlings overexpressing the NAE amidohydrolase enzyme showed noticeably greater tolerance to NAE 12:0 than wild type seedlings. These results together provide evidence in vitro and in vivo for the molecular identification of Arabidopsis NAE amidohydrolase. Moreover, the plants with altered NAE amidohydrolase expression may provide new tools for improved understanding of the role of NAEs in germination and seedling growth.
N-Acylethanolamine (NAE) Profiles Change During Arabidopsis Thaliana Seed Germination and Seedling Growth
An understanding of the potential roles as lipid mediators of a family of bioactive metabolites called N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) depends on their accurate identification and quantification. The levels of 18C unsaturated NAEs (e.g. NAE18:2, NAE 18:3, etc.) in wild-type seeds (about 2000 ng/g fw) generally decreased by about 80% during germination and post-germinative growth. In addition, results suggest NAE-degradative fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) expression does not play a major role in normal NAE metabolism as previously thought. Seedlings germinated and grown in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA), an endogenous plant hormone, exhibited growth arrest and secondary dormancy, similar to the treatment of seedlings with exogenous N­lauroylethanolamine (NAE12:0). ABA-mediated growth arrest was associated with higher levels of unsaturated NAEs. Overall, these results are consistent with the concept that NAE metabolism is activated during seed germination and suggest that the reduction in unsaturated NAE levels is under strict temporal control and may be a requirement for normal seed germination and post-germinative growth.
N-Acylethanolamines and Plant Phospholipase D
Recently, three distinct isoforms of phospholipase D (PLD) were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLD α represents the well-known form found in plants, while PLD β and γ have been only recently discovered (Pappan et al., 1997b; Qin et al., 1997). These isoforms differ in substrate selectivity and cofactors required for activity. Here, I report that PLD β and γ isoforms were active toward N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE), but PLD α was not. The ability of PLD β and γ to hydrolyze NAPE marks a key difference from PLD α. N-acylethanolamines (NAE), the hydrolytic products of NAPE by PLD β and γ, inhibited PLD α from castor bean and cabbage. Inhibition of PLD α by NAE was dose-dependent and inversely proportional to acyl chain length and degree of unsaturation. Enzyme kinetic analysis suggested non-competitive inhibition of PLD α by NAE 14:0. In addition, a 1.2-kb tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cDNA fragment was isolated that possessed a 74% amino acid identity to Arabidopsis PLD β indicating that this isoform is expressed in tobacco cells. Collectively, these results provide evidence for NAE producing PLD activities and suggest a possible regulatory role for NAE with respect to PLD α.
ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Aquatic Facilities in the North Texas Area
The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which existing aquatic facilities in the North Texas metroplex complied with the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines: Recreation Facilities (ADAAG supplement). Fifty-two aquatic facilities were evaluated based on: parking lot, ticket counter, gate/entry, restroom, dressing area, drinking fountain, pathway, and pool entry method structural domains. Physical measurements and a few direct observations were recorded on the survey instrument. Surveys were then reviewed and facility scores were tabulated. No facility was found to be 100% compliant with ADAAG and the ADAAG supplement. Aquatic facilities are already struggling to catch up with the 1991 ADAAG, but when the United States Department of Justice approves the proposed ADAAG supplement, aquatic facilities will fall even further behind.
The Adagio of Mahler's Ninth Symphony: A Schenkerian Analysis and Examination of the Farewell Story
Mahler's Ninth Symphony, since its premier in 1912, has sparked much debate about its programmatic meaning. This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of the Adagio and an examination of the controversy of the farewell story. In the process of the analysis I have compared my findings to some of the important authors in Mahler's field such as Vera Micznik, Henry-Louis de La Grange, and Christopher Orlo Lewis. Some of the conclusions are that a closer investigation of the music is necessary and that the programmatic reading of the farewell story can be appropriate.
Adam Smith Revisited
This study represents an interpretation of Adam Smith's attitude toward a commercial society based upon natural liberty. In developing the thesis that the two works, The Theory of Moral Sentiments and Wealth of Nations, are logically consistent, it is necessary to establish the reason of reasons why Adam Smith embraced a commercial society based upon the "obvious and simple system of natural liberty." It will be established that he embraced such as system because it allowed the maximum accumulation of capital, which is the manifestation of being truly virtuous as developed in his Moral Sentiments. To go one step further, it will be seen that, so far as Smith is concerned, it is the rising bourgeoisie, the manufacturers and artificers, which is truly virtuous, i.e., accumulates capital.
Ádám's Conjecture and Its Generalizations
No Description Available.
The Adaptability and Present Status of Andropogon Ischaemum L. in Denton County, Texas
This investigation has been made with reference to the adaptability of Andropogon ischaemum, King Ranch bluestem, to various soils, various slopes, and various erosion conditions in Denton County.
Adaptation of Handel's Castrato Airs for Bass: A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of J.S. Bach, W. Mozart, M. Ravel, G. Finzi, R. Schumann, A. Caldara, G. Handel, H. Wolf, H. Duparc, C. Ives and S. Barber and an Operatic Role by Verdi
The lecture recital was given on April 18, 1977. The subject was Adaptation of Handel's Castrato Airs for Bass, and it included a discussion of conventions peculiar to Handelian opera seria, concerns regarding adaptation of Handel's castrato airs and a comparison of adaptation practices in eighteenth- and twentieth-century presentations of Handel's operas. Three coloratura castrato airs and two virtuoso bass airs were performed at the conclusion of the lecture. In addition to the lecture recital, one operatic role and three recitals of solo literature for voice, piano and chamber ensemble were publicly performed. These included the role of "Samuele" in A Masked Ball, by Verdi, performed in English on March 19, 1975 with the Opera Theatre of North Texas State University, a program presented on November 24, 1975,of solo literature for voice, piano, and chamber ensemble, including works by J. S. Bach, W. Mozart, M. Ravel and G. Finzi, a program consisting of a set of works by R. Schumann presented on June 27, 1985, and a program presented on October 28, 1985,of solo literature for voice, piano, and chamber ensemble,including works by A. Caldara, G. Handel, H. Wolf, H. Duparc, C. Ives and S. Barber.
Adaptation that Accelerates Development
This brochure summarizes how the United Nations Development Programme promotes pro-poor and pro-growth adaptation that encourages sustainable economic development and livelihoods in the face of climate change.
Adaptation to Climate Change: The New Challenge for Development in the Developing World
This paper addresses adaptation measures that reduce vulnerability to climate change as critical, especially in many countries where the risks are here and now. It is intended provide policymakers with a starting point, including background information and questions for further reflection.
Adapting a Reading Program to Individual Differences
The problem of this study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the reading instruction to the level and ability of individuals or small groups of a particular group of second grade children.
Adapting Filial Therapy for Families who have a Child with a Life-Threatening Illness
Utilizing a collective case study design, I examined and described the filial therapy (FT) process and adaptations discovered to be necessary and unnecessary in working with families who have a child with a life-threatening illness in the hospital setting. Data from a total of 7 parents was utilized, including those who terminated early, in order to gain a greater understanding of adapting FT for families who have a child with a life-threatening illness and their participation patterns. The parents attended 10 one- to two-hour FT sessions. The data was analyzed to examine for themes, patterns and relationships intrinsically with each case participant, as well as across cases. Analysis indicated that parents with a child with a life-threatening illness had great difficulty committing to attend FT; and a high rate of attrition occurred for those who did commit. A theme regarding flexibility was found to be of eminent importance in a variety of manifestations including therapeutic methods, session format, location and time of sessions, and intense vs traditional FT. Therapeutic adaptations in flexibility found to be important including openness to cathartic and personal parenting sessions, tolerance of forgetfulness, and lowering typical therapeutic concerns of dependency in the relationship. An inability for parents in this situation to benefit from intense FT methods was also noted. Changes noted in the child of focus included increased confidence, increased cooperation in the medical setting, increased communication with the parent and with medical staff regarding medical issues, and increased communication with the parent regarding personal feelings and issues. Changes noted in the parents included increased confidence in parenting skills, increased awareness of the child's perceptions of the environment, increased tolerance in allowing the child to struggle in and out of the medical setting, with both emotional and physical pain in order to gain coping skills, increased ...
Adapting on the Plains: the United States Army's Evolution of Mobile Warfare in Texas, 1848-1859
The Army, despite having been vexed for a century on how to effectively fight the Plains Indians, ultimately defeated them only a decade after the Civil War. This thesis will bring to the forefront those individuals who adapted fighting techniques and ultimately achieved victories on the Texas frontier before the Civil War. The majority of these victories came as a result of mounted warfare under the direction of lower ranking officers in control of smaller forces. The tactic of fighting Indians from horseback was shown to be effective by the Rangers and later emulated by the Army.
Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia
Contrary to popular perception, ECA faces significant threats from climate change, with a number of the most serious risks already in evidence. Vulnerability over the next ten to twenty years will be dominated by socio‐economic factors and legacy issues. Even countries and sectors that stand to benefit from climate change are poorly positioned to do so. The next decade offers a window of opportunity for ECA countries to make their development more resilient to climate change while reaping numerous co‐benefits.
Adapting Water Management A Primer on Coping with Climate Change
This primer is intended as a guide to some of the basic issues surrounding water management from a climate change perspective. It includes information on climate change impacts on various freshwater ecosystems as well as precipitation. Also addressed is how the assessment of vulnerability should distinguish between impacts assessment, which attempts to project future biophysical and ecological changes in a deterministic manner, and vulnerability assessment, which attempts to combine an assessment of future suites of change with an assessment of the resilience of ecosystems and management institutions.
Adaptive Advantages of Carotenoid Pigments in Alpine and Subalpine Copepod Responses to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Phototoxicity
Alpine zooplankton are exposed to a variety of stressors in their natural environment including ultraviolet radiation. Physiological coping mechanisms such as the accumulation of photoprotective compounds provide these zooplankton protection from many of these stressors. Elevated levels of carotenoid compounds such as astaxanthin have been shown to help zooplankton survive longer when exposed to ultraviolet radiation presumably due to the strong antioxidant properties of carotenoid compounds. This antioxidant capacity is important because it may ameliorate natural and anthropogenic stressor-induced oxidative stress. While previous researchers have shown carotenoid compounds impart increased resistance to ultraviolet radiation in populations of zooplankton, little work has focused on the toxicological implications of PAH induced phototoxicity on zooplankton containing high levels of carotenoid compounds. This thesis discusses research studying the role that carotenoid compounds play in reducing PAH induced phototoxicity. By sampling different lakes at elevations ranging from 9,500' to 12,700' in the front range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, copepod populations containing different levels of carotenoid compounds were obtained. These populations were then challenged with fluoranthene and ultraviolet radiation. Results discussed include differences in survival and levels of lipid peroxidation among populations exhibiting different levels of carotenoid compounds, and the toxicological and ecological implications of these results.
An Adaptive Linearization Method for a Constraint Satisfaction Problem in Semiconductor Device Design Optimization
The device optimization is a very important element in semiconductor technology advancement. Its objective is to find a design point for a semiconductor device so that the optimized design goal meets all specified constraints. As in other engineering fields, a nonlinear optimizer is often used for design optimization. One major drawback of using a nonlinear optimizer is that it can only partially explore the design space and return a local optimal solution. This dissertation provides an adaptive optimization design methodology to allow the designer to explore the design space and obtain a globally optimal solution. One key element of our method is to quickly compute the set of all feasible solutions, also called the acceptability region. We described a polytope-based representation for the acceptability region and an adaptive linearization technique for device performance model approximation. These efficiency enhancements have enabled significant speed-up in estimating acceptability regions and allow acceptability regions to be estimated for a larger class of device design tasks. Our linearization technique also provides an efficient mechanism to guarantee the global accuracy of the computed acceptability region. To visualize the acceptability region, we study the orthogonal projection of high-dimensional convex polytopes and propose an output sensitive algorithm for projecting polytopes into two dimensions.
Adaptive Planning and Prediction in Agent-Supported Distributed Collaboration.
Agents that act as user assistants will become invaluable as the number of information sources continue to proliferate. Such agents can support the work of users by learning to automate time-consuming tasks and filter information to manageable levels. Although considerable advances have been made in this area, it remains a fertile area for further development. One application of agents under careful scrutiny is the automated negotiation of conflicts between different user's needs and desires. Many techniques require explicit user models in order to function. This dissertation explores a technique for dynamically constructing user models and the impact of using them to anticipate the need for negotiation. Negotiation is reduced by including an advising aspect to the agent that can use this anticipation of conflict to adjust user behavior.
Adaptive Power Management for Autonomic Resource Configuration in Large-scale Computer Systems
In order to run and manage resource-intensive high-performance applications, large-scale computing and storage platforms have been evolving rapidly in various domains in both academia and industry. The energy expenditure consumed to operate and maintain these cloud computing infrastructures is a major factor to influence the overall profit and efficiency for most cloud service providers. Moreover, considering the mitigation of environmental damage from excessive carbon dioxide emission, the amount of power consumed by enterprise-scale data centers should be constrained for protection of the environment.Generally speaking, there exists a trade-off between power consumption and application performance in large-scale computing systems and how to balance these two factors has become an important topic for researchers and engineers in cloud and HPC communities. Therefore, minimizing the power usage while satisfying the Service Level Agreements have become one of the most desirable objectives in cloud computing research and implementation. Since the fundamental feature of the cloud computing platform is hosting workloads with a variety of characteristics in a consolidated and on-demand manner, it is demanding to explore the inherent relationship between power usage and machine configurations. Subsequently, with an understanding of these inherent relationships, researchers are able to develop effective power management policies to optimize productivity by balancing power usage and system performance. In this dissertation, we develop an autonomic power-aware system management framework for large-scale computer systems. We propose a series of techniques including coarse-grain power profiling, VM power modelling, power-aware resource auto-configuration and full-system power usage simulator. These techniques help us to understand the characteristics of power consumption of various system components. Based on these techniques, we are able to test various job scheduling strategies and develop resource management approaches to enhance the systems' power efficiency.
Addison's Literary Criticism as Found in The Spectator
This thesis is a study of Joseph Addison's literary criticism as found in The Spectator.
Addition, Omission and Revision: the Stylistic Changes Made to Zehn Variationen über ein Präludium von Chopin by Ferruccio Busoni
This study examines what Busoni meant by "formal deficiencies" when he described his 1884 version of Chopin Variations, and reveals that changes made to the 1884 version during its process of revision in 1922 correct the "formal deficiencies" and show a fundamental change in Busoni's compositional style and perception of musical motion. Including a detailed analysis of the modifications, omissions, and additions made to the 1922 version (including an examination of the Chopin Prelude in C minor, op. 28, No. 20 as a theme to reveal aspects of its construction used in the variation process), which shows how these changes affect the work's compositional structure.
Addition Reactions of Some Aromatic Aldazines
The paper explores the conclusion that the addition compound was bicyclic, and that the addition of each of the two moles of cyanic acid was dependent upon the other.
Additional evidence on informational asymmetry at acquisition announcement
This dissertation examines the partial anticipation hypothesis by employing the bid-ask spread approach in market microstructure theory. Selecting the OTC bidding firms with a careful research design, this dissertation divides sample firms into firms with acquisition programs and firms without acquisition programs.
Additive Functions
The purpose of this paper is the analysis of functions of real numbers which have a special additive property, namely, f(x+y) = f(x)+f(y).
Addressing Multicultural Issues in the Counselor Education Classroom: a Phenomenological Analysis
Multicultural education in counselor education is a popular topic among counselor educators and scholars. To date, scholars have focused on understanding the experiences of counselor educators who teach dedicated multicultural courses. However, less attention has been given to other counselor educators who are required by ethical and training standards to address multicultural issues across the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to understand counselor educators’ experiences addressing multicultural issues in courses that do not have a specific multicultural or diversity focus. I used phenomenological methodology to explore the experiences of counselor educators who hold doctoral degrees in counseling or a related field, have taken a multicultural/diversity course in their graduate training, are full-time clinical or tenure-line faculty members in CACREP-accredited programs, and have never taught courses dedicated to multicultural or diversity issues. Twelve participants (six men and six women), ranging in age ranged from 31 to 65, participated in the study. Ten participants identified as White, one African-American, and one Hispanic. The research team identified eight themes: (1) reasons for avoidance, (2) constraints, (3) qualities and practices, (4) educator as a factor in student development, (5) infusion, (6) personal background, (7) awareness of biases and assumptions, and (8) counselor educator responsibility/gatekeeping. Findings from this study will add to the literature regarding infusion of multicultural issues across the curriculum. Additionally, the implications offered will serve as a resource for counselor educators as they experience unique personal and professional challenges when addressing multicultural issues in classrooms beyond the main multicultural or diversity course offered in counseling programs. Implications for this study may lead to development of more focused guidelines on how to increase the increase the comfort of counselor educators as they facilitate multicultural discussions and assist counselors-in-training in working toward cultural competence.
Addressing Social Elements of Wildfire: Risk, Response, and Recovery in Highland Village, TX
Representatives of the City of Highland Village expressed concern over the risk of wildfires for their community. Anthropology provides many tools for and examples of disaster assessment of preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. These tools combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can provide a holistic, cultural ecological look at how such a disaster may take place in the city. The project's methods included a detailed survey of preparedness steps which was analyzed using SPSS and also imported into ArcGIS for spatial analysis, and semi-formal, in-depth interviews with residents of the community regarding preparedness, response, and recovery. Residents fell into a middle category of preparedness, with the majority of participants considering or implementing a few recommended preparedness steps. Interview participants expressed respect for and trust of the city and first-responders, as well as a willingness to volunteer their help during response and recovery stages. Finally the American Community Survey showed that resident socioeconomic vulnerability was considerably low, and no action needed to be taken to advocate for at-risk individuals. Overall, the City of Highland Village showed a high resiliency to disaster. A wildfire likely will not have a major impact on the community as a whole, though the city may reduce the impact even further by informing the public of their risk, clearing natural areas of dead brush, sharing preparedness and evacuation information via social media and newsletters, and planning relief stations for those who may have been impacted.
Adélaide Labille-Guiard and Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun: portraitists in the age of the French Revolution
This thesis examines the portraiture of Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and Adélaide Labille-Guiard within the context of their time. Analysis of specific portraits in American collections is provided, along with an examination of their careers: early education, Academic Royale membership, Salon exhibitions, and the French Revolution.
Adelardo Lopez De Ayala's Position in the Drama of the Nineteenth Century
This thesis discusses Adelardo Lopez De Ayala's position in the drama of the nineteenth century. Topics covered include: Literary movements in Spain in the nineteenth century, Lopez De Ayala's treatment of plot, the moral element in Lopez De Ayala's plays and character delineation in Lopez De Ayala's plays.
Adenosine and down-regulation of myocardial oxygen demand
This investigation studied the physiological means by which myocardium can survive and function properly when oxygen supply is limited and cannot initially match oxygen demand. The effects of isoproterenol (ISO) stimulations during low coronary perfusion pressure or hypoxemia on myocardial oxygen demand, work, and oxygen utilization efficiency were investigated.
The Adenosine Antagonist Aminophylline Attenuates Pacing-Induced Coronary Functional Hyperemia
Left coronary blood flow (LCBF), left ventricular oxygen, extraction [(a-v)O₂ ], and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO₂) were monitored in 10 dogs. HR was paced at 120 bpm and then increased to 180 bpm to elicit a hyperemic response (ΔLCBF). During the hyperemia, the vaso-dilatory response to exogenous adenosine (F_AD) was tested. Twenty min. after injection of aminophylline (100 mg/i.v.), HR was again increased. F_AD was again tested. The pacing-induced increase in MVO₂ (ΔMVO₂) was not affected by aminophylline (P>0.05). However, the slope ΔLCBF/ΔMVO₂ was decreased, and the slope (a-v)O₂ /ΔMVO₂ was increased. F_AD was also decreased and the magnitude of the reduction was correlated with the decrease in ΔLCBF/ΔMVO₂ (r=0.82). These results suggest that adenosine may play an role in coronary functional hyperemia induced by increases in heart rate.
Adenylate Energy Charge Determinations of Soil Bacteria Grown in Soil Extract Medium
No Description Available.
Adequacy and Equity: How the Texas Supreme Court's Perceptions Have Changed Over the Past 50 Years
The purpose of this study identifies state court cases involving public school finance specifically related to adequacy and equity in funding. Results address how state court cases have challenged the constitutionality of school finance in the United States, including Texas, over the last 50 years. The study further shows how the decisions from previous cases have influenced the Supreme Court of Texas decision in the Texas Taxpayer & Student Fairness litigation.
The Adequacy of Financial Support Received by the Small High-School Bands in Texas
The problem undertaken in this study is to attempt to determine the adequacy of financial support received by the small high school bands in Texas.
The Adequacy of the Professional Preparation of the Catholic School Superintendent
The problem of this study was to determine the adequacy of the professional preparation of the Catholic school superintendent for his role as the educational leader in the diocesan school system. The study was divided into the following subdivisions: 1) establishing evaluative criteria to measure the adequacy of the professional preparation of the Catholic school superintendent; 2) evaluating the professional preparation of the superintendent in the light of the established criteria; 3) proposing a program which might close the gap between the existing practices and the established criteria.
The Adequacy of the School Transportation Systems of Montague County, Texas
In this study an attempt is made to determine the adequacy of the school transportation systems of Montague County, Texas.
Adequacy of Training of Junior High School Teachers of Industrial Arts in Texas
"The problem of this study is to determine to what extent the junior high school teachers of industrial arts in Texas are being trained to meet the apparent needs and trends in the field. Do the teachers colleges of Texas have the facilities --curricula--to adequately train industrial arts teacher for the courses that are actually being taught in the junior high schools of Texas? The study is limited to certain aspects of industrial arts in the junior high schools and the State Teachers colleges of Texas. The offerings and trends in offerings of the junior high schools, the organization and trends in the organization, the adequacy of training of industrial arts teachers in the junior schools, and offerings and trends in the industrial arts departments of the Texas State Teachers Colleges are of major importance in this study. " --p. 1
ADHD Symptomology and Overweight Among College Men
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that often persists into adulthood. Among adults, ADHD is highly comorbid with addictive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse and dependence), and depressive disorders. Recently, an association between ADHD and obesity has been reported in the literature; emotional and binge eating may be “addictive behaviors” that contribute to weight gain in this population. The purpose of this study was to test competing models of the hypothesized link between ADHD symptomology and overweight. Specifically, in Model 1, symptoms of depression are expected to mediate the relationship between symptoms of impulsivity and inattention and emotional and binge eating which, in turn, leads to weight gain (i.e., increased BMI). In Model 2, however, the impulsive symptoms have direct relationships with emotional and binge eating in addition to being mediated by depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test how the models fit the data of 790 college men. Both models fit the data well, with Model 2 being preferred because of its greater connection to theory. All paths were significant indicating that increased impulsive and inattentive symptoms predicted increased symptoms of depression that, in turn, predicted increased emotional/binge eating, which has a direct and positive relationship with increased BMI. Moreover, impulsive symptoms were also directly related to emotional/binge eating, suggesting different paths to overweight across ADHD subtypes. The findings of the current study elucidate the links between ADHD symptoms and overweight (i.e., increased BMI).
Adherence and Haemagglutination of Moraxella Catarrhalis.
M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative diplococci frequently associated with infections of the upper respiratory tract. During the past decade, some preliminary studies have attempted to elucidate mechanisms of adherence and haemagglutination of M. catarrhalis. These studies have reported, in many cases, inconsistent results. There are two purposes of this research. First, identify mechanisms that may potentially be associated with the adherence and haemagglutination of M. catarrhalis. Second, suggest research directions that may be fruitful in clarifying these mechanisms.
Adherence/Compliance to Exercise Prescription a Test of the Self-Efficacy Model
No Description Available.
Adherence/Diffusion Barrier Layers for Copper Metallization: Amorphous Carbon:Silicon Polymerized Films
Semiconductor circuitry feature miniaturization continues in response to Moore 's Law pushing the limits of aluminum and forcing the transition to Cu due to its lower resistivity and electromigration. Copper diffuses into silicon dioxide under thermal and electrical stresses, requiring the use of barriers to inhibit diffusion, adding to the insulator thickness and delay time, or replacement of SiO2 with new insulator materials that can inhibit diffusion while enabling Cu wetting. This study proposes modified amorphous silicon carbon hydrogen (a-Si:C:H) films as possible diffusion barriers and replacements for SiO2 between metal levels, interlevel dielectric (ILD), or between metal lines (IMD), based upon the diffusion inhibition of previous a-Si:C:H species expected lower dielectric constants, acceptable thermal conductivity. Vinyltrimethylsilane (VTMS) precursor was condensed on a titanium substrate at 90 K and bombarded with electron beams to induce crosslinking and form polymerized a-Si:C:H films. Modifications of the films with hydroxyl and nitrogen was accomplished by dosing the condensed VTMS with water or ammonia before electron bombardment producing a-Si:C:H/OH and a-Si:C:H/N and a-Si:C:H/OH/N polymerized films in expectation of developing films that would inhibit copper diffusion and promote Cu adherence, wetting, on the film surface. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to characterize Cu metallization of these a-Si:C:H films. XPS revealed substantial Cu wetting of a-Si:C:H/OH and a-Si:C:H/OH/N films and some wetting of a-Si:C:H/N films, and similar Cu diffusion inhibition to 800 K by all of the a-:S:C:H films. These findings suggest the possible use of a-Si:C:H films as ILD and IMD materials, with the possibility of further tailoring a-Si:C:H films to meet future device requirements.
Adhesion and Surface Energy Profiles of Large-area Atomic Layers of Two-dimensional MoS2 on Rigid Substrates by Facile Methods
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) show great potential for the future electronics, optoelectronics and energy applications. But, the studies unveiling their interactions with the host substrates are sparse and limits their practical use for real device applications. We report the facile nano-scratch method to determine the adhesion energy of the wafer scale MoS2 atomic layers attached to the SiO2/Si and sapphire substrates. The practical adhesion energy of monolayer MoS2 on the SiO2/Si substrate is 7.78 J/m2. The practical adhesion energy was found to be an increasing function of the MoS2 thickness. Unlike SiO2/Si substrates, MoS2 films grown on the sapphire possess higher bonding energy, which is attributed to the defect-free growth and less number of grain boundaries, as well as less stress and strain stored at the interface owing to the similarity of Thermal Expansion Coefficient (TEC) between MoS2 films and sapphire substrate. Furthermore, we calculated the surface free energy of 2D MoS2 by the facile contact angle measurements and Neumann model fitting. A surface free energy ~85.3 mJ/m2 in few layers thick MoS2 manifests the hydrophilic nature of 2D MoS2. The high surface energy of MoS2 helps explain the good bonding strength at MoS2/substrate interface. This simple adhesion energy and surface energy measurement methodology could further apply to other TMDs for their widespread use.
Adhesion/Diffusion Barrier Layers for Copper Integration: Carbon-Silicon Polymer Films and Tantalum Substrates
The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has identified the integration of copper (Cu) with low-dielectric-constant (low-k) materials as a critical goal for future interconnect architectures. A fundamental understanding of the chemical interaction of Cu with various substrates, including diffusion barriers and adhesion promoters, is essential to achieve this goal. The objective of this research is to develop novel organic polymers as Cu/low-k interfacial layers and to investigate popular barrier candidates, such as clean and modified tantalum (Ta) substrates. Carbon-silicon (C-Si) polymeric films have been formed by electron beam bombardment or ultraviolet (UV) radiation of molecularly adsorbed vinyl silane precursors on metal substrates under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies show that polymerization is via the vinyl groups, while Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) results show that the polymerized films have compositions similar to the precursors. Films derived from vinyltrimethyl silane (VTMS) are adherent and stable on Ta substrates until 1100 K. Diffusion of deposited Cu overlayers is not observed below 800 K, with dewetting occurred only above 400 K. Hexafluorobenzene moieties can also be incorporated into the growing film with good thermal stability. Studies on the Ta substrates demonstrate that even sub-monolayer coverages of oxygen or carbide on polycrystalline Ta significantly degrade the strength of Cu/Ta chemical interactions, and affect the kinetics of Cu diffusion into bulk Ta. On clean Ta, monolayer coverages of Cu will de-wet only above 600 K. A partial monolayer of adsorbed oxygen (3L O2 at 300 K) results in a lowering of the de-wetting temperature to 500 K, while saturation oxygen coverage (10 L O2, 300 K) results in de-wetting at 300 K. Carbide formation also lowers the de-wetting temperature to 300 K. Diffusion of Cu into the Ta substrate at 1100 K occurs only after a 5-minute induction period. This induction period increases ...
Adjective Negation in English
It is the purpose of this study to provide a survey of the way in which words combine with negative prefixes to form negative adjectives.
Adjusting the Commercial Curriculum of Denton Senior High School, Denton, Texas, to the Needs of the Community
This study was made: first, to determine the vocational opportunities for commercial graduates of Denton Senior High School as a basis for more effective guidance; second, to determine whether the commercial training program in the local high school is providing adequate vocational preparation for the principal commercial positions in Denton, Texas, third, to discover the chief commercial weaknesses of the present employees in Denton, Texas; fourth, to secure information necessary for appropriate commercial curriculum for the local high school. It is the further aim of this investigation to determine the social as well as the personal business needs of the average individuals." --leaf 1
Adjustment of Kindergarten Children through Play Sessions Facilitated by Fifth Grade Students Trained in Child-Centered Play Therapy Procedures and Skills
This research study investigated the effectiveness of the application of child-centered play therapy procedures and skills by trained fifth grade students in play sessions with kindergarten children who had adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions with trained fifth grade students facilitated change in kindergarten children's self concept, internalizing behavior, and externalizing behavior and their parents' stress level.
Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children
This investigation used a descriptive approach to explore and evaluate early recollection changes of children in Adlerian counseling. The study addressed seven research questions regarding early recollection change for children in Adlerian counseling as compared with children not in Adlerian counseling. The treatment group was engaged in Adlerian counseling for 10 weeks. The investigator conducted pre-counseling and post-counseling interviews to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The comparison group was not engaged in treatment for counseling. The investigator conducted interviews at an interval of 10 weeks to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The Manaster-Perryraan Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual was used for analysis of early recollection content. Following training sesions, raters scored absence or presence of content variables in early recollections. Tables were employed to reveal findings of early recollection content change as addressed by the seven research questions of this study. A descriptive evaluation of' the data indicated that the treatment group manifested greater change in early recollection content as compared to the comparison group in six of seven research questions. On the basis of these findings, this study concluded that early recollections of children are a valid source of potential in measuring therapeutic progress and are a reliable measure of the thematic apperception of children. The data from this study provide a foundation from which to build the clinical utility of the early recollections of children. In view of these results, this study recommended the routine use of early recollections of children in Adlerian counseling.
Adlerian Life Style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The possibility of a relationship between Adlerian life style, as measured by the Life Style Personality Inventory (LSPI), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined by this research. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between these instruments to broaden the applicability of both instruments for both research and clinical endeavors. Life style is a concept which is vital to therapeutic intervention from an Adlerian frame of reference. Assessment of life style typically involves lengthy therapist interviews. Both the LSPI and the MBTI are questionnaires designed to measure personality variables. The 117 subjects for this study were solicited from individuals seeking counseling from an urban community counseling center. The individuals served by this agency are primarily those diagnosed with Adjustment Disorders. The LSPI and the MBTI were administered individually to each subject. Means and standard deviations were computed for the seven LSPI themes and the MBTI total. Due to a lack of research support for Theme 4 by the LSPI author, the data for this theme were disregarded. The same research indicated a strong bipolar relationship for Themes 7 and 8 (Displaying Inadequacy and Social Interest), which prompted the inclusion of Theme 8 in subsequent data analysis. A correlation analysis was developed. Using the correlation matrix, a factor analysis program was run using the SPSS-X statistical package. The principal components analysis extracted three factors which were refined by a factor rotation using the varimax rotation option. To clarify Factor 3, further analysis was performed with the MBTI data divided by continuum and a second factor analysis was run. Four factors emerged from the data with Factors 1 and 2 remaining unchanged. Factor 1 (Emotional Focusing) and Factor 2 (Confrontation) were loaded with the LSPI themes. Factor 3 (Temperament) and Factor 4 (External-Internal) were loaded with the ...
Adlerian life-style, social interest, and job satisfaction among Catholic priests
The purpose of this study was to seek an understanding of the problem of low morale among Catholic priests based on the principles of Individual Psychology. The relationship of Adlerian life-style and social interest to job satisfaction among 210 pastors randomly selected from thirteen of the fourteen Catholic dioceses in Texas was investigated.