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The Effects of 3-Deazaguanine on Chick Embryo Fibroblasts and Rat Kidney Cells Infected with Temperature-Sensitive Mutant and Wild-Type Rous Sarcoma Viruses

Description: Chick embryo fibroblasts and rat kidney cells infected in vitro with Rous Sarcoma viruses were treated with 3-deazaguanine (3-DG). The findings revealed that 3-DG inhibited virus-induced cellular transformation. Degree of inhibition is dependent on concentration and frequency of media change. 3-DG at the concentrations tested will not reverse transformed cells to the untransformed state and does not have marked effect on replication of viruses. Upon removal of 3-DG, its effect was shown to be reversible. Cell growth was generally retarded in medium containing 3-DG. When xanthosine and inosine were added to the medium, cell growth was unaffected, but it increased in guanosine.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Fadare, Samuel O.

Effects of Airway Pressure, Hypercapnia, and Hypoxia on Pulmonary Vagal Afferents in the Alligator (Alligator Misssissippiensis)

Description: The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an aquatic diving reptile with a periodic breathing pattern. Previous work has identified pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR), both rapidly- and slowly-adapting, and intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPCs) that modulate breathing patterns in alligators. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of prolonged lung inflation and deflation (simulated dives) on PSR and/or IPC firing characteristics in the alligator. The effects of airway pressure, hypercapnia, and hypoxia on dynamic and static responses of pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR) were studied in juvenile alligators (mean mass = 246 g) at 24°C. Receptor activity appeared to be a mixture of slowly-adapting PSRs (SARs) and rapidly-adapting PSRs (RARs) with varying thresholds and degrees of adaptation, but no CO2 sensitivity. Dives were simulated in order to character receptor activity before, during, and after prolonged periods of lung inflation and deflation. Some stretch receptors showed a change in dynamic response, exhibiting inhibition for several breaths after 1 min of lung inflation, but were unaffected by prolonged deflation. For SAR, the post-dive inhibition was inhibited by CO2 and hypoxia alone. These airway stretch receptors may be involved in recovery of breathing patterns and lung volume during pre- and post-diving behavior and apneic periods in diving reptiles. These results suggest that inhibition of PSR firing following prolonged inflation may promote post-dive ventilation in alligators.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Marschand, Rachel E.

Effects of Altitude on Pressure-Flow Relationships in the Vascular Bed of the Hind Limb of the Dog

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of decreasing barometric pressure upon the pressure-flow relationships in a peripheral vascular bed in an attempt at better delineation of the autoregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in barometric pressure does influence the transmural pressure and could theoretically affect smooth muscle tone. An evaluation of the extent of the transmural effect is essential to understanding vascular dynamics at altitudes.
Date: August 1966
Creator: Roberts, Donald E.

Effects of an Acute Bout of Near-Maximal Intensity Exercise on the Cardiac Enzymes in Human Sera

Description: The Cardiac Profile, a pattern of serum enzyme changes seen within seventy-two hours after an AMI, is diagnostic aid for detecting occurrence of infarcts. The effects of exercise stress on the Cardiac Profile aid clinicians in avoiding diagnostic errors in patients immediately after exercise. Five male volunteers ran from six to ten miles. Serum enzyme levels were monitored serially three days before and five days after stress. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant increases in total CPK and LDH were seen. An LDH 'one-two flip' occurred eight hours after exercise. No MB-CPK was found following the run.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Goheen, Bernadette A.

Effects of Antigen Injection on Titer of C'3 and C'4 Complement Components of Rat Serum

Description: This work attempts to establish some phenomenon of a rise in titer of C'3 and C'4 due to antigenic stimulation. Normal level of complement is established and compared to other workers as well as against guinea pig levels. Young rats were bled to establish normal levels of complement. The animals were then injected with an antigenic substance and after a period of seven days were bled again to determine the level of complement. Various antigenic and non-antigenic substances were used as well as normal saline injections for control.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Whalen, Paul Lorrance

Effects of Carbaryl (1-Naphthyl-n-methylcarbamate) on Trichocorixa Reticulata (Hemiptera: Corixidae) and Glyptotendipes Barbipes (Diptera: Chironomidae)

Description: My study of the effects of carbaryl in aquatic systems under controlled laboratory conditions emphasized four major objectives: (1) to determine the acute toxicity of carbaryl to the herbivorous adult and immature Trichocorixa reticulata (Guerin)(Hemiptera: Corixidae), and to the omnivorous larvae of Glyptotendipes barbipes (Staeger) (Diptera: Chironomidae) under static bioassay; (2) to adapt a quantitative method of analysis for carbaryl in water and whole insect tissue extract; (3) to measure the accumulation of the insecticide by G. barbipes under static exposure; and (4) to quantify the uptake and loss of carbaryl by G. barbipes under daily-renewed sublethal dosages.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Gash, Stephen L.

Effects of CFT Legumine™ Rotenone on Macroinvertebrates in Four Drainages of Montana and New Mexico

Description: Rotenone is considered essential in the restoration of native fish populations; however, the technique is contentious and criticized, specifically concerning impacts to invertebrates. Knowledge of effects to non-target organisms is important for the management and conservation of fish populations. This thesis has two general objectives: (1) demonstrate the influence CFT Legumine™ rotenone has on benthic macroinvertebrates for restoration projects in Montana and New Mexico and (2) evaluate the immediate response by means of invertebrate drift. Chapters 2 and 4 incorporate results from four different restoration projects that examine benthic macroinvertebrate response. Results indicate treatment effects are minimal for Specimen and Cherry Creek projects in Montana. New Mexico projects, Comanche and Costilla Creek suggest a greater influence. Potassium permanganate used to neutralize rotenone, influenced communities in three of the four projects. Regardless, invertebrates in all four projects recovered one-year after treatment. Chapter 3 examines macroinvertebrate drift during rotenone treatment. Results suggest a delayed response compared to previous literature. Rotenone appears to have the greatest immediate influence on the early life stages of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. To reduce impacts of rotenone to invertebrates, managers should apply CFT Legumine and use the minimal dosage and duration to complete the projects goal of removing non-indigenous fish species.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Skorupski, Joseph A., Jr.

The Effects of Common Electrolytes on Growth and Development of Selected Species of Aquatic Actinomycetes

Description: The role that aquatic actinomycetes play, in the production of tastes and odors in water supplies has been investigated since 1948. The ability of these organisms to produce by-products in lakes and streams, which renders the water unpalatable, is of considerable public health importance. It is desirable that the waterworks industry has as much information as possible concerning the factors that contribute to the growth of these organisms. Since it appears that the aquatic actinomycetes may be isolated from most fresh-water sources, the problem of diversified environments and nutritional requirements offers an excellent field of investigation. The fresh-waters of the world contain variable quantities of electrolytes that may determine in part the biological activity of these organisms. The unsolved questions in this instance are concerned with the electrolytes present and their quantitative effects on the growth and development of these forms.
Date: August 1959
Creator: Sissom, Stanley L.

Effects of Copper on Immune Responses of Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

Description: Copper exposures of 400 μg/L for 5,10 and 15 days resulted in no significant differences in antibody titers of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides injected with Aeromonas hydrophila compared to control-injected bass. Twenty days of exposure did significantly increase titers. The control group had significantly lower antibody titers than either control-injected or copper-exposed.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Connell, Patrice M. (Patrice Michelle)

Effects of Daily Oral Injections of Quercetin on Implanted Colon-25 Tumor Growth in Balb-C Mice

Description: The effects of three oral dosages (0.4 mg, 0.8 mg, and 1.6 mg) of quercetin on Colon-25 tumors implanted in Balb-c mice were studied. The data in this study show that: (1) certain dosages of quercetin in alcohol solutions, reduces the weight, and size of implanted Colon-25 tumors in Balb-c mice, (2) these same dosages of quercetin all produce a profound neutrophilia combined with a significant lymphopenia at day 20 post-implantation, and (3) there was relatively little evidence of histological changes in the quercetin-treated tumor section which would indicate that the action(s) of quercetin is primarily at the subcellular level probably within the nuclei of the tumor cells.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Hayashi, Adam

Effects of Exogenous Steroids on the Adrenal Plasma Membrane Alteration of Steroidogenesis and Cell Morphology

Description: Using cultured Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells which produce the steroid 20(-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (20-DHP), it was found that 10-5 M corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced 20-DHP production. The steroid effects were concentration-dependent, reversible, and specific since six other steroids did not stimulate steroidogenesis and varied in their ability to inhibit ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Cytochalasin D inhibited steroid-stimulated 20-DHP production, suggesting a mechanism of steroid stimulation similar to that of ACTH. Steroidogenesis stimulated by cholera toxin, (Bu) 2 cAMP, or pregnenolone was not inhibited by exogenous steroid; corticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced intracellular cAMP production. Steroids altered cell surface morphology. These findings suggest that steroids alter adrenal steroidogenesis by acting within the plasma membrane.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Mattson, Mark Paul

Effects of External Electric Fields on Light Transmittance in Isolated Crayfish Nerves

Description: Acute effects of a pulsed external electric field (PEEF) at 20 V/cm and a d.c. EEF at 90 V/cm on light transmittance in an isolated compound crayfish nerve was measured. In a third series, the nerve was pre-treated with the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). A PEEF produced an irreversible increase in the variation of light transmittance in normal nerves but a reversible increase in TTX treated nerves. This data was statistically insignificant. The d.c. EEFs produced a reversible and statistically significant enhancement of variation in light transmittance in both untreated and TTX-treated nerves. The findings may be due to either (1) an alteration in the ion/fluid flux within the nerve or (2) a physical alteration of protein molecules in the membranes.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Northcutt, Brian S. W.

The Effects of Hexadecanol on the Microbiota of Lake Hefner

Description: It seemed desirable to investigate more fully the effect of hexadecanol on the microbial population of a reservoir. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine the effect of hexadecanol on the micro-biota of Lake Hefner, to ascertain which organisms were stimulated by hexadecanol both in the laboratory and the reservoir, and to investigate the degradation of hexadecanol by microorganisms selected from Lake Hefner.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Dickson, Kenneth L.

Effects of High Altitude Exposure on Capillary Permeability

Description: Observations of decreases in plasma volume, shifts in plasma and lymph protein concentrations, and increases in capillary permeability at high altitude have been reported in the literature by several investigators. This investigation was begun in an attempt to elucidate the possible significance of these phenomena in future space exploration, and because of the lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of exposure to hypobaric pressures on the capillary permeability to the normal plasma and lymph proteins.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Reaves, Troy Albert

The Effects of Hypothermia on the Release of Cardiac Enzymes

Description: The myocardium is known to release CPK, LDH1 , and GOT in response to ischemia as a result of myocardial infarction. This study was designed to induce the release of cardiac enzymes without adversely effecting the myocardium by perfusion hypothermia, thereby suggesting that these enzymes are not as specific in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction as once thought. Hypothermia was by in vivo perfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Enzyme activity was measured from sera samples spectrophotometrically and electrophoretically. Significant CPK and LDH1 increases were observed in animals perfused between 25 and 19 C. These results indicate that, while heart function remained unchanged, an alteration occurred in the membrane integrity of the myocardial cells.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Strawn, William B.

The Effects of Inbreeding on Fitness Traits in the Critically Endangered Attwater’s Prairie-chicken

Description: The goals of captive breeding programs for endangered species include preserving genetic diversity and avoiding inbreeding. Typically this is accomplished by minimizing population mean kinship; however, this approach becomes less effective when errors in the pedigree exist and may result in inbreeding depression, or reduced survival. Here, both pedigree- and DNA-based methods were used to assess inbreeding depression in the critically endangered Attwater’s prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). Less variation in the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients and parental relatedness values were observed compared to DNA-based measures suggesting that errors exist in the pedigree. Further, chicks identified with high parental DNA-based relatedness exhibited decreased survival at both 14- and 50-days post-hatch. A similar pattern was observed in later life stages (> 50 days post-hatch) with birds released to the wild; however, the pattern varied depending on the time post-release. While DNA-based inbreeding coefficient was positively correlated with mortality to one month post-release, an opposite pattern was observed at nine months suggesting purging of deleterious alleles. I also investigated whether immunocompetence, or the ability to produce a normal immune response, was correlated with survival; however, no significant correlation was observed suggesting that inbreeding was a more important factor influencing survival. Pairing individuals for breeding by minimizing DNA-based parental relatedness values resulted in a significant increase in chick survival. This study highlights the importance of using DNA-based methods to avoid inbreeding depression when errors exist in the pedigree.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Hammerly, Susan C.

Effects of Long-Term Moderate Ethanol Intake on the Stress Response in Rats

Description: The effect of ethanol on the stress response in rats was examined. Experimental animals were given 0.25 ml of 28 percent ethanol or 0.25 ml of water orally once a day, five days a week, for a period of twelve months and were then subjected to fifteen minute cold stress. Corticosterone levels in ethanol-treated males following stress were significantly lower (22 percent) than in the sham group. Adrenal weights in sham-treated females were significantly higher (15 percent) than in the ethanol group at the end of twelve months. Mortality in sham-treated males was significantly higher (60 percent) than in ethanol-treated males. The effects observed may be due to the sedative action of ethanol on cortical centers controlling the hypothalmus.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Williams, Judy L. (Judy Lee)

Effects of Methanol, Atrazine, and Copper on the Ultrastructure of Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata (Selenastrum Capricornutum).

Description: The toxicity of methanol, atrazine, and copper to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindák historically referred to as Selenastrum capricornutum Printz were determined following 96 hrs growth in a modified Goram's growth media. Methanol and atrazine inhibited fluorescence readings in the cultures by 50% (IC50) at concentrations of 2% and 82 µg/l respectively. These toxicity values compared favorably to other published reports. The IC50 for copper was 160 µg/l which is substantially higher than reported values. This is understandable because of the high chelating capacity of Goram's media. The use of stereologically derived relative volume in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, lipid bodies, phosphate bodies, and nucleus was investigated to determine if it could be used as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity tests. The volume fractions for the chloroplasts and mitochondria were normally distributed in control cells while the nuclei, phosphate bodies, and lipid bodies were not. The chloroplasts were the most dominate organelle occupying a mean relative volume of 46% and mitochondria occupied a mean relative volume of 3%. The nucleus and phosphate bodies occupied a median relative volume of 7% and 2% respectively. The lipid bodies were rare in section profile and no meaningful median relative volume could be calculated. Up to the 82nd percentile of sectioned profiles contained no recognizable lipid bodies. The use of relative volume was not a sensitive endpoint for use in toxicity tests. No significant differences in relative volume could be detected in the nucleus or phosphate bodies following any treatment. Limited differences were detected in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and lipid bodies. The only significant differences that appear to be biologically significant occurred in methanol treated cells where an increase in the lipid bodies' relative volume was apparently concentration dependent. Significant differences in the relative volume of mitochondria and chloroplasts do not appear to be biologically significant.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Garrett, David C.

Effects of n-Decenylsuccinic Acid (n-DSA) and It's Monomethyl Ester (m-MDSA) on Water and Ion Flux in Isolated Roots

Description: The purpose of this study was (1) to measure the changes in water flux in isolated roots exposed to n-DSA and its mono-methly ester (m-MDSA) using a photometric technique in the absence of an externally applied suction and (2) to measure the flux of Na and K in similarly treated roots using a flame photometric method.
Date: January 1969
Creator: Teng, Yao-sheng

Effects of N⁶,O²'-Dibutyryl Cyclic Adenosine 3' ,5' Monophosphate on Transformation of Rat Kidney Cells and Chick Embryo Fibroblasts by Wild-Type and Temperature-Sensitive Rous Sarcoma Virus

Description: N^6,O^2' -Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (Bt_2cAMP) was investigated for its effects on various tissue culture cells infected with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, LA31 and Bratislava 77 (B77), a wild-type Rous sarcoma virus. Specifically, known parameters of transformation were investigated and a possible site of action has been tenably proposed. The drug Bt_2cAMP was found to have little effect on the transformation related properties of primary chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with either virus or normal rat kidney fibroblasts (NRK) infected with the wild-type B77-RSV. However, significant inhibition of the transforming properties in NRK infected with the ts mutant LA31 (LA31-NRK) were reported at the permissive temperature 33 degrees centigrade (33 C).
Date: December 1983
Creator: Marshall, David A. (David Allen)

The Effects of Organic Surface Amendments on Soil Nutrients and Initial Tree Establishment

Description: This study examined the effects of replicating woodland soil surface horizonation on the nutrient status of underlying soils and the initial establishment and growth of trees. A total of 283 container grown trees were planted in a bufferzone around a future landfill site. Control amendments consisted of an 8 cm layer (0.5 m3) of wood chips applied in a circular area of 4.6 m2 around the trees' planting pit. For the treatment, a 2.5 cm layer of composted biosolids (0.15 m3 or 80 Mg/ha) was applied in a circular area of 4.6 m2 around the trees' planting pit followed by an 8 cm layer (0.5 m3) of wood chips. The results indicate that the replication of woodland soil surface attributes using composted biosolids can significantly improve the nutrient status of underlying soil. Some significant effects were seen under control conditions, too. However, the effects on tree establishment and growth parameters were, for the most part, not statistically significant.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Thuesen, Kevin (Kevin Andrew)