UNT Libraries - 133 Matching Results

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Synthesis and host-guest interaction of cage-annulated podands, crown ethers, cryptands, cavitands and non-cage-annulated cryptands.

Description: Symmetrical cage-annulated podands were synthesized via highly efficient synthetic strategies. Mechanisms to account for the key reaction steps in the syntheses are proposed; the proposed mechanisms receive support from the intermediates that have been isolated and characterized. An unusual complexation-promoted elimination reaction was studied, and a mechanism is proposed to account for the course of this reaction. This unusual elimination may generalized to other rigid systems and thus may extend our understanding of the role played by the host molecules in "cation-capture, anion-activation" via complexation with guest molecules. Thus, host-guest interaction serves not only to activate the anion but also may activate the leaving groups that participate in the complexation. Complexation-promoted elimination provides a convenient method to desymmetrize the cage while avoiding protection/deprotection steps. In addition, it offers a convenient method to prepare a chiral cage spacer by introducing 10 chiral centers into the host system in a single synthetic step. Cage-annulated monocyclic hosts that contain a cage-butylenoxy spacer were synthesized. Comparison of their metal ion complexation behavior as revealed by the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), alkali metal picrate extraction, and pseudohydroxide extraction with those displayed by the corresponding hosts that contain cage-ethylenoxy or cage-propylenoxy spacers reveals the effect of the length of the cage spacer upon the host-guest behavior. A series of cage-annulated cryptands, cavitands and the corresponding non-cage-annulated model compounds have been synthesized. These host molecules display unusual behavior when examined by using ESI-MS techniques, i.e., they bind selectively to smaller alkali metal ions (i.e., Li+ and Na+), a result that deviates significantly from expectations based solely upon consideration of the size-fit principle. It seems likely that this behavior results from the effect of the host topology on host-guest behavior. A series of non-cage-annulated cryptands also have been synthesized. These compounds can serve as starting ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Chen, Zhibing

Synthesis and Structure of Polynitro- and Polymenthylpolycyclic "Cage" Monomers and Polymers

Description: The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize new energetic polycyclic "cage" compounds. As part of a program involved in the synthesis of new polynitropolycyclic compounds, 2,6-dinitro-5-methoxy- 7-carbomethoxypentacyclo[5. 3 .0 . 0* • * . CP • i ° . 0* •8]decane has been synthesized. This is a model system which can be used to study (1) the effect of nitro substitution on the photolability of carbon-carbon double bonds and (2) to develop methods for avoiding Haller-Bauer cleavage in cage /3-keto esters when synthesizing polynitro-substituted cage compounds.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Jin, Pei-Wen

Synthesis and Study of Bioactive Compounds: I. Pyrethroids; II. Glutathione Derivatives

Description: Part I: In the first study of pyrethroids, twenty-one novel pyrethroid esters bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., halomethylketo and nitro groups) in the double bond side chain of the cyclopropane acid moiety have been synthesized and evaluated for insect toxicity. Rather than the usually employed Wittig reaction for these syntheses, the novel pyrethroid acid moieties were prepared by amino acidcatalyzed Knoevenagel condensations under mild conditions. In the second study of pyrethroids, fourteen pyrethroid-like carbonates were synthesized by condensation of a variety of alcohols and the chloroformates of the corresponding known pyrethroid alcohols.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Chyan, Ming-Kuan

Synthesis and Study of Metabolic Antagonists

Description: The central nature of nicotinamide in metabolic processes as a part of the NAD and NADP coenzyme systems prompted the synthesis of a series of N-nicotinyl- and N-isonicotinyl-N'- (substituted)ureas as potential metabolite antagonists of the vitamin. The compounds which were synthesized may be represented by the following general structure, where R = hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, n-hexyl, cyclohexyl, phenyl and a-naphthyl. The observed toxicity of the N-nicotinyl-N'-(substituted)urea analogs may be attributed to the formation of a non-functional N-nicotinyl-N'-(substituted)urea-NAD analog through an exchange reaction catalyzed by NAD-ases in the cell. Support for this view was obtained by an in vitro enzymic synthesis of Nnicotinyl- N'-ethylurea-NAD analog employing N-nicotinyl-7- 1 4CN'- ethylurea. The labeled derivative was characterized through spectral, chromatographic, and chemical reaction studies.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Masingale, Robert Edesta

Synthesis, characterization, and kinetics of isomerization, C-H and P-C bond activation for unsaturated diphosphine-coordinated triosmium carbonyl clusters.

Description: Substitution of MeCN ligands in the activated cluster Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 by the unsaturated diphosphine ligands (Z)-Ph2PCH=CHPPh2 (cDPPEn) or 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (bpcd) proceeds rapidly at room temperature to furnish the ligand-bridged cluster 1,2-Os3(CO)10(P-P) (P-P represents cDPPEn or bpcd). Heating 1,2-Os3(CO)10(P-P) leads to the formation of the thermodynamically more stable chelating isomer 1,1-Os3(CO)10(P-P). Each compound of Os3(CO)10(P-P) has been characterized by x-ray diffraction, IR, 31P NMR and 1H NMR. Ligand isomerization kinetics have been investigated by UV-VIS and 31P NMR (for cDPPEn) or 1H NMR (for bpcd) spectroscopies. The isomerization mechanism is discussed based on the activation parameters and CO inhibition (for cDPPEn) or ligand trapping experiments (for bpcd). Thermolysis of 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd) in refluxing toluene gives the hydrido cluster HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] and the benzyne cluster HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)]. Photolysis of 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd) using near UV light affords HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] as the sole product. HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] has been characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Reversible C-H bond formation in HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] is demonstrated by ligand trapping studies to give 1,1-Os3(CO)9L(bpcd) (where L = CO, phosphine) via the unsaturated intermediate 1,1-Os3(CO)9(bpcd). The kinetics for reductive coupling in HOs3(CO)9[γ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] and DOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2-d10)C=C{P(Ph-d5)(C6D4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] in the presence of PPh3 give rise to a kH/kD value of 0.88, whose magnitude supports the existence of a preequilibrium involving the hydride(deuteride) cluster and a transient arene-bound Os3 species that precedes the rate-limiting formation of 1,1-Os3(CO)9(bpcd). Strong proof for the proposed hydride(deuteride)/arene preequilibrium has been obtained from photochemical studies employing the isotopically labeled cluster 1,1-Os3(CO)10(bpcd-d4ortho), whose bpcd phenyl groups each contain one ortho hydrogen and deuterium atom. Equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects in the orthometallation step has been determined by 1H NMR in photochemical studies. Kinetics for the transformation from HOs3(CO)9[μ-(PPh2)C=C{PPh(C6H4)}C(O)CH2C(O)] to HOs3(CO)8(μ3-C6H4)[μ2,η1-PPhC=C(PPh2)C(O)CH2C(O)] has been studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy for which the mechanism is discussed.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Wu, Guanmin

Synthetic Applications of Ketene Cycloadditions: Natural and Novel Pyrethroid Insecticides

Description: A new synthetic route to natural and novel pyrethroid acids was developed utilizing ketene cycloaddition which is a significant improvement over existing syntheses. The newly synthesized pyrethroid acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and used to study structure-activity relationships. The cycloaddition of dichloroketene with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene yields (2+2) cycloaddition products, 2,2-dichlorocyclobutanones. The reductive removal of one chlorine atom from these cycloaddition products gave monochlorocyclobutanones which underwent a Favorskii-type ring contraction to yield cis- and trans-chrysanthemic acids. 4-Methyl-1,3-pentadiene was also used as a precursor in this synthetic scheme to yield an analogue of the chrysanthemic acid. These results are consistent with a concerted cycloaddition process involving a dipolar transition state. The zinc reduction is not a regiospecific reaction which accounts for the two regioisomers of the monochlorocyclobutanones. The Favorskii-type ring contraction is a regiospecific reaction. A variety of different bicyclo(3.1.0)alkenecarboxylates and bicyclo(4.1.0)heptenecarboxylates were synthesized from alkylcyclopentadiene and fulvene derivatives. These new bicyclo pyrethroid acids are structurally similar to the natural chrysanthemic acid but are rigid and locked in a single conformation which is likely the least stable conformer of the natural acid. The acids were converted to pyrethroid esters and tested against the housefly and cockroach. The test results indicate that the bicyclo pyrethroids synthesized are not as active as the natural pyrethroid. Apparently, these bicyclo pyrethroids with structures similar to the less stable conformer of the natural pyrethroids are of little consequence as it binds to the target site in the insect. In an effort to learn more about the conformational requirements of the pyrethroid acid, a new bicyclo-spiro pyrethroid system with a structure similar to the most stable conformation of the natural pyrethroid was designed and synthesized. These bicyclo-spiro pyrethroids were derived from a new isopropylidenecyclobutane derivatives as a starting compound instead of a conjugated diene. The test results of ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Ko, Jinren

Thermal and Flash Photolysis Studies of Ligand-Exchange Reactions of Substituted Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Cr and Mo

Description: Thermal and flash photolysis studies of ligand-substitution reactions of cis-(pip)(L)M(CO)_4 by L' (pip = piperidine; L, L' = CO, phosphines, phosphites; M = Cr, Mo) implicate square-pyramidal [(L)M(CO)_4], in which L occupies a coordination site in the equatorial plane, as the reactive species. In chlorobenzene (= CB) solvent, the predominant species formed after flash photolysis and a steady-state intermediate for the thermal reaction is cis—[(CB)(L)M(CO)_4], for which rates of CB-dissociation increase with increasing steric demands of coordinated L. Rates of CB-dissociation from trans-[(CB)(L)M(CO)_4] intermediates, formed after photolysis but not thermally, exhibit no observable dependence on the steric properties of the coordinated L.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Awad, Hani H. (Hani Hanna)

Thermal Reactions of Four-Membered Rings Containing Silicon or Germanium

Description: The synthesis of E- and Z-1,1,2,3-tetramethylsilacyclobutanes is described. Pyrolysis of either isomer at 398.2 °C provides the same products but in different amounts: propene, E- and Z-2-butene, allylethyldimethylsilane, dimethylpropylsilane, the respective geometric isomers, 1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane, 1,1, l-ethyldimethyl-2,2,2-vinyldimethyl-disilane and E- and Z-1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane. Mechanisms involving di- and trimethylsilenes are described for disilane formation and rate constants of the elementary steps for the fragmentation reactions are reported. Photochemically generated dimethylsilylene in the hydrocarbon solution inserts into the cyclic Ge-C or Si-C bonds of 1,1-dimethylgerma- or silacyclobutane to produce 1-germa-2-sila- or 1,2-disilacyclopentane. The relative reactivities of 1,1-dimethylgerma- and silacyclobutanes toward the dimethylsilylene have been determined. The carbenoid resulting from the cuprous chloride catalyzed decomposition of diazomethane at 25 °C in cyclohexane reacts with 1,1-dimethylgermacyclobutane to give, surprisingly 1,1,5,5-tetramethyl-1,5-digermacyclooctane as the major product. The reactions of the carbenoid with 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane are described. The kinetics of gas phase thermal decomposition of 1,1-dimethylgermacyclobutane has been studied over the temperature range, 684 - 751 K at pressures near 14 Torr. The Arrhenius parameters for the formation of ethylene are k_1 (s^-1) = 10^(14.6 ± 0.3) exp (62.7 ± 2.9 kcal mol^-1/RT) and those for the formation of propene and cyclopropane are k_2 (s^-1) = 10^(14.0 ± 0.1 ) exp (60.4 ± 2.8 kcal mol^-1/RT). Static gas phase pyrolyses of 1,1-dimethyl-lsilacyclobutene, DMSCB, in the presence of a variety of alkenes and alkynes at 260 - 365 °C have been studied. Our experimental results suggest that under these conditions the DMSCB ring opens to 1,1-dimethyl-l-silabutadiene, which either recyclizes to DMSCB or reacts with alkenes or alkynes in competing 4 + 2 and 2 + 2 cycloadditions.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Namavari, Mohammad, 1950-

Thermochemical investigations of crystalline solutes in non-electrolyte solutions: Mathematical representation of solubility data and the development of predictive solubility equations in systems with specific and non-specific interactions.

Description: Understanding the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent mixtures is of critical importance in many chemical and industrial applications. Experimental measurements become progressively difficult as the number of solution components increases -- producing the need for predictive models. Problems in development of predictive models arise if the mixture has one or more components that interact through molecular complexation or association. Experimental solubilities of anthracene and pyrene dissolved in binary systems containing one or more alcohols were measured in order to address this problem. Alcohols examined in this study were: 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In binary solvent mixtures containing only a single self-associating alcoholic solvent, the alkane cosolvents studied were: n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tert-butylcyclohexane. Predictive solubility equations were developed using mobile order theory. This approach differs from classical solution models by representing hydrogen bonding with a probability term rather than with expressions derived from stepwise equilibria or expressions to represent hypothetical solution aggregates. Results were compared with the predicted solubilities found from using expressions developed using the Kretschmer-Wiebe and Mecke-Kempter approaches for modeling associated solutions. It was found that the mobile order approach provided reasonably accurate predictions for the solute solubilities in the systems studied. The limitations and applications for mathematical methods of representing experimental isothermal solubility data were also studied for 72 systems. Two possible descriptive forms for this mathematical representation were suggested based on the various nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS) and modified Wilson models.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Zvaigzne, Anita Ilze

Thermochemical Study of Crystalline Solutes Dissolved in Ternary Hydrogen-Bonding Solvent Mixtures

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the thermochemical properties of nonelectrolyte solutes dissolved in ternary solvent mixtures, and to develop mathematical expressions for predicting and describing behavior in the solvent mixtures. Forty-five ternary solvent systems were studied containing an ether (Methyl tert-butyl ether, Dibutyl ether, or 1,4-Dioxane), an alcohol (1-Propanol, 2-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, or 2-Methyl-1-propanol), and an alkane (Cyclohexane, Heptane, or 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane) cosolvents. The Combined NIBS (Nearly Ideal Binary Solvent)/Redlich-Kister equation was used to assess the experimental data. The average percent deviation between predicted and observed values was less than ± 2 per cent error, documenting that this model provides a fairly accurate description of the observed solubility behavior. In addition, Mobile Order theory, the Kretschmer-Wiebe model, and the Mecke-Kempter model were extended to ternary solvent mixtures containing an alcohol (or an alkoxyalcohol) and alkane cosolvents. Expressions derived from Mobile Order theory predicted the experimental mole fraction solubility of anthracene in ternary alcohol + alkane + alkane mixtures to within ± 5.8%, in ternary alcohol + alcohol + alkane mixtures to within ± 4.0%, and in ternary alcohol + alcohol + alcohol mixtures to within ± 3.6%. In comparison, expressions derived from the Kretschmer-Wiebe model and the Mecke-Kempter model predicted the anthracene solubility in ternary alcohol + alkane + alkane mixtures to within ± 8.2% and ± 8.8%, respectively. The Kretschmer-Wiebe model and the Mecke-Kempter model could not be extended easily to systems containing two or more alcohol cosolvents.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Pribyla, Karen J.

Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Layered Double Hydroxides

Description: The preparation of layered double hydroxides via titration with sodium hydroxide was thoroughly investigated for a number of M(II)/M(III) combinations. These titration curves were examined and used to calculate nominal solubility product constants and other thermodynamic quantities for the various LDH chloride systems.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Boclair, Joseph W. (Joseph Walter)

Thermodynamic Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Ternary Solvent Mixtures

Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutes dissolved in ternary solvent mixtures, and to develop mathematical expressions for predicting and describing that behavior in the solvent mixtures. Thirty-four ternary solvent systems were studied containing either alcohol (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol), alkane (cyclohexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) or alkoxyalcohol (2-ethoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol) cosolvents. Approximately 2500 experimental measurements were performed. Expressions were derived from the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Redlich-Kister, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Bertrand, Acree and Burchfield (BAB) and the Modified Wilson models for predicting solute solubility in ternary solvent (or even higher multicomponent) mixtures based upon the model constants calculated from solubility data in sub-binary solvents. Average percent deviation between predicted and observed values were less than 2%, documenting that these models provide a fairly accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutions. Moreover, the models can be used for solubility prediction in solvent mixtures in order to find the optimum solvent composition for solubilization or desolubilization of a solute. From a computational standpoint, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent/Redlich-Kister equation is preferred because the needed model constants can be calculated with a simple linear regressional analysis. Model constants for the Modified Wilson equation had to be calculated using a reiterative trial-and-error method. The C++ program for the Modified Wilson equation applied to ternary and heptanary solvent mixtures is attached.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Deng, Tʻai-ho

Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Liquid Crystals and Their Blends

Description: Tensile properties, namely the elastic modulus, tensile strength, percent of elongation at yield and at the break were determined for the pure components and blends. The results are connected to the respective phase diagrams and demonstrate that blending makes property manipulation possible. Blends for which the mechanical properties are better than those of pure EPs can be obtained.
Date: May 1994
Creator: López, Betty Lucy