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Examining High School Coaches’ Likelihood to Refer To, Interest in Working With, and Plans to Hire a Sport Psychologist
The primary goal of the current study was to extend previous research suggesting that coaches are the primary gatekeepers who may be a barrier to working with athletes by examining high school coaches likelihood to refer to, interest in, and intention to hire a sport psychologist. Specifically, the current study examined relationships between high school coaches’ sex, age, and type of sport coached (i.e., contact vs. non-contact) and their likelihood to refer athletes to a sport psychologist for a variety of presenting issues (i.e., poor attentional focus, poor leadership, family issues, etc.). It also examined relationships between coaches’ sex, age, and type of sport coached (i.e., contact vs. non-contact) and their interest in working with a sport psychologist. Finally, the study examined reasons why coaches did not plan to hire a sport psychologist. An examination of the possible reasons that high school coaches do not plan to hire a sport psychologist served an exploratory purpose. Participants included 450 coaches who coached high school sports in the United States. Results indicated that female coaches and non-contact sport coaches were more likely to refer athletes to a sport psychologist for a variety of referral issues than male coaches and coaches of contact sports. Similarly, significantly more female coaches and non-contact sport coaches showed interest in working with a sport psychologist than male coaches and coaches of contact sports. Coaches who did not plan to hire a sport psychologist reported that cost, lack authority to hire, and lack of availability as primary reasons. Implications of the findings, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including difficulty in relationships. Research has posited CSA may lead to insecure attachment in survivors, which may be the vehicle by which dysfunctional parent-child relationships develop. The purpose of the proposed study was to examine differences in parenting outcomes between CSA and non-CSA mothers utilizing both observational and self-report methods and to examine the unique impact of CSA on parenting attitudes. Abuse status was determined by scores on the Sexual Abuse subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with the CSA group comprised of mothers scoring in the moderate to severe range. Mothers self-reported parenting attitudes on the Parent-Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire/Control (P-PARQ/Control) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2), while parental depression was assessed with the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). Parenting behaviors were observed by coding the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment (PCIA). Hypotheses were not supported until child gender was considered as a third variable. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers, exhibited significantly poorer limit-setting skills (h² = .21) with male children compared to female children, but did not self-report these differences. Although not statistically significant, small but potentially meaningful effect sizes were found when the self-reports of CSA mothers were compared to their observed behaviors. Specifically, CSA mothers displayed increased levels of physical nurturance (h² = .11) and role reversal (h² = .08) with male children compared to female children, but again, did not self-report these differences. Finally, CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers tended to self-report greater beliefs in corporal punishment with male children compared to females (h² = .08). Secondary findings revealed parental depression was the only unique predictor of parental nurturance, attitude toward corporal punishment, and role reversal. Findings confirm the importance of third variables, including child gender and ...
An Exploratory Mixed Method Study of Gender and Sexual Minority Health in Dallas: A Needs Assessment
Gender and sexual minorities (GSM) experience considerably worse health outcomes than heterosexual and cisgender people, yet no comprehensive understanding of GSM health exists due to a dearth of research. GSM leaders in Dallas expressed need for a community needs assessment of GSM health. In response to this call, the Center for Psychosocial Health Research conducted a needs assessment of gender and sexual minority health in Dallas (35 interviews, 6 focus groups). Competency was one area highlighted and shared across existing research. Thus, the current study explored how competency impacts gender and sexual minorities' experience of health care in Dallas. We utilized a consensual qualitative research approach to analyze competency-related contents. The meaning and implications of emerging core ideas were explored. These findings were also used to develop a survey instrument.
Facilitative Effectiveness of Elderly and Adolescent Volunteer Counselors in a Nursing Home Setting
This study examined the effects of volunteer counselor training (empathy training versus information only) and age of volunteer (senior citizens versus adolescents) upon depression level of nursing home residents. Results showed that residents who received a volunteer counselor significantly improved (p < .01) in level of depression compared to the no volunteer control group. The empathy trained counselors were not significantly more effective than the information only group. The age of the. volunteer counselor was found not to be a significant variable.
Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Test of Performance Strategies, Sport Anxiety Scale, and the Golf Performance Survey Across Age Groups
The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity and measurement equivalence of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999); the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schultz, 1990); and the Golf Performance Survey (GPS; Thomas & Over, 1994) across age groups in a representative sample of amateur golfers. Based on archival data, participants comprising this study were 649 younger adult (n = 237) and older adult (n = 412) amateur golfers who played in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The participants completed a set of questionnaires including psychological skills and strategies (e.g., self-talk, goal setting, imagery, etc.) used during competition, sport-specific competitive trait anxiety, and psychomotor skills and involvement in golf. Results demonstrated that the original factor structure of the TOPS competition subscale, the SAS, and the GPS, did not adequately fit the data among this sample of younger and older adult amateur golfers. Further exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses established evidence of factorial validity with the TOPS competition subscale, SAS, and the GPS with both younger and older adult amateur golfers. Configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance were identified in relation to the TOPS competition subscale, SAS, and the GPS across age cross-group comparisons. In general, the analyses demonstrated support that the TOPS competition subscale, SAS, and the GPS can be utilized with confidence with older adult amateur golfers, as well as conducting group comparisons with younger adult amateur golfers. The findings from this study have several future research directions and practical implications for structuring effective interventions with older adult amateur athletes.
Family and Cultural Influences on Latino Career Development and Academic Success
There is an extensive amount of research on academic success and career development, but most of the literature has focused on the process of White participants. While some of the studies have examined samples from ethnic minority populations, the majority of studies use these populations as comparison groups, studying between-group differences as opposed to within-group differences. The literature is especially lacking in the area Latino academic success and career development. The current study examined how family and culture, specifically socioeconomic status, acculturation, and the quality of the parent-emerging adult relationship, influence the academic success and career development of Latino emerging adults. Eighty-three Latino undergraduate students ages 18 – 24 were recruited for participation in this study. Results indicated that valuing the role of work (career salience) significantly predicted the maturity and positivity of attitudes toward work (career maturity) in Latino emerging adults. Additionally, while family demographic and cultural variables did not seem to have a significant impact on academic success and career development, first-generation college student status, career salience, and conflict in the parent-emerging adult relationship lent some insight into the variation of levels of career maturity in a Latino sample. Furthermore, first-generation student status also impacted the relationship between career maturity and GPA.
Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy
This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with previous reports of disturbed mother-daughter relationships among this population. Discriminant analysis revealed that subjects choosing adoption were more likely to be older and to be white than those choosing to keep the child. They also tended to perceive higher levels of expressiveness and independence in their families. Comparisons between the present sample and "normal" families revealed differences which were statistically significant, but quite small in terms of raw score units. Indeed, these groups may be more similar than has often been assumed. The implications of these findings for the delivery of services and for future research efforts in this area ...
Family Influences on Young Adult Career Development and Aspirations
The purpose of this study was to examine family influences on career development and aspirations of young adults. Theories and research have examined the influence parents have on children's career development, but because of the multiple factors that influence career choices, understanding the family's influence is complex. The current study utilized ideas from self-determination, attachment, and career development theories to develop a framework for understanding how families influence young adult career development and aspirations. Rather than directly influencing career decisions, the family was proposed to influence processes within individuals that directly influence successful career development. This study used hierarchical regression analyses to test whether different aspects of family relationships and the family environment affect processes within young people, which in turn influence career development. A sample of 99 female and 34 male undergraduate students between 18 and 20 (mean age 18.67) completed questionnaires. Results support the idea that different aspects of the family influence diverse factors of career development and future aspirations. The achievement orientation of the family was predictive of career salience and extrinsic aspirations. Conflict with mothers was predictive of career salience, yet support and depth in the relationship with mothers and low amounts of conflict in the relationship with fathers were predictive of career maturity. High career salience was also predictive of career maturity. The hypothesis that factors play a mediating role between the family and career development variables was not supported. These findings suggest future research should assess multiple aspects of the family and multiple facets regarding career development to more fully understand this process. In addition, findings support the idea that career counselors should assess family functioning when helping young people in their career development journey.
Family Interaction Patterns, Child Attachment, and Child Emotional Adjustment
The present study examined the links between whole family interaction patterns, parent-child attachment, and child emotional adjustment in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Target children completed the Children’s Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005), and the Behavior Assessment System for Children- 2nd Edition, Self Report of Personality (BASC-2 SRP; Reynolds &Kamphaus, 2004). Results of hierarchical regressions indicated that Secure and Avoidant attachment each independently predicted children’s emotional symptoms in some models. Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children’s emotional symptoms. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and treating children’s emotional outcomes.
Family Variables in the Cultural and Psychological Adjustment of Third Culture Kids
Third culture kids are children raised in globally mobile families who have left their culture of origin to reside in a host culture. As this relocation occurs during childhood, the child combines the values, traditions, and norms of both cultures thereby creating a third culture, a unique culture created by the parent’s integration of the home culture, the host culture, and the domains of the organizational culture. Emotional Stability was found to mediate the relationship between family of origin Expression and Composite distress. Though this was the only hypothesized model that was supported, other interesting findings include that when participants were categorized by industry, statistically significant differences were found between Military, Missions, and the Other group on all of the scales. These differences are likely due to a cohort effect, given that the military family mean age was as much as twenty years higher than the other groups.
Fear of Alzheimer's Disease in Middle to Late Adulthood: a Two Year Investigation of Change Versus Stability
The term dementia refers to a progressive decline in cognitive functioning resulting in a significant impairment in daily living. Given the devastating impacts of the disease and lack of a cure, it is reasonable to expect people fear developing a dementia. Alzheimer's disease ranks high among the most feared diseases in national samples of the American population. As a topic of study, little is known about the determinants of fear of Alzheimer's disease and how this fear may change as a function of aging, time, or experience. The current study sought to fill this gap by investigating the nature of changes in fear of Alzheimer's disease by following participants (N = 227) over the course of two years. Volunteers completed measures on fear of dementia, knowledge about Alzheimer's disease, knowledge about the aging process, personality traits, memory self-efficacy, anxiety about aging, and Alzheimer's-related experiences (i.e., family history, caregiving experience, number of people known with the disease, personal diagnosis, etc.). Results supported the notion that fear for becoming a burden to others, a component of fear of dementia, decreased over the two years. In addition, personality traits and memory self-efficacy mediated the two-year change in concerns about perceived symptoms of cognitive decline. In predicting fear for various aspects of Alzheimer's disease, anxiety about aging and experience/exposure to the disease emerged as prominent predictors. These results highlight dementia concerns and offer guidance for early interventions, such as an open communication with family and health care providers about fear of dementia.
Female Adolescent Runaways: Personality Patterns in Response to Physical or Sexual Abuse
Personality patterns of sexually abused female adolescent runaways are compared to personality patterns of physically abused female adolescent runaways. Eighty-six female adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age completed a self report inventory to determine personality traits. To test the hypotheses of the study, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted, followed with univariate tests to find differences on separate dependent measures. Results indicated that on the Jesness Inventory there may be a common personality pattern associated with abuse. Univariate tests yielded data which indicated that although there may be a general personality pattern for abused adolescents, there were significant differences between the physically and sexually abused adolescents on some personality variables. Results were evaluated taking into account the selective sample from which the population was drawn. Recommendations for future research included the use of projectives, a more comprehensive personality inventory, and selected demographics.
Finding Out on Facebook: a Qualitative Analysis of Adolescents’ Experiences Following a Suicide Cluster
Suicide clusters have been identified in many populations; however, research exploring the role of online communication in the aftermath of a suicide cluster is extremely limited. This study used the Consensual Qualitative Research method to analyze interviews of ten high school students following a suicide cluster in a small suburban school district. Interviewee’s responses were organized into 4 domains: the suicide, impact, perceptions of school environment, and recovery. The role of social networking emerged as a common theme across domains, suggesting broad relevance to adolescents’ experience following the suicide of a peer. Implications for clinical intervention and research are discussed.
First-Time Parenthood: Attachment, Family Variables, Emotional Reactions, and Task Responsibilities as Predictors Of Stress
The purpose of this study was to explore factors which are predictive of parenting stress for first-time parents. Based on attachment theory and empirical research, the factors investigated were the responsibility for child care and housework, the current and retrospective relationship with the family of origin, the change in emotions related to parenthood, the marital relationship, and attachment and individuation.
Gender Differences in Child, Parent, and Teacher Perception of Social Functioning Among Children With ADHD
Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) tend to experience social functioning problems, with girls more likely to encounter peer rejection than boys. The present study investigated gender differences in child, parent, and teacher perceptions of social functioning among ADHD and control children. Participants included 119 children (ages 6-11) and their parents. Sixty-one children were previously diagnosed with ADHD. Parents, teachers, and children completed measures assessing the child's social functioning. The results indicate that the relationship between ADHD status and social functioning differs as a function of rater. Teachers and parents reported that ADHD children had lower social functioning than controls, while ADHD and control children reported similar levels of social functioning. Gender differences were found on the child self-report, with girls reporting lower social functioning than boys. In ADHD children the relationship between social functioning and comorbid depression differed as a function of rater. Specifically, among ADHD children with depression, parents rated children as having lower social functioning than did children or teachers. In ADHD children without comorbid depression, however, there were no rater differences. Additionally, no rater differences in social functioning were found between ADHD children with and without a comorbid psychiatric condition. Overall, the results of the current study lend support to the idea that parents, teachers, and children have different perceptions of social functioning. Clinically, these results suggest that interventions could focus on identifying those ADHD children most at-risk for social functioning problems and developing interventions that fit with their perceptions. The limitations of the current study and directions for future research are presented.
Gender Differences in Narrative Descriptions of Date Rape
This study was conducted to examine the experience of unwanted sexual aggression from both the male and female perspectives. Questionnaires were distributed to 325 students, and of these, 142 wrote free-response narratives describing their most sexually aggressive experience. Two raters scored and analyzed the narratives on the basis of 19 categories for male responses and 16 categories for female responses. Differences between the male and female perception of the experience of unwanted sexual aggression were found on several categories. The results of this study suggest that date rape awareness and prevention programs should emphasize the point that dating and sexual encounters can easily be fraught with miscommunication and misinterpretation, and encourage clearer communication and better understanding.
Grandparent-Grandchild Attachment as a Predictor of Psychological Adjustment among Youth from Divorced Families
Grandparent-Grandchild Attachment as a Predictor of Psychological Adjustment among Youth from Divorced Families
Harmony Or Discord: Disordered Eating and Personality Traits of College Music Majors
Personality traits, such as neuroticism, perfectionism, and a narrow self-concept have been identified as risk factors for eating disorders or have been found at higher rates in those with eating disorders (e.g., Brannan & Petrie, 2008; Cash & Deagle, 1997; Cervera et al., 2003). Musicians exhibit many of these personality traits associated with eating disorders (e.g., Kemp, 1981), however eating disorder prevalence has not been studied in musicians. The present study examined the prevalence of eating disorders and pathogenic weight control behaviors among college music majors. This study also compared personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, perfectionism, musician identity) between music majors and nonmajors and examined which personality traits best predicted bulimic symptomatology. Participants were 93 female and 126 male undergraduate students majoring in music and a nonmusician comparison group of 310 women 140 men from the same university. Music majors and nonmajors did not differ from each other with regards to eating disorder prevalence rates. Exercising and fasting/strict dieting were the primary means of weight control amongst all participants. With regards to personality traits, female and male music majors reported higher levels of perfectionism than their nonmajor counterparts and male music majors reported higher levels of neuroticism than male nonmajors. After controlling for BMI, neuroticism and doubts about actions predicted bulimic symptoms in female music majors, whereas concern over mistakes predicted bulimic symptomatology among men majoring in music. Findings suggest that any additional appearance-based pressures from the music environment do not translate into increased levels of eating pathology. Music majors higher levels of perfectionism and neuroticism may help them to succeed within the music and perform at a high level. Lastly, personality dimensions of neuroticism and concern over making mistakes predict disordered eating in all students.
Health Locus of Control and Available Coping Resources: Do Elderly "Internals" Have an Advantage?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health attribution and the availability of organized internal resources and response style as measured by the Four Square of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. Forty-two subjects participated in this study. Six major hypotheses were explored in the study. None of the hypotheses was statistically significant. Several factors may have contributed to these results. The small sample size and the homogeneity of the sample limited the investigator's ability to interpret the results of the study. Statistically, health attribution may not be conceptually related to organized internal resources and response style since physical and emotional distress may require different coping mechanisms.
Humility and Attachment Style in Adult Romantic Relationships
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between adult attachment style, humility, and relationship satisfaction in college student couples. Attachment style--given its significant role in predicting how individuals feel, think, and behave in relationships--was expected to be an important predictor of humility, although this possibility has rarely been studied empirically. The current study found that: (a) attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were significant, negative predictors of total humility, (b) attachment anxiety (but not attachment avoidance) was a significant, negative predictor of both intrapersonal and interpersonal humility, (c) a romantic partner's attachment avoidance (but not attachment anxiety) was a significant, negative predictor of a target person's relationship satisfaction, and (d) a romantic partner's perceived level of humility was a significant, positive predictor of a target person's relationship satisfaction.
Hypnotic Susceptibility as a Function of Information Processing
Hypnotic susceptibility, often regarded as a relatively stable individual characteristic, has been found to be related to the personality dimension of absorption. To test the hypothesis that this relationship is a function of the nature of the sensory response to stimulus events and the development of cognitive models pursuant to the processing of that information, a group of hospitalized, chronic pain patients were assessed on the following dimensions: absorption, clinical hypnotic responsiveness, cognitive resistance to interference, and visual automatization.
Identity development across the lifespan.
In an extension of Louden's work, this study investigated identity development across the lifespan by applying Erickson's and Marcia's identity constructs to two developmental models, the selective optimization and compensation model and a holistic wellness model. Data was gathered from traditionally aged college freshmen and adults older than 60 years of age. Uncommitted identity statuses and work and leisure wellness domains were endorsed across both groups, suggesting that identity for these groups is in a state of fluctuation yet entailing participation as a productive member of society. Emerging adult findings imply that identity diffused and moratorium identity styles are more similar in terms of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning than past literature suggests for this age group. Findings also indicate that identity development is not a process completed by older adulthood, but is an ongoing, lifelong process perhaps driven by contextual factors such as health changes, unpredictable life events, social support group changes, and others. Coping method utilization and overall wellness varied between the two age groups. Conceptually, the SOC model can be viewed as embedded within each of the wellness domains such that selection, optimization, and compensation activities may be carried out within each of the various domains and serve to enhance existing functioning within each domain rather than simply compensating for lost functioning. Possible explanations of the results as well as implications for clinical practice, higher education, and future research are provided.
Identity Status and Adjustment to Loss Among Adolescents
The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the relationship of the adolescent experience of parental death to the variables of identity formation, adjustment, and coping. The inclusion of adolescents who had experienced parental divorce and those who had not experienced either loss condition allowed for group comparisons.
Imagery as a Skills Training Technique for Alcoholics
Alcoholism is a major health problem, and current methods of treatment have been only partially successful. One treatment approach is to teach coping skills for dealing with problematic situations. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of imagery techniques in teaching coping skills. There were two major objectives of this study. The first objective was to determine whether covert skills training would produce positive changes in alcoholics in terms of their effectiveness in responding to stressful situations, their self-concept, and selected personality characteristics. The second objective was to determine whether alcoholics subjectively experience the imagery approach as beneficial. The statistical design also evaluated whether the effectiveness of the treatment fluctuated as a function of age, education, chronicity of alcohol problem, number of rehabilitation attempts, and environmental support as measured by the presence of a family or job awaiting the alcoholic's return.
The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory
The present study compared the career development concerns and other vocationally relevant variables of employees of organizations who have and have not engaged in downsizing within a one year timeframe. The sample consisted of 162 participants, 72 layoff survivors (those who remained in an organization after its downsizing) and 92 non-survivors (employees in organizations who have not downsized within 12 months). Significant results were found that differentiated the career related experiences of participants in the survivors group, survivors from non-survivors, and participants in general regardless of survivorship status. In general, results indicated that non-survivors reported greater job satisfaction and job security than layoff survivors, that being married with children may increase job satisfaction, and social support may buffer the grief reactions that survivors have to the loss of their co-worker friends. Furthermore, Super's age-associated stages within the Life-Span, Life-Space Theory were moderately upheld in the sample, especially for the Exploration stage. However, younger workers demonstrated more Maintenance concerns that would be predicted by the theory. A discussion of the relevant literature is included as well as possible explanations of the results, small sample size, and implications for future research.
Impact of Stress Inoculation on Performance Efficacy Linked to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
Utilizing a sample of community-residing older adults, this pretest-posttest design evaluated the short term (approximately 1 week) impact on everyday functioning of Stress Inoculation (SI) training, a cognitive-behavioral intervention that is essentially a coping skills enhancement program. The targets of training were anxiety and concern about being able to successfully perform everyday living tasks. The training program was contrasted with a no contact (waiting list) control. In an effort to maximize the practical aspects of this study, the assessment battery included the use of two ecologically valid measures of everyday problem solving skills (one self-rated and one interviewer-rated). Also included were a measure of everyday intelligence widely used in gerontological research, two measures of self-efficacy, a geriatric depression scale, a state-trait anxiety scale, and a self-report measure of failures in perception, memory, and motor function. The results suggest that Stress Inoculation training is an effective intervention for improving everyday competence but that personal perceptions of self-efficacy and the emotional states of anxiety and depression mediate treatment effects. In general, only persons with lower levels of self-efficacy and higher levels of anxiety and/or depression saw improvement in their cognitive performance following SI training.
Increasing Differentiation on Vocational Assessments among Gifted High School Students
Multipotentiality makes career counseling with gifted students difficult. High-flat vocational profiles give the impression that gifted students can develop a wide range of abilities to an equally high level. High-flat vocational profiles may be due to assessments that consider abilities and disregard interests and values, and ceiling effects from the use of age-appropriate, rather than cognitively-appropriate measures. Subjects included 170 gifted students from a residential, early college entrance program (M=15.9 yrs., SD=.361). Subjects completed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, Self-Directed Search, and Study of Values. McNemar's Test of Correlated Proportions shows the proportion of multipotential profiles decreases significantly when cognitively-appropriate measures of interests and values are considered, in addition to abilities. Pearson Chi-square shows no ethnic differences.
Influence of Current Parent-Child Relationships on Dating Motivations in Young Adulthood
The purpose of this study was to explore how supportive functions of parent-child relationships influence young adult dating motivations and involvement. Theoretical literature suggests that emotionally supportive homes provide a secure base for children to depend on as they explore themselves and other relationships. However, problematic family ties could be expected to inhibit relationship involvement due to negative past experiences or to encourage involvement as a search for intimacy. A sample of 206 single, female undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing relationships with parents and aspects of romantic involvement and development. The set of Parent-Child Relationship variables included Support, Conflict, Depth, and Affective Quality in relationships with mother and father. The Attachment Related Dating Motivation variables included measures of Anxiety, Dependency, and Closeness in relationships, Attachment Motivation, Sexual Expression, Dating Exploration, Behavioral Indicators of Romantic Involvement, Sexual Involvement, and Level, Satisfaction, and Importance of Romantic Involvement.
The Influence of Family and Cultural Values on the Career Development of Asian Americans
Factors influencing the career development of Asian Americans have included family influences, including parental expectations and parent-young adult relationship, and adherence to Asian cultural values. Variables such as interests and values have been shown to be important factors in the career-related decisions of western, European American culture individuals, although interests have been found to be less important for Asian Americans. Research suggests that parental expectations and adherence to traditional Asian values have more influence on career development among this population. Sandhu found in 2011 that parental expectations are highly linked with career choice of a specific Asian subgroup. The current study examined the relationship between parental expectations, acculturation, career values, adherence to Asian cultural values, the parent-young adult relationship, and career choice in the Asian American population. The values gap between the parents’ and young adults’ cultural values as well as the gap’s effects on the parent-child relationship were assessed. A sample of 173 self-identified Asian Americans aged 18 to 25 were recruited from across the US to complete an Internet survey consisting of demographic questions, career choice questions, a measure of acculturation, an assessment of career-related values, an assessment of adherence to Asian cultural values, and an assessment of the parent-young adult relationship. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the prestige of parents’ career expectations was a significant predictor of the prestige of young adults’ expected career choices. Although other family and process variables were not found to be significant predictors of young adults’ career choices, interesting correlations were noted among many of these variables.
The Influence of Family Functioning on Identity Formation: a Model of Late Adolescent Identity Development
The influence of theoretically prominent family processes on late adolescent college student identity development was the focus of this study. The primary purpose was to test a model of adolescent identity development. This model proposed that family health variables would predict identity development, and that attachment and separation-individuation would each make unique and additive contributions to identity development. The second purpose was to identify instruments which discretely measured the family processes. The third purpose was to better understand family influences by measuring the processes of exploration and commitment. Participants were 150 male and 150 female college students, between the ages of 18 and 23, and from intact families. Questionnaires completed measured family functioning and identity development. Family functioning measures covered three domains (family health, attachment to parents, and separation-individuation) which formed the set of independent variables. The identity measures (ego identity status and identity process) comprised the dependent variables. A hierarchical regression design was employed where family health variables were entered first, followed by attachment variables, then separation-individuation variables. The results indicated mixed support of the model. First, the proposed model was statistically supported for females as all domains predicted identity achievement and diffusion. For males, only family health predicted identity achievement, and only separation-individuation predicted identity diffusion. Other important findings were that the attachment and separation-individuation domains both assessed forms of connectedness, suggesting only one domain. Thus, the separation-individuation component of the model was not supported. Second, similarity of attitudes consistently predicted identity achievement, diffusion, exploration, and commitment. Third, despite the use of rigorous criteria to obtain discrete scales representative of the theoretical constructs, overlap was discovered within and across domains. The roles of similarity of attitudes between adolescent and parent, and the family environments associated with identity achievement, diffusion, exploration, and commitment are discussed. In addition, methodological and ...
The Influence of Hypnotic Susceptibility on Depth of Trance Using a Direct Induction and a Metaphorical Induction Technique
To test the hypothesis that a metaphorical technique would be more effective than a direct technique to induce hypnosis, 60 volunteers from students at North Texas State University were divided into high- and low-susceptible subjects by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. They were randomly assigned to direct and metaphorical induction groups and to a control group, with 10 high- and 10 low-susceptible subjects in each group. After hypnosis they completed the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth, and their mean scores were subjected to an analysis of variance and a Newman-Keuls test. Neither method of hypnotic induction was found more effective than the other, although both were effective when compared to a control group. It was also found that subjects who expected to be able to experience hypnosis were no more likely to be hypnotized than those who expected not to be able to experience hypnosis. Finally, it was found that low-susceptible subjects were as likely to respond to a post-hypnotic suggestion as high-susceptible subjects.
The Influence of Parental Conflict on Late Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Support
The question addressed in this study is whether either parent's conflict style affected the supportive quality of the parents' relationship with the son or daughter. It was important to explore variables that affect support because supportive relationships with parents have been related to adolescent adjustment. Past studies have suggested parental conflict has a negative impact on the parent-adolescent relationship. Research in the area of mediators of perceived support in the parent-adolescent relationships is limited. This study focused on perceived support in the specific relationship of the parent and adolescent. Qualitative measures of conflict were used since they have been more strongly related to changes in parent-adolescent relationships than quantitative measures. In this study the supportive quality of the parent-adolescent relationship was operationalized as a measure of parental support, depth of the parent-adolescent relationship, and conflict in the parent-adolescent relationship (Quality of Relationship Inventory).
The Influence of Separation, Attachment and Family Processes on the Career Exploratory Behavior of Late Adolescents
The purpose of this study was to examine the idea that a late adolescent's career exploration activities may be influenced by levels of attachment to and psychological separation from family, family health, and family structure. It was proposed that higher levels of self and environmental exploration would be associated with positive family relationships and adequate levels of psychological separation and attachment. Cognitive and demographic variables were included as control measures. Measures of family health, attachment, separation, family structure, career exploration, career decision making self efficacy, and beliefs in the usefulness of engaging in self and environmental exploration were administered to 304 undergraduates from intact families. Multiple regression analyses were employed to examine the contribution of the independent variables measuring family processes to the variability in the dependent variables of self and environmental exploration, after controlling for the variability associated with the control measures. The demographic variables were age, gender, class standing, and decision status about a major. Results indicated that the best predictors of career exploration in late adolescence were the cognitive variables. Beliefs in the usefulness of self exploration were the best predictor of self exploration, whereas career decision making self efficacy was the best predictor of environmental exploration. Measures of attachment and psychological separation were not substantially related to career exploration. A weak relationship between family structure and self exploration was found, however contrary to theoretical predictions, it suggested that problems in the parent child relationship may facilitate rather than inhibit this career development activity. Findings also suggested a relationship between variables of family processes and career decision making self efficacy. Future research might explore the idea that separation, attachment and family variables influence cognitive beliefs, which in turn effect career development. The demographic variables emerged as minimally important in predicting exploratory behavior. Results were discussed with regard ...
Influences of the Mother-Daughter Relationship on Motivations for Sexual Behavior
The influences of family relationship variables on motivations for adolescent sexual risk-taking were investigated. Previous research has linked these variables to adolescent sexual behavior, however, the nature of these links has not been specifically examined. Family variables were operationalized as child attachment to mother, parental support of each other, parental conflict strategies, and parental monitoring. Emotional motivations were operationalized as attachment and affiliation needs. The sample consisted of 40 single females ages 18 to22 recruited from a local pregnancy care center. Predictions that parent-child relationship and parental influence would predict emotional motivations for sexual risk-taking were not supported. The variable most highly related to sexual risk-taking, though not included in the model tested, was father's destructive conflict strategies. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed.
The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults
Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between each of the older samples, but also that such connections were weaker among younger adults. These findings are important in revealing that sociocultural shifts in opportunities for continued cognitive growth influence the impact of noncognitive (personality) factors on intellectual functioning in later life. Limitations of the current study, implications of the results, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide
An exploratory study was conducted examining Internet usage among African-American college students. The study examined both psychosocial correlates, including technological anxiety and racial identity as well as socioeconomic measures, as they impacted Internet usage. Additionally, three distinct measures of Internet usage, thin access, thick access and the Internet Connectedness Index (ICI), were used as criterion variables in three separate multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results of the study found differences in predictive validity based on the criterion variable used, with the ICI accounting for the greatest amount of variance (54%). Racial identity, in terms of internal beliefs and feelings about being African American and internalization of Afrocentric values in a political context were found to be predictive of Internet usage as measured by the ICI.
Interpersonal Reactions to Bereaved Parents: An Exploration of Attachment and Interpersonal Theories
The experiment examined negative social reactions to bereaved parents from unrelated others. Both the behavior displayed by the parent and attachment style of the perceiver were expected to influence reactions to bereaved parents. Undergraduates at a southern university (N = 239) completed both attachment measures and measures of reactions to videotapes of bereaved parents. Results indicated that bereaved parents do indeed receive negative evaluations from unrelated others, in the form of decreased willingness to interact in various roles. However, a nonbereaved parent displaying depressive symptoms also received negative evaluations. Depressed targets in the present study did receive negative evaluations, supporting the predictions of Coyne's interpersonal-process theory of reactions to depressed individuals. Contrary to the predictions of interpersonal-process theory, a bereaved parent displaying loss content without depressive symptoms also elicited negative evaluations. Coyne's hypothesis that the amount of induced negative affect in the perceiver leads to negative evaluations was not supported by the data. Subjects appear to react to a complex set of factors when forming these evaluations, including both personal and situational information. Two factors may have undermined the present study s ability to adequately test this theory. Subjects may have perceived depressive symptoms in loss content in the present study. Further, subjects may not have identified with the parent in the present study as anticipated. Research is necessary to identify the amount and focus of subjects' identifications with depressed and bereaved targets. Only minor support was found for the prediction that attachment style would be related to reactions to bereaved parents. Continuous measures of attachment style were related to amount of induced negative affect. However, grouping subjects by attachment patterns was not related to either induced negative affect or evaluations. The present study and previous research suggest the possibility that conceptually attachment may contain several components which relate to ...
Intuitive Eating in Adolescents: Testing a Psychosocial Model
Intuitive eating is defined as an adaptive eating process that involves focusing on internal hunger and satiety to guide eating behavior, using those physiological cues rather than emotions to determine when to eat, and choosing what to eat based upon preference and not external rules and expectations. The purpose of this study was to examine intuitive eating within the context of contemporary sociocultural models of eating in 701 early adolescent boys and 769 early adolescent girls. Support was found for the model and suggested that pressures to lose weight or gain muscle, restrictive messages about food from caregivers, and internalization of the thin ideal were related to the early adolescents’ intuitive eating behaviors, suggesting that many of the sociocultural variables that have been found to impact disordered eating are salient for understanding healthy eating behaviors. However, the relations among many of the variables, as well as the model’s ability to explain intuitive eating overall, were stronger in girls than in boys. These findings can be used to help parents and schools begin to teach early adolescents about intuitive eating and how they can resist external pressures that may negatively influence their eating behaviors.
An Investigation of Black Stepmother Stress
Much research conducted on stepmothers has not been racially representative. This includes Janice Nadler's (1976) research on three psychological stresses (anxiety, depression, and anger) of stepmotherhood. To investigate the stress of black stepmotherhood, this study replicated a portion of Nadler's investigation on a black sample. It was hypothesized that 1) black stepmothers would report more stress than black natural mothers; and that 2) black stepmothers would report more stress than the white stepmothers in Nadler's study. The data indicated no significant difference in the levels of stress experienced by black stepmothers and black natural mothers. Overall, white stepmothers reported more stress than black stepmothers. The former may be attributable to black stepmothers and natural mothers having the same support system, the black extended family.
Keep Calm and Play On: The Effects of Grit, Mindfulness, and Goal Orientation on Sport Anxiety and Performance
Achievement motivation theory suggests there are two primary approaches to achievement tasks: to appear competent or to develop a skill. These two different approaches to performance yield different affective and behavioral responses. Athletes holding a performance goal orientation tend to respond to challenges with behaviors exemplifying learned helplessness and increased anxiety. Athletes holding a mastery goal orientation tend to respond to challenges with greater effort and experience less sport-related anxiety. Individual athlete factors, such as grit, mindfulness, and achievement orientation may influence how athletes experience their environment and their levels of sport anxiety, and may interact with athletes' achievement motives to influence performance. I used hierarchical multiple regressions to test the main effects of feedback and mindfulness, and feedback and goal orientation, to determine if either mindfulness or goal orientation moderated the effects of feedback on performance. I also used simple regression to determine the relative predictive strength of mindfulness, grit, and goal orientation on athletes' experience of sport anxiety. Mindfulness, but not goal orientation, was a significant moderator of the feedback-shooting performance relationship, but particularly for athletes low in mindfulness; mastery-goal orientation, independently of feedback, was also a significant predictor of task performance. Mindfulness also emerged as the strongest predictor of reduced sport anxiety. These results suggest that, for athletes low in mindfulness, mastery-involving feedback may be especially helpful. Further, mindfulness may also reduce athlete's sport-related concentration disruption, worry, and somatic anxiety.
Life History and Psychometric Personality Factors Differentiating Prisoners Convicted of Violent and Nonviolent Crimes
In this study violent and nonviolent prisoners were differentiated on the basis of life history and psychometric variables. Life history data were collected from institutional files and from a biographical questionnaire. Psychometric procedures consisted of the Mini-Mult Prisoner Questionnaire and the Bender-Gestalt. In summary, the variables included in the discriminant function suggest that the violent subjects were more psychopathological than the nonviolent subjects. The violent subjects evidenced behavioral problems at a young age in appropriately expressing anger. They appeared to have limited behavioral repertoires in attaining their desires outside the immediate gratification through aggressive means. They were also more emotionally alienated and less socially skilled. The violent subjects received more negative feedback during childhood and were incarcerated at a younger age, They were more overtly hostile and also more lacking in cognitive ego mastery. In contrast, the nonviolent subjects apparently learned during childhood to repress their anger to a greater extent. They also seemed to modulate their anger by withdrawing from direct interpersonal conflict.
Locus of Control and Adjustment to Retirement
Locus of desired control and participation in a retirement preparation program was investigated in relation to retirement attitudes and adjustment. Fifty-nine subjects, consisting of older workers and retirees from a large southwestern corporation, comprised the sample. An experimental group, consisting of 12 subjects, completed questionnaires prior to and following their participation in the retirement preparation program. A control group, consisting of 15 subjects, completed the same questionnaires at approximately the same times as did the experimental group, but did not receive retirement preparation. A third group, consisting of 20 retirees who had a previous retirement preparation experience and 12 retirees who had not had such a retirement preparation experience, completed similar questionnaires.
The Long-Term Effects of Bereavement: A Longitudinal Study
The purpose of the present study was to examine the applicability of a model of bereavement to the long-term adjustment to loss. Based on Allen's (1990) model, it was predicted that the variables experienced competence, perceived resources, and the impact of the loss would contribute strongly to overall long-term bereavement adjustment. It was also predicted that time and multiple losses would impact adjustment to loss.
Longitudinal Evaluation of a Child/Adolescent Psychiatric Program
Children and adolescent psychiatric inpatients (n = 25) versus staff (n = 35) milieu perceptions were measured with the Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) Form K (Kids). The perceptions were compared with previous data collected in 1981, 1982, and 1984 on the same unit. The 1993 staff and patients continued to perceive the unit as a therapeutic environment despite recent restrictions on length of stay due to health care reform. The views of the staff and patients were found to be divergent but less so than in previous years. Additionally, the more seriously ill a patient was determined to be, the more negatively he or she perceived the environment. Differences in perceptions between day shift versus night shift and administrative versus non-administrative staff were also found and discussed. Staff perceptions versus their ideal conceptions were also investigated and compared with those of the 1984 staff. The 1994 staff was found to more closely approximate their ideals than the 1984 staff.
"Man Up!": Exploring Intersections of Sport Participation, Masculinity, Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Attitudes
Contemporary masculinity research has focused on the ways in which socialized masculine ideologies influence, especially negatively, the lives of men. Adherence to traditional masculine norms has been inversely associated with psychological help-seeking yet positively related to psychological distress and substance use. Though sport has been conceptualized as an environment in which masculine ideologies (e.g., emphasis on competition) are learned and reinforced, few studies have quantitatively explored how, or if, masculinity differs in athletes and nonathletes. Using a sample of male collegiate athletes (n = 220) and nonathletes (n =205), this study explored: (a) differences in masculinity between athletes and nonathletes; (b) relations between masculinity and psychological/behavioral outcomes (e.g., depression, substance abuse) in athletes and nonathletes; and (c) the mediational role of self-stigma in the relation between masculinity and help-seeking in athletes and nonathletes. Athletes endorsed greater conformity to masculine norms (CMN) and experienced greater gender role conflict (GRC) than nonathlete peers. Masculinity variables also predicted depressive symptomology and alcohol use in both groups, though accounted for greater variance in nonathletes. Furthermore, self-stigma mediated the relationship between CMN and help-seeking intentions for both athlete and nonathlete men. Clinical implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are discussed. Using a sample of male collegiate athletes (n = 220) and nonathletes (n = 205), this study explored: (a) differences in masculinity between athletes and nonathletes; (b) relations between masculinity and psychological/behavioral outcomes (e.g., depression, substance abuse) in athletes and nonathletes; and (c) the mediational role of self-stigma in the relation between masculinity and help-seeking in athletes and nonathletes. Athletes endorsed greater conformity to masculine norms (CMN) and experienced greater gender role conflict (GRC) than nonathlete peers. Masculinity variables also predicted depressive symptomology and alcohol use in both groups, though accounted for greater variance in nonathletes. Furthermore, self-stigma mediated the relationship ...
Marital satisfaction among newly married couples: Associations with religiosity and romantic attachment style.
The marriage and family literature has identified a host of factors that contribute to a satisfactory marital union. For example, research on religious congruency has indicated that the more similar partners are in their religious beliefs the higher their reported marital satisfaction. Another construct studied in conjunction with marital satisfaction is adult attachment style. The attachment literature has consistently shown that secure couples tend to report higher marital satisfaction than couples with at least one insecure partner. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined role of religious commitment and attachment in marital satisfaction. Heterosexual couples (N = 184; 92 husbands, 92 wives) without children and married 1-5 years were administered a background information questionnaire, the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results indicated that couples with congruent religious commitment reported higher marital satisfaction than couples with large discrepancies in religious commitment. Religious commitment did not mediate the relationship between attachment and marital satisfaction, but instead was found to moderate this relationship. Results of this study will benefit clinicians working in the field to help newly married couples negotiate the marital relationship.
Masculine Gender Role Conflict: Effects on College Men's Scores of Psychological Well-Being, Chemical Substance Usage, and Attitudes toward Help-Seeking
This purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gender Role Conflict upon college men's scores of psychological well-being, substance usage, and attitudes toward psychological help-seeking. It was found that the Success, Power, and Competition variable of Gender Role Conflict was the one variable that was consistently related to the measures of interest. Moreover, it was found to be significantly related to a decrease in psychological well-being, including Trait Anger, Angry Reaction subtype of trait anger, Angry Temperament subtype of trait anger, and Trait Anxiety. It was also found that this same variable was significantly related to increased reports of alcohol usage. Where as four of the possible five Gender Role Conflict variables were related to a negative attitude toward help-seeking, the Success, Power, and Competition variable was most heavily weighted.
Meaning in Life and Psychological Wellness among Latino Immigrants: Role of Attachment, Belongingness, and Hope
Guided by attachment theory and principles of positive psychology, a conceptual model was developed depicting the direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity, state hope, belongingness, and meaning in life on wellness indicators (i.e., life satisfaction, physical health, and depression) of first generation Latino immigrants in the U.S. Specifically, the present study proposed that the effects of attachment insecurity on Latino immigrants' wellness would be mediated by two tiers of factors. The first tier consisted of state hope (i.e., general state hope, spiritual state hope, mastery state hope) and sense of belonging (i.e., general belongingness; connectedness with mainstream/ethnic community), which represented individual-level and relational factors, respectively, salient in Latino culture. Greater attachment insecurity was hypothesized to contribute to a compromised MIL and poorer wellness by decreasing state hope and sense of belongingness. A total of 352 first-generation Latino immigrants from Texas participated in this study. The exploratory factor analysis on the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale revealed a two-factor factor structure that is different from the two factors of adult attachment typically found with American samples (i.e., anxiety and avoidance). The emerged two factors represent anxious-distancing attachment and comfort-seeking attachment. Results from structural equation modeling analysis showed adequate model fit with the data. The final model indicated that the effects of comfort-seeking attachment on wellness were fully mediated by two layers of mediators (belongingness and state hope as the first layer and meaning in life as the second layer). In addition, the effect of anxious-distancing attachment on wellness was fully mediated by belongingness and meaning in life but not through state hope. Bootstrap methods were used to assess the significance magnitude of these indirect effects. Comfort-seeking attachment explained 13% of the variance in state hope and both attachment variables explained 36% of the variance in sense of belongingness. Anxious-distancing attachment, ...
Measuring Male Body Dissatisfaction: Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men
Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of health risk behaviors (e.g., eating disorders, muscle dysmorphia) and psychological distress in men, the ability to measure it accurately is essential. Across two studies, the psychometric properties and factor structure of a new measure of male body satisfaction were established. The Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men (BPSS-M) was found to have three scores: full body muscularity and leanness (18 items), upper body (12 items), and legs (4 items). All three scores were internally and temporally reliable, and support was found for the convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the scores. The BPSS-M represents an advance in the measurement of male body image, providing researchers and clinicians with a versatile and valid way to assess this important construct.
Media Effects on the Body Shape Ideal and Bulimic Symptomatology in Males
This study investigates the impact of sociocultural mediators in relation to eating disorders among male undergraduates. Literature on eating disorders has demonstrated that a thin body shape ideal depicted in the media directly contributes to eating pathology among females, but little research has investigated the direct effects of ideal body shape images among men. The focus of the present investigation was to assess the direct effects of exposure to the ideal male body shape on men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction, and endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. In addition, the relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. Modeling a study conducted on women (Stice & Shaw, 1994), male undergraduates between the ages of 18 to 25 participated in premeasure (N = 169) and post measure (N = 95) conditions. Participants in the post measure were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either male models depicting the ideal body shape, an average body or pictures of clothing without models. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated that exposure to the ideal body shape condition did not demonstrate significant negative changes in men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction or endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses which demonstrated that increased body mass, self esteem, stress and anxiety predicted bulimic symptomatology in men. Future research should direct itself toward investigating possible sociocultural influences of eating disorders on certain male subenvironments, such as athletes or homosexual males that place a greater emphasis on maintaining lower body mass and an ideal body shape.