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Factors Influencing Psychological Empowerment of Nurse Aides in Nursing Homes

Description: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of psychological empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Five structural factors (information exchange, decentralization of resources, co-worker support, supervisor support, and availability of training) and four control factors (age, sex, level of education, and race) are analyzed using multivariate linear regression to examine their effects on psychological empowerment. Two of the five structural factors, decentralization of resources and supervisor support, are shown to positively influence psychological empowerment. Nursing home managers can consider developing and implementing procedures that decentralize resources and demonstrate supervisor support in order to increase psychological empowerment. Based on the findings of this study theory and practice might benefit from additional study of decentralization of resources and supervisor support.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Steinberg, Jonathan J.

Factors That Affect College Students' Attitudes Toward Interracial Dating

Description: This study was designed to examine the attitudes of undergraduate students toward interracial dating. The study examined the influence of race, gender, and previous interracial dating experience on interracial dating attitudes. The independent variable of racial identity salience was also examined. A final sample consisted of 389 students, recruited from first year political science classes at the University of North Texas. An 11- item self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results indicated that race and previous interracial dating experience was associated with college students' attitudes. A weak association was also found between greater racial identity salience and less positive interracial dating attitudes. Future research should further examine racial identity salience and its role in partner selection.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Gafford, Farrah D.

Family and Peer Effects upon Adolescent Chemical Use and Abstinence

Description: Using questionnaire survey generated data from a single school district, this study investigated the effects of family factors, peer factors, school problem behaviors, and psychosocial factors on adolescents' use of or abstinence from alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs. Following a review of literature, a theoretical framework incorporating family socialization theory was use to operationalize variables, develop indices, and generate hypotheses to be tested, as well as develop a general model of adolescent alcohol and other drug use and abstinence, incorporating the predictor variables. Using SPSSx procedures, factor analysis was used to develop the indices; the hypotheses were tested using Oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and F-ratio tests associated with regression analysis. The path analysis models were developed using multiple regression analysis and bivariate decomposition tables. For both junior high school students and high school students, users of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs were found to score higher on the Family Factors index, the Peer Factors index, School Problems index, and the Psychosocial Factors index. The model differed between alcohol and marijuana users, defining the conditions under which an adolescent is more likely to use or abstain from marijuana. While both family and peer factors effected the adolescents' choices of use or abstinence, the strongest predictor of use/abstinence was the peer use and attitudes factor. Family factors tended to be stronger in the younger age/grade levels than in the higher age/grade levels, as predicted from the theoretical framework.
Date: August 1989
Creator: McBroom, James Randy, 1951-

Family Background and Structure of High Academic Achievers

Description: This study examines the influence of family background and structure on academic achievement. The research focuses on the 11th- and 12th-grade population in the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) at the University of North Texas, Denton. The study examines the variables in family background and family structure that contribute to the students' high academic achievement. Twelve hypotheses related to parents, home environment, family structure and interaction, family roles, and family values are proposed. The multivariate analysis shows that the variables being read to, reading independently, fathers' education, mothers' education, and ethnicity are significant in impacting academic achievement. The study underlines the fact that multiple factors in family structure and background have an influence on academic achievement.
Date: May 1997
Creator: McDaniel, Linda Marie

The Family Characteristics of the Aged White, Negro, and Spanish American

Description: The purpose of this study is a descriptive one concerning some facets of the family setting with emphasis directed to several general questions. What is the basic family structure, i.e., what family characteristics (type of family or subfamily and the relationship to the head of the family or subfamily) characterize the aged? What is the level of family income of the aged? Finally, how do answers to these questions vary with respect to the three basic social traits of race, age, and sex?
Date: December 1970
Creator: Hawkins, Helen McGriff

Family Perception of Quality in Nursing Home Care: Impact of Gender, Level of Involvement, and Utilization of Empowered CNA Teams

Description: As the United States' baby boom generation ages, the future of nursing home care becomes increasingly important. Through this study the researcher seeks to understand quality in nursing home care from the family's perspective. Surveys were collected at one North Texas nursing home, and data were analyzed to determine how gender and level of family involvement impact their concept of quality. Further, the information in this study is aimed at clarifying if interventions, specifically empowered CNA teams, have an impact on how family members view quality. Findings are identified and recommendations for future study are made.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Lansmon-Winter, Erin

Family Rituals and Deviant Behavior

Description: Many researchers have sought to identify the antecedents of deviant behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore whether family rituals might contribute to social control, and thereby reduce deviant behavior. Walter Reckless' containment theory provided the theoretical framework for the study. This theory suggests that both inner and outer containment variables control social behavior. It was proposed that meaningful family rituals would contribute to the development of inner and outer containment, and therefore, reduce the number of deviant behaviors committed by the respondents. In this study, the inner containment variable was self-esteem, and the outer containment variables were participation in conforming activities with family members both inside and outside the home, and participation in extracurricular activities. Two hundred and seven incarcerated respondents and 217 college students responded to three survey instruments, the Family Rituals Questionnaire, the Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory, and a Family Information Inventory. Findings indicated that the college students reported experiencing more meaningful family rituals than the incarcerated respondents. Results indicate that the two groups differed significantly on all of the major variables. However, meaningful family rituals had little association with self-esteem, and self-esteem had no relationship with deviant behavior. Meaningful family rituals did account for some variation in participation in conforming activities with family members inside and outside the home and for participation in extracurricular activities. However, the variables that were most significant for explaining deviant behavior were the risk factors of age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, neighborhood crime, and parents's deviance. Future research should explore the role of risk factors in explaining deviant behavior and study the role of meaningful family rituals and the role they might play in creating a qualitative difference in family life.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Roberts, Joanne

Family Structure and Marijuana Use Among Adolescents

Description: Family structure as a predictive variable of juvenile delinquency has been studied for the last hundred years. This relationship originated due to societal belief that divorce was detrimental to adolescents. Due to the changing societal roles in the United States, family structure has been changing. More children are growing up in non-intact families, such as single-parent households, households with stepparents, cohabitating families, and households without a parent present. To study the effect family structure has on juvenile delinquency, researchers have utilized social control theory, differential association, self-control theory and general strain theory to conceptualize variables to explain why family structure influences delinquent behavior. A review of previous literature on this topic indicates that living in intact households, which are households with two biological parents who are married, have, on average, the lowest rates of delinquency. This thesis investigates the relationship between family structure and lifetime marijuana use among eighth and tenth grade adolescents in the United States through the use of secondary data analysis of Monitoring the Future Study, 2012. The results provide support for the relationship between family structure and lifetime marijuana use.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Aguilar, Jamie M.

Fathers' and mothers' childcare ideas and paternal childcare participation.

Description: The relationship between fathers' and mothers' gender-role ideas and fathers' level of participation in general housework has been well documented. Data from a study in 1998 were used to explore specific aspects of this relationship. In particular, fathers' and mothers' genderrole ideas with regard to childcare (childcare ideas) was examined to see whether these ideas influence paternal childcare participation. Specifically, what impact they had on performance of childcare tasks and the time fathers spent with their children. The responses of 38 couples (76 individuals) were analyzed. No statistically significant relationships were found between the variables. The distribution of the data suggests that even though most fathers claimed to have nontraditional childcare ideas, most mothers still performed the great majority of childcare tasks.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Fletcher, Ryan G.

Female Adolescents and Death: a Qualitative Analysis

Description: The purpose of this research design is to explore the meaning of death for the female adolescent. A qualitative design was used as the method of research. Twelve participants were selected from a snowball sample ten females and two males. Four participants reported witnessing the death of an individual, five reported a moderated death experience in which they were not present but were told after the fact and three reported no significant experience with death. The study indicated relationships and cause of death as among the pre-conditions towards meaning development for the adolescent female. The two main themes derived from the pre-conditions are an understanding of the inevitability of death for themselves and the experience of death as qualia. Consequences to the experience of death include increased emotional tolerance under stress and a perceived increased maturity suggesting resilience in the adolescent female following a loss. Future areas of research are also addressed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Jackson, Wendy L.

Female Sexual Victimization: Psychosocial Consequences

Description: This archival and qualitative research adds insight into the psychosocial consequences females of sexual victimization incur. Sexual abuse is a pervasive, complex societal problem experienced by 30%-46% of American females. The psychosocial consequences are numerous, often severe, and can result in death. They include: anxiety, BPD, denial, dependence, despair, eating disorders, destructive relationships, fear, guilt, hallucinations, helplessness, hopelessness, hysteria, insecurity, isolation, MPD, nightmares, numbness, passivity, pessimism, phobias, PTSD, rage, self-loathing, sexual dysfunctions, shame, shock, sleeping disorders, stigmatization, stress-related disorders, substance abuse, and suicide. The severity of psychosocial consequences to female victims varies greatly depending upon the degree, duration, and emotion surrounding the abuse, the victim's health, and the health of the victim's social network. In conclusion, strategies suggested in the literature to combat female sexual victimization are outlined.
Date: December 1993
Creator: O'Shea, Sharon

Four Types of Day Care and their Effects on the Well-Being of Children

Description: Data gathered from Tyler, Texas, the University of North Texas, and the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) were used to compare children from commercial, home, church, and university based day care with children not attending day care. The research group, comprised of children attending day care (N=142), were located using non-probability sampling; those not in day care (the control group) came from the NSFH (N=1775). Data from the research group were weighted to match the control group. The independent and control variables included the child's age, length of time in day care, intellectual functioning; the parent's marital status and social class; the day care's staff to child ratio and the staff's training. All data, except that pertaining to the facility itself, were gathered from the children's parents using a self-report questionnaire. The remaining data were gathered through personal interview by the researcher. The dependent variable was an index of emotional and behavioral problems reported for the child. Overall, children who attended day care had only slightly more problems reported than those who did had not attended day care. When each center was examined separately, the children in home centers had the greatest number of problems, followed by the commercial centers and university center, with children from the church centers scoring the lowest. In contrast to earlier research, intellectual functioning was not enhanced by the day care experience. While the staff's training had a statistically significant relationship to the children's well-being, no relationship was found for the staff to child ratio. Further research on the impact of other characteristics of each type of day care is recommended.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Davis, David C. (David Carlton)

The Function of Social Structure in Controlling Violent Crime in Turkey

Description: This dissertation examines the relationship between social structural factors and violent crime rates in Turkey. The relationship between social structural characteristics and violent crime is worth exploring in areas that have attracted little academic attention, such as violent crime in Turkey. In order to understand and prevent the occurrence of crime, researchers have long investigated possible factors related to crime. Examining how crime varies across different regions can help us to understand underlying reasons for violent crime, which is considered one of the enduring problems in society. The findings of this research, to some extent, support the assumptions of social disorganization theory regarding the distribution of violent crime. Both the findings of multivariate and bivariate analysis indicated that poverty, unemployment, and family disruptions may have a positive effect on the distribution of violent crime in the cities of Turkey. The analysis of the effects of the social structure variables through the mediating variables, such as religious institutions, libraries and voluntary associations on the number of violent crimes and violent criminals, to some extent, support the tenets of social disorganization theory. However, all mediating variables cannot mediate all the indirect effects of social structural covariates. In brief, none of their indirect impacts on the social structural variables on the outcome variable was significant via mediating variables.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Guclu, Idris

Gender and Earnings: Examining the Earnings Gap Between Men and Women Across Metropolitan Labor Markets

Description: The earnings gap between men and women, an apt indicator of women's status relative to men's, was roughly constant for the thirty-five years between 1950 and 1985. During this period women earned about 60 to 65 cents for every dollar earned by men. The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of this wage gap. Because much existing research suggests that a large portion of the gender gap in pay results from the segregation of women into low-paying jobs, the present study focuses on the role of gender segregation in the workplace. Other potential contributors to the earnings gap are also examined (women's domestic obligations, educational attainment, women's labor force participation rates, and the industrial mix in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas). The position of women as a group in the labor market is of primary interest in this research. Accordingly, the analysis was conducted on an aggregate level across labor markets. The data were drawn from the Bureau of the Census Census of the Population: 1980—Detailed Population Characteristics. The project uses a cross-sectional research design, the primary statistical technique used being multiple regression analysis. Findings reveal that workplace segregation and the industrial characteristics of SMSA labor markets have the strongest effect on the size of the gender-based earnings gap. Specifically, workplace segregation is positively related to the size of the earnings gap between men and women. The presence of above average levels of manufacturing activity in an SMSA is associated with a larger earnings gap while the presence of above average levels of service sector and government employment opportunities in an SMSA is associated with smaller earnings differentials between men and women. This study enhances the understanding of the effects of structural variables on the earnings determination process for men and women and provides insight into the collective ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Dunn, Dana

Gender and Juvenile Case Processing: A Look at Texas

Description: This dissertation examines the role gender plays in predicting referral beyond juvenile court intake. Using referral data from Texas for 1999-2003, multinomial logistic regression is used to examine case processing decisions. Males were found to be more likely than females to be processed beyond intake for both status and delinquent offenses. Legal variables were found to influence processing decisions for delinquent offenses more than non-legal variables. In contrast, non-legal variables were found to influence processing decisions more than legal variables for status offenses. Finally, overall, minority females were not found to be more likely to be processed beyond intake than white females. Further research is needed to determine if the same finding is true for males.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Johnson, Dustin Paul

Geographic Distance, Contact, and Family Perceptions of Quality Nursing Home Care

Description: The effect of frequency of nursing home contact on family perceptions of quality care is the focus of this research. A family member characteristic, such as geographic distance from the nursing home, affects his or her frequency of contact with the nursing home. Frequency of contact, in turn, affects family perceptions of the care his or her loved one receives in the nursing home. The theoretical framework for this study is based on Allport's intergroup contact theory, which posits that when four contact conditions - institutional support, equal status, common goals, and intergroup cooperation - are present in an intergroup situation, a reduction in anxiety between groups is likely to occur. Regression analysis tested the stated hypotheses using survey data collected from 275 family members of residents in 10 Dallas-Ft. Worth area nursing homes. This study is among the first to quantify family geographic distance, finding that family geographic distance is a significant negative predictor of nursing home contact. Additionally, results build on Allport's theory by extending its' usefulness to nursing home organizations in two distinct ways. First, findings support Allport's premise that contact alone between groups - i.e., family members and nursing home staff - is insufficient for increasing or decreasing family perceptions of nursing home care. Second, three of the four contact conditions included in Allport's theory were statistically supported by the data. In sum, findings of this research provide nursing homes with an empirically tested model for improving family perceptions of quality nursing home care.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Dillman, Jennifer L

"God, Race and Nation": the Ideology of the Modern Ku Klux Klan

Description: This research explores the ideology of the modern Ku Klux Klan movement in American society. The foci of study is on specific Ku Klux Klan organizations that are active today. These groups include: The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan; The New Knights of the Ku Klux Klan; The New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and The Knights of the White Kamellia. These groups are examined using frame analysis. Frame analysis allowed for the identification of the individual organization's beliefs, goals and desires. Data were gathered via systematic observations and document analysis. Findings identified several overarching ideological themes which classify the modern Ku Klux Klan movement.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Paul, John Michael, 1975-

"God will get me through": African American women coping with breast cancer and implications for support groups.

Description: This research examines the coping processes of African American women with breast cancer and how those processes relate to low usage of cancer support groups by these women. Prior coping research has utilized predominantly White samples. The limited research on African American coping responses is conflicting and characterized by small samples and non-probability sampling techniques. In this study, 26 respondents from Central and North Texas metropolitan areas were interviewed, including 9 key informants, 9 African American breast cancer survivors, and 8 White survivors. The data suggest that African American and White women cope with breast cancer in significantly different ways. Culture appears to account for the differences. All African American breast cancer survivors identified faith as their primary coping strategy. In contrast, only half of the White survivors claimed faith as their primary coping strategy, but like the other White survivors, tended to rely on multiple coping strategies. The African American survivors conceptualized God as an active member of their support network. Most prayed for healing, and several attributed examples of healing to God's intervention. The White survivors found God's presence in the actions of other people. They prayed for strength, peace, and courage to endure the illness. The use of faith as a coping strategy was the most significant difference between the African American and White breast cancer survivors, but different social support needs were also evident. White survivors readily disclosed the details of their illness and actively sought the assistance of other people. African American women were much less likely to discuss their illness with other persons and expressed a greater inclination to rely on themselves. This study indicates that cancer support groups must be structured to consider cultural coping differences for wider African American usage. Coping research conducted on primarily African American samples is necessary to develop ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: McCoy, Brenda G.

The "Good" Mother: Ideology, Identity, and Performance

Description: The purpose of this study is to understand the power and influence of the institution of motherhood and how it is shaped by culture. More specifically this research explores the ideology that shapes our understanding of the good mother in the contemporary United States; how this ideology affects the way mothers view their identity; and how both the ideology and identity shape actions and performance. Twenty women were interviewed in North Texas and the results were: first, this group of mothers recognizes the ideology of the good mother, but does not accept all components of this ideology; next, the identity of mother is the primary identity for most of these women; and, last, performance is most greatly influenced by socio-economic status and the support system that mothers have in place.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Vigil, Jennifer M.

Grandparent Satisfaction and Family Structure: a Descriptive Study of Multigenerational Families in Denton County, Texas

Description: This descriptive study of 45 multi-generational families contributes empirical knowledge about grandparent-grandchild relationships. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 74 subjects who were part of a randomly selected sample taken from a tax roll of homeowners over age 65 in Denton County, Texas. The responses provide information which expands the existing data base in the area of grandparenting. The study pinpoints areas in the grandparenting literature which need refinement and contributes data to those areas, rather than producing a set of conclusions. Areas as yet undocumented or inadequately documented in the literature are identified as the following: (a) family structural composition; (b) grandparents' personal characteristics; (c) selected aspects of grandparent-grandchild contact; and (d) satisfaction with the grandparent role. Data for these areas should help reveal factors having an impact on grandparent-grandchild relationships. A base for further investigation in these areas is established, and data are also analyzed to determine satisfaction or lack of satisfaction with grandparenting. The seventy-four subjects, from 45 households, included 44 grandmothers and 30 grandfathers. The number of generations per family was used as the base to report the findings. The study substantiates other research on grandparenting, particularly in the area of timing of grand-parenthood. Data collected in this study support the view that the grandparent's chronological age and the time in his or her life cycle when grandchildren appear (role entry), religious affiliation, lineage, and frequency of contact all contribute to satisfaction with the role of grandparent. Almost all of the respondents described themselves as satisfied grandparents and indicated their pride in and pleasure derived from their grandchildren. A strong relationship between satisfaction and any one variable studied is not identified. The major contribution of the study lies in the descriptive detail and in ruling out any one characteristic as "the one variable" that really ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Hettinger, Barbara J. (Barbara Jane)

Health Care Among Low-income, White, Working-age Males in a Safety Net Health Care Network: Access and Utilization Patterns

Description: This study seeks to provide information relevant to public policy that will lead to increased access and utilization among this vulnerable population and to reinforce the validity of the behavioral model for vulnerable populations. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a study that examined adult, working-aged patients within the John Peter Smith Health Network, which is a large, urban, tax supported county health care system in Fort Worth, Texas. From a sampling frame of 10,000 patients, the study analyzed data for 243 low-income, white, working-age males, collected from computer assisted telephone interviews in 2000. Cross-tabulations and bivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the effect of 8 independent variables (age, marital status, insurance, employment status, a usual source of care, competing needs, experiences with paperwork, and perceived health status upon 5 dependent variables pertaining to unmet health care, unmet prescription medicine needs, unmet dental needs, utilization of doctors in emergency departments, and overnight hospital stays. The results show the safety net system is failing to meet the needs of this vulnerable population. The findings indicate white men who found it necessary to forgo health care due to other needs were almost five (4.973) times as likely as those who did not find it necessary to forgo care due to other needs, to report having a problem getting the health care that they need (p = ≤ .001). The odds of having a problem getting needed dental care are about 66% lower for white men who have private insurance through work compared to those who do not have private insurance through work (p ≤ .05).
Date: August 2006
Creator: Whitworth, Keith Hugh

Health-related Quality of Life and Social Engagement in Assisted Living Facilities

Description: This research project aims to clarify the factors that impact successful aging in Assisted Living facilities (ALFs) in Denton County, Texas. We hypothesize that social disengagement decreases physical and mental components of quality of life. This exploratory research project employed standardized questionnaires to assess residents in the following domains; HRQOL, social engagement status, level of cognition, depression, and the level of functioning. This study collected data from 75 participants living in five ALFs. The average of Physical Component Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Scale (MCS) was 35.33, and 53.62 respectively. None of the participants had five or more social contacts out of facilities, and two-third of them had two or less social contacts. On average, those participants who were more socially engaged had higher score of MCS compared with disengaged counterparts. The level of physical function significantly affects social engagement, when people with more disabilities are more likely to be socially disengaged. Social engagement and depression significantly impact MCS, when depression is a mediating factor between social engagement and mental component of quality of life. Considering the expansion in aging population in the United States within the next three decades, the demand for high quality long-term care will skyrocket consequently. This study reveals that external social engagement can sustain HRQOL of residents in assisted living facilities.
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Date: August 2015
Creator: Amini, Reza

Health Status and Access Disparities Among the Uninsured Working-Age Population in a Safety-Net Healthcare Network in Tarrant County, Texas

Description: The objective of this research was to determine if healthcare access disparities exist across race and gender in a publically funded safety-net healthcare system in Texas. Data were examined from a representative random sample of 1468 adults aged 18-64 who were patients in this safety-net system in July and August of 2000 and were analyzed using binary logistic regression and chi-square measures of significance. Major Findings: On measures of health status - overall health rating (p =.051), limited employment (p =.000), energy level (p =.001), and worry (p =.012) - Anglos reported the worst health; Mexican Americans, the best health; with African Americans intermediate. Mexican Americans were more likely to have never had health insurance, and to also have had insurance in the past year; Anglos were least likely to have ever had insurance (p =.015) or to have had insurance in the past year (p =.000). On use of EDs (p =.028), problems getting prescription medicines (p =.029), and foregoing other necessities of life to pay for healthcare, Mexican Americans were least disadvantaged with African Americans reporting greatest use of EDs among both men and women, and Anglos the most problems with prescription medicines and foregoing care, especially among women. Logistic regression revealed that health status was the strongest predictor of problems accessing healthcare in all groups; the poorer health status of safety-net patients, the more problems they had accessing care. Patterns of poor reported health status and greater problems accessing care among Anglos relative to other groups is discussed in terms of social drift and relative deprivation.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Queen, Courtney M.