UNT Libraries - 64 Matching Results

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Coaching Efficacy Beliefs and Transformational Leadership Behaviors: Their Ability to Predict Motivational Climate

Description: This study investigated the relationship between belief in coaching abilities (coaching efficacy beliefs, CEB), transformational leadership behaviors (TLB), and motivational climate development of current strength and conditioning coaches working with high school level athletes. The measures used were the coaching efficacy scale for high school teams (CES II-HST, Myers et al.,2000), the differentiated transformational leadership inventory (DTLI, Callow et al., 2009), and the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000). It was hypothesized that CEB and TLB would influence motivational climate development, while coaches' background characteristics would correlate with CEB, TLB, and motivational climate development. The 60 coaches who participated reported an average of thirteen (SD=8) years of experience and 51 were Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialists. Coaches reported high efficacy, frequent use of TLB, and development of a moderately high task- and somewhat ego-involving motivational climate. Correlations between demographic variables and CEB, TLB, and motivational climate development revealed three significant relationships: years of experience with CEB, and professional development activities and athlete to coach ratio with ego-involving climate development. CEB and TLB had a strong positive correlation. Two regression analyses were conducted to determine if the outcomes of the CEB and TLB measures predicted motivational climate development. The only significant predictor was TLB positively predicting development of a task-involving motivational climate. Strength coaches can utilize the findings of this study help shape their leadership behaviors and develop a task-involving motivational climate that emphasizes effort, improvement, and cooperative learning and is optimal for athlete development and performance.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Runge, Michael J

College Students' Attitudes toward Pregnancy and Women in the Work Force

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess college students' attitudes toward pregnancy and women in the work force following the passage of the Family Medical Leave Act of 1993. Data were obtained from 347 students at a university in North Texas during the spring semester of 1997. Gender, age, employment status, parental status, and citizenship were independent variables hypothesized to influence attitudes toward pregnant working women. Gender was significant for the following factors: pregnant women as employees (p<.001), emotional stereotypes (p<.001), choosing family or career (p<.001), and physical limitations (p<.001). Those students 17-19-years-old had a more negative attitude toward pregnant women choosing work over family (p<.001) than did the older students.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Coolidge, Amy (Amy Lewis)

The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of self-reported historical walking, running, and jogging (WRJ) activity. The criterion measure was concurrent performance on a maximal treadmill test. Subjects completed a medical exam and treadmill test between the years 1976 and 1985, and completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1986. Questionnaire included an item that assessed WRJ for each year from 1976 through 1985. Data analysis included Spearman correlations, partial correlations, ANOVA, and ANCOVA. Results indicated self-reported historical WRJ can be assessed with reasonable validity when compared with concurrently measured treadmill performance, and there is no decay in the accuracy of this reporting for up to ten years in the past.
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Date: May 2002
Creator: Bowles, Heather R.

The Development and Validation of the College Student Attitude Toward Female Victims of Domestic Violence (CSAVDV) Scale

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the College Student Attitude Toward Female Victims of Domestic Violence Scale. Procedures used were a 12-day test-retest for reliability, experts assessment for face validity, and a principal component factor analysis for construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for test-retest reliability was .86.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Wilson, Leanne S. (Leanne Sue)

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)

Does Downhill Running Alter Monocyte Susceptibility to Apoptosis?

Description: Introduction/purpose: Recovery from muscle damage involves a type of programmed cell death known as apoptosis. Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are released after muscle damage and may cause premature apoptosis in monocytes infiltrating the damaged site. This may alter the time course of events towards recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate if downhill running causes a change in the susceptibility of monocytes to apoptosis. Methods: Participants (5 male, 6 female) completed a downhill running protocol consisting of 6-5 minute bouts at a speed of 6-9mph on a -15% grade treadmill. Venous blood samples were collected immediately pre-exercise (PRE), in addition to 4 -h, 24 -h and 48 -h post-exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to give an indication of muscle damage. Monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of multicaspase and annexin v reagent was used to detect changes in the plasma membrane. A MILLIPLEX MAP human early apoptosis magnetic bead 7-plex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) was used to assess the relative concentration of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), Bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), active caspase-8, active caspase-9, c jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and tumor protein p53 by Luminex multiplex assay. Results: CK peaked at 24- h. Monocytes showed greater expression of multicaspase at 24 –h and 48 -h than at PRE. Bcl-2, p53 and caspase-8 were all significantly greater at 24 –h than at PRE. Conclusion: Downhill running did alter the apoptotic response of monocytes and therefore may be important in the recovery process from muscle damage.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Pennel, Kathryn Ann Foster

Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Resistance Training on the Skeletal Muscle Androgen Receptor Concentration of Rats

Description: The purpose was to examine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on the androgen receptor content (AR) in skeletal muscle, and to determine if this effect was influenced by resistance training. Thirty-four male rats (456 ± 1 g; mean ± SE) were divided into 4 groups: Sham exercise-Ethanol, Sham exercise-Normal diet, Exercise-Ethanol, and Exercise-Normal diet. Both Exercise groups underwent a 6-week "squat" resistance training protocol and both Ethanol groups received an alcohol-rich diet throughout the 6-week period. Western blot analysis showed no effect of alcohol or resistance training on the AR of the extensor digitorum longus. For the rectus femoris, alcohol caused a decline in the AR (p=0.01). This reduction was not attenuated by resistance training. The AR of the soleus was not affected by chronic alcohol abuse alone; however, the resistance training induced increase in the AR was prevented by chronic alcohol abuse (p=0.03).
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Date: August 2004
Creator: Vingren, Jakob L.

The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Updyke, Rhonda S.

The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain

Description: There has been an interest in the kinetics of the V02 response during exercise at various intensities. However, most studies focus on the response of submaximal intensities whereas few studies have examined V02 kinetics at severe intensities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise intensity on V02 kinetics over a range of severe intensities.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Williams, Christine Suzanne

The Effect of Steroid Dose Regimen on the Relationship Between Lower Extremity Muscle Function and Cardiac Function in Post Heart Transplant Patients

Description: Differences in cardiovascular/aerobic function in heart transplant patients might be attributed to the rate of corticosteroid withdrawal and/or to skeletal muscle function. This hypothesis was tested among nine male, cardiac transplant recipients. Prednisone dosage was monitored, and isokinetic strength testing was performed at 4 different time periods throughout the first year post-transplantation. Cardiovascular/aerobic measurements were obtained at the fourth time period. Pre-surgery characteristics were obtained from the patient's medical record. Significant Pearson-product moment correlations were only found between muscle function and aerobic function and between pre-surgery characteristics and cardiovascular/aerobic performance. The results of this study show no evidence that rapid reduction of prednisone dosage enhances aerobic function by benefiting skeletal muscle function.
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Galatas, Mary V.

The Effects of a College Human Sexuality Course on Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

Description: Using an experimental-comparison group design, data were collected at the beginning and end of a semester to assess the effect of a human sexuality course on students' sexual knowledge, sexual attitude, and sexual behaviors. Data analysis by t-tests showed statistical differences between the experimental and comparison group only on sexual knowledge scores ( p < .001), with the experimental group scoring higher. T-tests showed statistical difference between males and females in sexual attitude (p< .001) and sexual behavior (p< .001) with women scoring higher than men in the experimental group, and also when experimental and control groups were combined. Although not statistically significant, women scored higher in sexual knowledge than males.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Smith, Jolene A.

The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

Description: This experiment attempted to study the effectiveness of biofeedback training on an individual's peak performance while performing a stress-provoking task. In a between subjects design 30 individual college students were divided into 2 groups. One group received auditory biofeedback and relaxation training, and the other group received no training. Both groups met the researcher for 1 hour a week for seven weeks. During each session the participant completed a ten-minute Competition and Coaction (C & C) computer software program (Shea, 1992). The biofeedback equipment recorded the physiological state of each of the participants while he/she performed the C & C task. Both groups' physiological values and C & C scores were compared using the SPSS software. The biofeedback group had statistically lower stress values than the non-biofeedback group (Schwartz, 1995). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups' C & C scores. The STAI Y-1 and Y-2 anxiety inventories were given to each of the participants at the 1st and 7th session to examine the anxiety differences between the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups' STAI scores. This study's findings show that individuals can be taught to lower their stress response while performing a computer task.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Bruce, Kurt

Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Books, Gregory D. (Gregory Douglas)

The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self Talk on the Attentional Focus of High School Distance Runners.

Description: The purposes of this study were to examine the (a) attentional focus strategies used by high school distance runners, (b) changes in attentional focus across four laps in three 1.6 km runs, and (c) effects of a pre-performance intervention using motivational and instructional self talk on the attentional focus strategies used by and performance of high school distance runners. Participants (N = 42) completed a background and demographic questionnaire, the Cross Country Attentional Focus Inventory (CCAFI), a motivational and instructional statement survey, and the Self-Motivation Inventory. A series of oneway ANOVAs revealed significant differences in the types of attentional strategies used by each group, as well as fluctuations in use of strategies. The experimental group associated more during the each of the 1.6 km trials, whereas the control group dissociated more throughout each trial. A significant group by week interaction was found, with the experimental group maintaining their performance and the control group slowing from week one to week three.
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Date: May 2005
Creator: Burgess, Amber G.

Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation

Description: The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Prentice, Ray (Grant Ray)

The Effects of Project PACE on Adolescent Females' Physical Activity Readiness

Description: This study evaluated the effects of Project PACE, a program designed to increase physical activity, on the physical activity level and selected psychosocial variables of sedentary adolescent females ages 12 to 18. Psychosocial variables included self efficacy, attitude, perception of barriers, perceived social support, and knowledge. Of the 69 participants, 40 were enrolled in the treatment group and 29 were enrolled in the control group at the start of the study. The only significant differences were found for attitudes towards physical activity at base line. Findings from this study suggest that implementation of Project PACE protocol in school settings may produce some positive effects, but no significant findings were detected.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Williams, Christy Nicole

Effects of Strength on Selected Psychomotor Performances of Healthy and Frail Elderly Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and psychomotor performance measures in healthy (n = 18) and frail (n = 21) groups of elderly women utilizing movements requiring various amounts of strength and ballistic action. Subjects were community-dwelling females ranging in age from 66-92 years. Evaluations of functional assessment of motor skills and grip strength occurred. Psychomotor performance was measured through production of aiming movements on a Digitizing Tablet. RT, MT, and movement kinematics (e.g., peak velocity, deceleration, movement adjustments) were evaluated. Differences between groups were apparent in quantity and quality of movement. Healthy subjects were stronger and faster than frail subjects, producing smoother movements with fewer adjustments. Strength appears to differentially affect healthy and frail samples and merits further exploration.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Meyer, Rhonda D. (Rhonda Dawn)

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason

Ethnic Identity, Gay Identity and Sexual Sensation Seeking: HIV Risk-taking Predictors Among Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men

Description: This study examined relationships among ethnic identity, gay identity, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV risk-taking behaviors among 302 men of color recruited from gay bars, bathhouses, community agencies, and the 1998 United States Conference on AIDS. The sample included 24% African American, 28% Latino, 25% Asian/ Pacific Islander, 19% Caucasian, 1% American Indian, and 3% other ethnicity. Logistic regression analysis identified sexual sensation seeking, having an undefined gay identity, being in a sexually exclusive relationship, not being HIV seronegative, and length of stay in the country (for those born overseas) as significant predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (insertive and penetrative) among men of color who have sex with men.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Géliga-Vargas, Jesús A.

Evaluating the Pulse Sensor as a Low-Cost and Portable Measurement of Blood Pulse Waveform

Description: This study was aimed at determining whether the digital volume pulse waveform using the Pulse Sensor can be used to extract features related to arterial compliance. The Pulse Sensor, a low-cost photoplethysmograph, measures green light reflection in the finger and generates output, which is indicative of blood flow and can be read by the low-cost Arduino UNO™. The Pulse Sensor code was modified to increase the sampling frequency and to capture the data in a file, which is subsequently used for waveform analysis using programs written in the R system. Waveforms were obtained using the Pulse Sensor during two 30-s periods of seated rest, in each of 44 participants, who were between the ages of 20 and 80 years. For each cardiac cycle, the first four derivatives of the waveform were calculated and low-pass filtered by convolution before every differentiation step. The program was written to extract 19 features from the pulse waveform and its derivatives. These features were selected from those that have been reported to relate to the physiopathology of hemodynamics. Results indicate that subtle features of the pulse waveform can be calculated from the fourth derivative. Feature misidentification occurred in cases of saturation or low voltage and resulted in outliers; therefore, trimmed means of the features were calculated by automatically discarding the outliers. There was a high efficiency of extraction for most features. Significant relationships were found between several of the features and age, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, suggesting that these features might be employed to predict arterial compliance. Further improvements in experimental design could lead to a more detailed evaluation of the Pulse Sensor with respect to its capability to predict factors related to arterial compliance.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Smithers, Breana Gray

Event Order in the Biathlon Does Not Have an Effect on Metabolic Response

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of event order on a cycling(C)/running(R) or R/C biathlon. Eight experienced male biathlete/triathletes with a mean age of 24.9 + 4.6 yr formed the sample of the study. Results show no significant interaction effects on oxygen consumption peak, oxygen consumption during steady-state, ventilation, and heart rate when C/R or R/C are performed at 70% oxygen consumption peak for subsequent R and C respectively. These results seem to indicate that the biathlete/triathlete is efficient in both C and R to the extent that event order does not significantly interact with metabolic response in submaximal cycling and running.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Ledbetter, John C.

Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.

Description: This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Peterson, Ryan J.

Factors related to cycling performance

Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Naukkarinen, Vesa

Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Stout, Joel T.