UNT Libraries - 23,300 Matching Results

Search Results

Effectiveness of Child-centered Play Therapy and Person-centered Teacher Consultation on ADHD Behavioral Problems of Elementary School Children: a Single Case Design.

Description: I examined the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for elementary school children identified with clinical or borderline levels of ADHD behaviors on the Teacher Report Form and the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale Revised - Short Form. Additionally, I examined the impact of CCPT and PCTC on the levels of parenting and teaching stress. Due to the current trend to determine interventions that are evidence-based through between-group or single case designs, for this study, I utilized a single case design experiment for which the behaviors of five children were examined. Trained observers utilized the Direct Observation Form in observations of all five students three times per week. Additionally, parents and teachers completed behavioral rating scales and stress inventories at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. To prevent biased observational ratings, observers were blind to the assignment of the five children. Three students participated in 24 sessions of twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of CCPT, and these students' teachers participated in six sessions of once-weekly 10-minute PCTC. Two students participated in twice-weekly 30-minute sessions of reading mentoring, after which they participated in 14 sessions of CCPT. Visual analysis of the data indicated mixed results. Three students demonstrated substantial improvement in the observed ADHD behaviors within the classroom. Results of the parent and teacher assessment data were inconsistent, but did indicate behavior change for some children and a reduction in teaching stress for one teacher. Parenting stress appeared unaffected. Implications for future research regarding the use of single case design, the measurement of student behavior change, and issues of comorbidity are indicated.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Schottelkorb, April A.

Effectiveness of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Japanese Children in the United States

Description: This study explored the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) as a culturally responsive intervention and a prevention treatment method for the psychosocial well-being of Japanese children in the United States. In light of the demand for the evidence-based therapeutic treatment for children as well as the need to conduct multicultural research without ignoring within-group differences, this study was composed of two research methodologies; quantitative research design and individual analysis. Single-group repeated measures ANOVA was utilized for the group analysis and linear regression was employed for individual analysis in addition to qualitative data obtained through parent feedback and the researcher's observation of play therapy sessions. The participating children received a total of eight CCPT sessions. The impact of CCPT was measured by a decrease in a child's behavioral problems perceived by a parent measured by scores of the Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Total Problems on the Child Behavioral Checklist and a reduction of parent-child relationship stress manifested in the Child Domain, Parent Domain and Total Stress Score of the Parenting Stress Index. Data from a total of the four assessment points; the baseline, pretest, second assessment, and third assessment, was gathered for use in the analysis. A total of 16 children were recruited from the Japanese School of Dallas for participation in this study. However, some children did not complete the entire set of 8 play therapy sessions, and as a consequence, neither were all assessments completed by their parents. Therefore, data from 10 children, age ranging from 4 to 9, were utilized for the statistical analysis. The results of the analysis did not reveal any statistical significance. However, large and medium effect sizes were obtained on all the six aforementioned subscales during the treatment period. Individual analysis provided further information on possible environmental, developmental, and cultural factors that ...
Date: December 2006
Creator: Ogawa, Yumiko

The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction and its Relationship to Selected Learning Style Elements

Description: The problem was to assess the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in reading and math and to determine the relationship between achievement using CAI and selected learning style elements. Learning style elements were limited to motivation, learning alone or with peers, auditory, visual, tactual, and kinesthetic perceptions. The Learning Style Inventory provided learning style data and The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills measured achievement. Both tests were administered in the classroom. Three hundred (300) fourth-grade students in six suburban schools were divided into experimental and control groups. The treatment was CAI in reading or mathematics for fifteen minutes per day and regular instruction. The nonequivalent control group design allowed for testing and treatment conditions for intact groups. Pre- and post-test achievement measures were administered to all subjects. An analysis of covariance was computed for the achievement measures. A correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between achievement and each learning style element. The Manova multiple regression procedure was used to determine which combination of selected learning style elements could predict achievement. The pre-test and time on task were used as covariates to control for initial differences between groups. The findings were: (1) the experimental groups gained significantly higher scores (.05 level) than the control groups in math achievement; (2) the control groups made significantly more reading gain (.05 level) than the experimental groups; (3) there was no significant relationship between achievement and selected learning style elements; (4) there was no significant relationship between any combination of selected learning style elements and achievement.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Williams, Gladys L. (Gladys Lucille)

The Effectiveness of Denton State School's Developmental Evaluation Form in Evaluating an Operant Training Program for Severely Retarded Boys

Description: The problem of this study was to evaluate Denton State School's Developmental Evaluation Form as it is now being used in their operant conditioning techniques in certain basic self-help areas, and to suggest a more effective and informative method of scoring the Evaluation Form. The present method of scoring this evaluation form requires that -all items at each developmental level be passed in order to receive credit for that level. No partial credit is given at any level. This method of scoring yields a developmental level at which. the individual is functioning. It does not, however, point out the total overall development of the individual. The present type of basal developmental scoring is not as discriminating as far as picturing an individual's total development as the one which will be suggested.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Graham, Malcolm J.

Effectiveness of Filial/Play Therapy Training on High School Students' Empathic Behavior with Young Children

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a filial/play therapy training model with high school juniors and seniors enrolled in a Peer Assistance and Leadership program (PALs). Filial/play therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing adult-child relationships. The high students are trained to be a therapeutic change agent for primary school children identified as having adjustment difficulties by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions with young children. Specifically, this study is designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in increasing: 1) the high school students' observed empathic behavior with young children, 2) the high school students' observed attitude of acceptance toward young children, 3) the high school students' observed ability to allow self-direction in young children, and 4) the high school students' observed level of involvement with young children. The experimental group, consisting of 16 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit, received a total of 24 weeks of filial/play therapy didactic training, application, and supervision for the playtimes they conducted with pre-kindergarten/kindergarten students identified with adjustment difficulties. The comparison group consisted of 15 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit. The comparison group received the standard PALs class curriculum. All students were videotaped playing with a young child 4 to 6 years of age before and after the training as a means of measuring empathic behavior with young children. An Analysis of Covariance revealed statistically significant findings in all four hypotheses. Specifically, the experimental group of high school students exhibited statistically significant increases in empathic interactions with young children when compared to the comparison group. The experimental group also exhibited statistically significant increases in communication of acceptance of young children's feelings and behaviors, acceptance and behavioral willingness ...
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Jones, Leslie D.

Effectiveness of Fillers for Corrosion Protection of AISI-SAE 1018 Steel in Sea Salt Solution

Description: Corrosion represents the single most frequent cause for product replacement or loss of product functionality with a 5% coat to the industrial revenue generation of any country in this dissertation the efficacy of using filled coatings as a protection coating are investigated. Fillers disrupt the polymer-substrate coating interfacial area and lead to poor adhesion. Conflicting benefits of increasing surface hardness and corrosion with long term durability through loss of adhesion to the substrate are investigated. The effects of filler type, filler concentration and exposure to harsh environments such as supercritical carbon dioxide on salt water corrosion are systematically investigated. The constants maintained in the design of experiments were the substrate, AISI-SAE 1018 steel substrate, and the corrosive fluid synthetic sea salt solution (4.2 wt%) and the polymer, Bismaleimide (BMI). Adhesion strength through pull-off, lap shear and shear peel tests were determined. Corrosion using Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted. Vickers hardness was used to determine mechanical strength of the coatings. SEM and optical microscopy were used to examine dispersion and coating integrity. A comparison of fillers such as alumina, silica, hexagonal boron nitride, and organophilic montmorillonite clay (OMMT) at different concentrations revealed OMMT to be most effective with the least decrease in adhesion from filler-substrate contact. Subsequently examining filler concentration, a 3 wt% OMMT was found to be most effective. A comparison of unmodified and modified BMI with 3 wt% OMMT exposed and not exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide showed that the BMI provided better corrosion protection; however, OMMT provided better wear, shear, and hardness performance.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Al-Shenawa, Amaal Abdallah Ali

Effectiveness Of Group Activity Play Therapy On Internalizing And Externalizing Behavior Problems Of Preadolescent Orphans In Uganda

Description: This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children.s village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants ethnicity was African and included an equal number of females and males. Participants were randomly assigned to GAPT (n = 30) or reading mentoring (RM; n = 30), which served as an active control. Preadolescents in both treatment groups participated in an average of 16 sessions, twice weekly with each session lasting 50 minutes. Sessions were held in the school located within the village complex. A two (group) by two (repeated measures) split plot ANOVA was used to analyze the data. According to teacher reports using the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and housemother reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children receiving the GAPT intervention demonstrated statistically significant decreases (p < .025) in internalizing behaviors (TRF: p < .001; CBCL: p < .001 ) and externalizing behaviors (TRF: p = .006; CBCL: p < .001) from pretest to posttest compared to children who received RM. The GAPT intervention demonstrated a large treatment effect on reducing orphaned childrenÆs internalizing problems (TRF: ?p2= .213; CBCL: ?p2 = . 244) and a moderate to large treatment effect on reducing externalizing problems (TRF: ?p2= .121; CBCL: ?p2 = .217). The statistical, practical, and clinical significance of the findings provided strong, preliminary support for using GAPT as a developmentally and culturally responsive school-based intervention for troubled Ugandan orphans.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Ojiambo, Deborah

Effectiveness of Group Supervision Versus Combined Group and Individual Supervision with Masters-Level Counselor Trainees

Description: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of large group supervision, small group supervision, and combined group and individual supervision on counselor trainees. Specifically, instruments were used to measure the progress in counselor efficacy and counselor development. Analyses of Covariance revealed that all supervision formats produced similar progress in counselor effectiveness and counselor development. Large group supervision, small group supervision, and combined group and individual supervision appear to be equivalent in their effectiveness.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Ray, Dee C. (Deanne Castleberry)

The Effectiveness of Homeschool Collegiate Preparation: Four Alumni's Perceptions

Description: This qualitative study seeks to assess the effectiveness of homeschool collegiate preparation through the eyes of homeschool alumni. Four alumni who are current college students participated in the study. A triangulation of methods, which included surveys, open-ended questionnaires, and interviews, ensured reliability and validity. Although the students represented a wide range of varied homeschool experiences, the perceptions of all the students were that their environments prepared them for collegiate-level work at levels that are above average.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Bryant,Cynthia T.

The Effectiveness of Hybrid Problem-Based Learning versus Manual-Based Learning in the Microbiology Laboratory

Description: Promising results from the use of problem-based learning (PBL) as a teaching method in medical programs have encouraged many institutions to incorporate PBL into their curricula. This study investigates how applying hybrid-PBL (H-PBL) in a microbiology laboratory impacts students' higher-order thinking as compared to applying a lecture-based pedagogy. The experimental design compared the learning outcomes of two groups of students: the control group and the H-PBL group, for whom PBL cases comprised 30% of the curriculum. Both groups were taught basic skills for the microbiology lab by the same instructor. Using the traditional teaching style for the control group, the instructor offered each student what they needed for their experiments. The H-PBL group practiced experimental design, data analysis, theory proposal, and created research questions by using six study cases that were closely linked to the area of study. The outcome was measured using a pre- and post- assessment consisting of 24 questions that was designed by following Bloom's taxonomy of learning levels. A one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results showed that for the first three levels of Bloom's taxonomy— knowledge, comprehension, and application—there were no statistically significant differences between the H-PBL and control group gain scores as determined by a one-way ANOVA. For the knowledge level, f (1, 78) = .232, and p = .632; for the comprehension level, f (1, 78) = .004, and p = .951; and for the application level f (1, 78) =. 028, and p =.863. On the other hand, the gain scores for the three higher levels—analysis, evaluation, and creativity—improved for the H-PBL group. The analysis level showed statistically significant differences, with f (1, 78) = 4.012, and p = .049. Also, there were statistically significant differences in students' performance at the evaluation level, with f (1, 78) = 11.495, ...
Date: May 2017
Creator: Alharbi, Najwa

The Effectiveness of Institutionalization of a Curricular Change in Department of Defense Dependents' Schools

Description: In this study factors which affect the degree of implementation of a curricular change were examined to determine how well a specific curricular change was implemented in relation to the original intent. The change, Developmentally Appropriate Practice, was implemented in Department of Defense Dependents Schools, Germany Region, beginning in school year 1991-1992 in grades kindergarten through two. During school year 1993-1994, grade three began the transition to Developmentally Appropriate Practice. Several factors which influence teacher behavior during the implementation process were investigated to determine if there is a correlation between those factors and degree of implementation, the dependent variable. The independent variables in this study were school culture; administrators' leadership effectiveness; teacher concerns about the implementation; and teacher characteristics including age, years teaching experience, years experience in Department of Defense Dependents' Schools, and training. The degree of implementation, the dependent variable, was defined in terms of the extent to which teachers had changed their behavior to become congruent with behavior required by the change. Teachers were identified as high, moderate, or low implementers, based on classroom observations. One purpose of the study was to increase understanding of implementation by analyzing the factors which affect the behavior of teachers in the change process. A second purpose of the study was to add to the body of research that explains why so many educational changes fail to become established practice. To establish interobserver reliability, two observers rated teachers using the same protocol. The interobserver reliability coefficient found was reported at .9820. The participants in the study completed the Stages of Concern Questionnaire, the Administrative Effectiveness Survey, the School Culture Survey, and a demographic survey. The results were correlated with the Early Childhood Classroom Observation form. Amount of training was found to have a statistically significant positive relationship with degree of implementation (p=.006). ...
Date: December 1995
Creator: Colvin, Janet D. (Janet Delores)

Effectiveness of microcounseling as a supervisory model for teaching interviewing skills

Description: This study dealt with the problem of training selected basic interviewing skills to beginning counselors. The purposes of this investigation were 1) to assess the effectiveness of microcounseling for training the skills of open-ended questioning and verbal minimal encouraging; 2) to assess the influence of microcounseling on counselor verbal participation; 3) to determine whether training in these skills via the microcounseling model will generalize to the actual counseling setting and be maintained over time; and, 4) to determine whether microcounseling is a practical method of teaching therapy skills to practicum students.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Arnold, Bill R.

Effectiveness of microcounseling procedures in the training of play therapists

Description: The thrust of this study was to adapt the microcounseling paradigm to the skills utilized in play therapy. The basic problem was to teach prepracticum master's level counseling students three skills necessary to successful play therapy: limit setting, reflection of behavior statements, and reflection of feeling statements.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Arnold, J. Steven

Effectiveness of on-line corpus research in L2 writing: Investigation of proficiency in English writing through independent error correction.

Description: Second language (L2) researchers and teachers have increasingly come to believe that using a computer-based corpus can be extremely helpful in the language classroom. The purpose of this study is to examine whether corpora can be used outside of the classroom in order for students to improve their essays independently. No previous study has tried to examine students' essays in relation to corpus use so that this study is exploratory. Seven international students wrote five essays on specific topics and then corrected their errors through corpus research. Two experiments were conducted with different students and followed three steps: receiving information about how to use the BYU COCA, writing and correcting, and interviews with students. I examined quantitatively the number and types of errors that students were able to correct in two experiments and reported qualitatively on students' interview responses.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Kim, Yu-Jeung

The Effectiveness of Peer Mentoring with High School Student Mentors and Child Mentees

Description: This randomized, controlled study examined the effectiveness of two mentoring programs, child mentor relationship training (CMRT) and peer assistance and leadership (PAL®), on high school mentor empathic behaviors and child mentee behavior problems. Participants were 60 young, at-risk students (61.7% male; 38.3% Hispanic/Latino/a, 31.7% Caucasian, 21.7% African American, 8.3% biracial) and 30 high school students (53.3% male; 66.7% Caucasian, 26.7% Hispanic/Latino/a, 0.03% African American, 0.03% Asian). Mentors and mentees were randomly assigned to CMRT or PAL®, which was treatment as usual in the participating school district. Results from 2 (group) by 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs indicated compared to the PAL® treatment group over time, mentors in the CMRT group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in empathic behaviors with a large treatment effect, as rated by independent observers. Analysis revealed a moderate treatment effect with CMRT group mentee behavior problems, but the difference was not statistically significant between treatment groups over time. Further analysis revealed the CMRT group demonstrated statistically significant reductions in behavior problems from pre- to post-test with a very large treatment effect. Overall, findings support CMRT as a promising school-based intervention for at-risk young children that potentially increases school counselor efficiency.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Dafoe, Eric C.

Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Problem Behaviors of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Subject Design

Description: A growing disparity between the mental health needs of children and their lack of treatment served as the basis of this study. To address this existent gap, I proposed that child-centered play therapy (CCPT), a holistic treatment that fosters children's emotional, developmental, and social growth would serve as a viable treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CCPT on problem behaviors among children identified with an intellectual disability. Specifically, a single case, A-B-A design (N = 2) was used to examine changes in participant's problem behaviors as measured on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) across conditions. Trained raters used the ABC to rate participant's problem behaviors 3 times per week during the course of this study. Participants completed 2 weeks of a no-intervention phase, 5 weeks of play therapy 3 times per week, and 2 weeks of a no-intervention maintenance phase. Additionally, participants were administered the Gesell Developmental Observation to assess their maturational age during the baseline and maintenance phases. Parents also completed the ABC during two intervals: baseline phase, and maintenance phase. Analysis of results indicated that problem behaviors decreased for both participants. Results from the percent of non-overlapping data (PND), an indice for effect size further revealed that play therapy was a very effective treatment for participants. Follow-up interviews suggested that play therapy is a viable intervention for children with intellectual disabilities and problem behaviors. Clinical observations and implications for future research are presented.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Swan, Karrie L.

Effectiveness of Programmed Vocabulary Instruction in an Undergraduate Collegiate Business Communications Course

Description: This study evaluates the effectiveness of programed vocabulary instruction in an undergraduate collegiate business communications course. In making its evaluation, the study tests the hypothesis that a class using such instruction would improve over a class without formal vocabulary study. The three areas of proficiency measured are written communication, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Burnett, Mary Joyce

Effectiveness of Relational Equine-Partnered Counseling (REPC) on Reduction of Symptoms of PTSD in Military Veterans: a Single Case Design

Description: There is currently a crisis in military veteran mental health care. At 5-30% of veterans receive a PTSD diagnosis. Veterans face a large gap that exists in accessing and receiving high quality care. One intervention that is becoming more popular is equine assisted counseling (EAC). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of Relational Equine-Partnered Counseling (REPC) in reducing symptoms of PTSD in military veterans. I also examined specific PTSD symptom clusters including intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. The present study utilized a single-case design consisting of a baseline phase, intervention phase, and post-intervention phase. Participants included four military veterans presenting for war zone-related PTSD: four males and one female, aged 32-67 years, two White/European non-Hispanic, one African American non-Hispanic, and one mixed ethnicity. Symptoms were assessed weekly using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5). The data were analyzed by visual analysis and statistical effect size. The results were mixed across the participants. All participants experienced decreased means between the baseline and intervention phases. However, interpretation of the results indicated that the intervention was effective in some areas for some of the participants. All participants reported that the intervention was beneficial in targeting specific symptoms. Overall, the results indicated that REPC may have some benefit in reducing distress related to PTSD. More research is needed to further explore the effectiveness of REPC on the reduction of PTSD-related distress.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Sheade, Hallie E.

The effectiveness of Say It Straight communications training with adults in outpatient chemical dependency treatment

Description: This study compared an experimental group who participated in weekly Say It Straight (SIS) sessions as an adjunct to existing treatment protocols for a period of 6-8 weeks, to a control group who matriculated in treatment without the addition of SIS training for a period of 6-8 weeks.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Hardy, Rebecca B. (Rebecca Biggerstaff)