UNT Libraries - 37 Matching Results

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Assessing the Effects of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on Zooplankton, Phytoplankton and Corbicula Flumina in a Constructed Wetland

Description: Wetland wastewater treatment offers low-cost, energy efficient alternatives to conventional wastewater technologies. In this study, an artificial wetland was constructed at the City of Denton, Texas Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant to facilitate diazinon removal from treated effluent.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Hymel, Stephanie Ramick

Characterization of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase and Dihydroorotase in Moraxella Catarrhalis

Description: Bacterial aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCase's) are divided into three classes that correspond to taxonomic relationships within the bacteria. The opportunistic pathogen Moraxeila catarrhalis has undergone several reclassifications based on traditional microbiological criteria. The previously uncharacterized ATCase from M. catarrhalis was purified to homogeneity and its chemical properties characterized. The ATCase from M. catarrhalis is a class C ATCase with an apparent molecular mass of 480-520 kDa. The M. catarrhalis ATCase is a dodecomer composed of six 35 kDa polypeptides and six 45 kDa polypeptides. The enzyme has an unusually high pH optimum of greater than pH 10. The enzyme exhibited hyperbolic kinetic with a Km for aspartate of 2 mM. A single, separate 78 kDa dihydroorotase from M. catarrhalis was identified and it was not associated with ATCase. These data support the reclassification of M. catarrhalis out of the Neisseriaceae family.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Fowler, Michael A. (Michael Allen), 1961-

Characterization of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas putida Using Mutant and Wild Type Strains

Description: The biosynthesis of pyrimidines in Pseudomonas putida was investigated. In this study, pyrimidine requiring mutants were isolated by conventional mutagenesis and enrichment. The strains required exogenously supplied pyrimidines for growth and were found by enzyme assays to be deficient for the product of the pyrB gene encoding the enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase. None of the intermediates of the pathway could supply the auxotrophic requirement of the strain; only preformed pyrimidines, metabolized via salvage pathways could suffice. Pyrimidine limitation in the mutant caused a slight but significant fifty per cent increase in expression of all the de novo biosynthetic enzymes. Pyrimidine starvation's effect on nucleotide pool levels was examined in the mutant and caused a marked swelling of the purine nucleotide pools.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Chang, Mingren

Comparative Feeding Ecology of Leaf Pack-Inhabiting Systellognathan Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in the Upper Little Missouri River, Arkansas

Description: The feeding ecologies of leaf pack-associated systellognathan stoneflies were examined from 6 June 1980 21 May 1981. Species composition, seasonal abundance, nymphal growth, feeding habits and mouthpart morphology were determined for the eight dominant stonefly species. Prey preferences and predator-prey size relationships were also examined for omnivorous and carnivorous species. Foregut analysis from 2860 individuals indicated opportunistic feeding on the most abundant prey insects, usually in proportion to prey frequency. Feeding preference studies generally indicated random feeding on major prey groups. Prey and predator sizes were usually highly correlated (p<0.01), with predators expanding their prey size thresholds with growth. The potential for competition between sympatric stoneflies for prey is discussed.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Feminella, Jack W. (Jack William)

Contemporary Biology Curriculum for Non-majors

Description: The proposed biology curriculum for non-majors has one main objective, namely to improve scientific literacy among college students. The National Science Education Standards defines scientific literacy as "the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity". The suggested strategies to accomplish this goal are to limit the number of topics covered, introduce relevant scientific terminology, emphasize general biological concepts and themes, and hone critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Activities such as group projects, written and oral assignments, and class discussions are effective tools to assess student ability to communicate scientifically. It is also important for students to make connections between the course subject matter and how it affects real life events.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Smallwood, Susan

Dielectric Properties of Azotobacter vinelandii in a Microwave Field

Description: A resonant frequency cavity was used to determine the dielectric properties of various preparations of Azotobacter vinelandii ATTC 12837. It was found that the bacteria investigated did interact with microwave radiation in the absence of free water. The data presented here indicate that bacteria demonstrate frequency specific dielectric properties. The techniques employed in these experiments may also be used to determine microwave spectra of other species of bacteria in different physiological stages.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Hargett, John M.

Effect of Calcium Channel Antagonists and Other Agents on Olfactory Reception

Description: The role of Ca++ in olfactory responses was investigated with inorganic and organic calcium channel antagonists. Electrophysiological responses to odorants were recorded from frog olfactory mucosa before and after aerosol application of different agents. Electroolfactogram responses were blocked by certain inorganic ions with the order of effectiveness Zn++ >Ln+++>Cd++>Ca++>Co++>Sr++>Mg++. Ba++ potentiated olfactory responses, and is known to potentiate calcium channel-mediated responses in other tissues. Certain local anesthetics which are thought to act through calcium channel blockade were inhibitory to olfactory responses, with the order of effectiveness being dibucaine>tetracaine>procaine. These data support the idea that Ca++ is involved in olfaction, perhaps acting as a current carrier and/or a second messenger. Preliminary experiments on channel localization were performed using a silicon-labeled amine. Attempts to localize the silicon label were inconclusive, although silicon was detected in the olfactory tissue.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Rosick, Edward R. (Edward Rudolph)

The Effect of Ethanol on Cardiac Activity and Brain Respiration in Chick Embryos

Description: This study concerned the effect of ethanol on cardiac activity and brain respiration in chick embryos. Ethanol dosages tested ranged from 1.0 mg to 4.0 mg/g weight. Each experiment lasted at least 150 minutes. Cardiac activity in terms of total waveform energies was integrated and printed out for plotting and analysis. The embryonic heart rates were simultaneously determined from physical graph tracings. The embryonic brain respiration was measured using a differential microrespirometer. The effect of ethanol on cardiac activity was one of slight (10 to 13), but statistically significant (p<.05) rate depression. The brain slices exhibited a marked, immediate, and irreversible decrease (39 to 89%) in oxygen consumption at both ethanol dosages. The data indicated that chick embryonic brain tissues were more susceptible to alcohol effects than cardiac tissue. Therefore, the mental abnormalities seen in the offspring of alcoholic mothers may be more cerebral in nature than cardiovascular.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Newman, James J.

Effects of Aging on ACTH-Stimulated Steroidogenesis in Subcellular Fractions from Rat Adrenal Glands

Description: Young, middle-aged and old rat adrenal gland steroidogenesis was measured in isolated, superfused glands and in their subcellular fractions before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In the latter experiment, five corticosteroids were extracted from six different subcellular fractions. Superfused glands initially produced relatively high glucocorticoid levels; thereafter, production decayed asymptotically. Steroidogenesis by young and middle-aged glands was maintained at least 1.5 to 2.5 hours before it decayed; old glands were 50% less active than younger ones and production decayed within one hour. High cholesterol and progesterone levels in certain old gland fractions were associated with correspondingly reduced 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. It is suggested that synthesis of these glucocorticoids from their accumulating precursors weakens with age.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sawada, Tadao

The Effects of Glyphosate Based Herbicides on Chick Embryo Development

Description: Glyphosate based herbicides are among the most widely used herbicides in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine developmental toxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the common herbicide Roundup, on developing chicken embryos. Few studies have examined toxic effects of glyphosate alone versus the full compound formulations of Roundup, which include adjuvants and surfactants. Adjutants and surfactants are added to aid in solubility and absorption of glyphosate. In this study chicken embryos were exposed at the air cell on embryonic day 6 to 19.8 or 9.9 mg / Kg egg mass of glyphosate in Roundup or glyphosate only. Chickens treated with 19.8 and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reduction in survivability compared to glyphosate alone treatments and controls. On embryonic day 18, embryos were sacrificed for evaluation of developmental toxicity using wet embryo mass, dry embryo mass, and yolk mass as indicators. Morphology measurements were taken on liver mass, heart mass, tibiotarsus length and beak length. Embryos treated with 19.8 mg / Kg glyphosate and 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup showed significant reductions in wet and dry embryo mass and yolk mass. Tibiotarsus length in 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments were significantly reduced compared to 9.9 mg / Kg glyphosate treatments. Beak length was significantly reduced in 9.9 mg /Kg glyphosate in Roundup treatments compared to all other groups.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Winnick, Blake Edward

Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent on Stream Primary Productivity in the Lower Sulphur River, Texas

Description: Responses of periphyton and phytoplankton productivity in the lower Sulphur River (Texas-Arkansas) to bleach-kraft mill effluent (BKME) were monitored using in situ ¹⁴C incubation. Carbon assimilation rates measured downstream of mill discharge were substantially reduced from upstream levels. Periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations remained relatively unchanged by the presence of BKME. Periphyton ash-free dry weight increased near the mill outfall, but decreased further downstream. Calculated productivity efficiencies (productivity:biomass) varied with variations in ¹⁴C rates. A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the effect of BKME light-attenuation on photosynthetic rates of upstream Sulphur River periphyton and Selenastrum capricornutum Prinz. Pooled results of bioassay runs indicated a 20 per cent BKME concentration effectively reduced control ¹⁴C-assimilation levels by 50 per cent. The downstream reduction observed for in situ productivity was 5 per cent lower than that predicted by the color bioassay.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Davis, Terrence Marvin

Effects of Water Source, Suspended Solids, and Acclimation on Biotransformation of 2 /4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid in Aquatic Systems

Description: In recent years there has been a great deal of scientific interest in processes that affect the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. one main reason for this increased interest is due to greater environmental concern over accidental or purposeful release of these chemicals into the environment by man. A major environmental concern is the increased use of pesticides over the last few years. In the thirty years prior to 1978 the use of pesticides has increased by a factor of forty (Ridgeway et al., 1978). Recently the use of herbicides has been increasing, but that of insecticides has stabilized (Willis, 1983). Detectable amounts of organic pesticides can be found in many areas of the biosphere. For toxic organic chemicals to be used safely, researchers must have a clear understanding of the fate and persistence of these chemicals when they are released into the environment. This understanding will also allow the development of new products that, when properly used, will not produce adverse effects to man or the environment (Weber, 1972). According to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) any new or expanded-use chemical that might be released into the environment must be tested for environmental hazard.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Moses, Christopher K. (Christopher Karam)

Emergence, Growth, Drift and Microdistribution of Stoneflies (Plecoptera) in an Ozark Foothills Stream, Delaware County

Description: Adult stonefly emergence, nymphal growth, drift and microdistribution were examined in Battle Branch, a secondorder, spring-fed stream, from November, 1982 to May, 1984. Adults of 22 species emerged successionally, with specific adults present every month. Searching emergent objects and the stream margin was best for collection of winter and early spring emerging species. Sweeping the streamside and light trapping were most efficient for late spring and summer emerging species. Nymphal growth for nine abundant species generally fit double log or semilog models. Drift was low, but did show a post-sunset pulse. Generally, leaf material was found to be significantly related (p<O.001) to density, diversity and biomass of stoneflies in Battle Branch.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Ernst, Mark R. (Mark Richard)

Evaluation of Sequential Events in Phagocytosis by Earthworm Coelomocytes as Potential Immunotoxicity Biomarkers

Description: This research evaluated the potential of activation and attachment, as sequential companion biomarkers of phagocytosis by earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, immunoactive coelomocytes for use in immunotoxicology. The potential was assessed by exposing earthworms to sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 and Arochlor 1254®, chemicals used as reference or standard immunotoxicants.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Murray, Stephanie Mae

Food Habits, Dietary Overlap and Electivity of Non-Game Insectivorous Fishes in an Ozark Foothills Stream

Description: Etheostoma spectabile, E. punctulatum, and Cottus carolinae were sampled Mar., 1983, - Feb., 1984, in Flint Creek, Oklahoma. Immature E. spectabile ate primarily microcrustaceans, while mature fishes relied more on mayflies and amphipods. Juvenile E. punctulatum fed upon mayflies, amphipods, and Asellus. Mature E. punctulatum ate primarily mayflies, and other relatively larger prey. Cottus carolinae consumed chironomids almost exclusively in Jan. - Feb., 1984, while mayflies were predominant the remainder of the year. No significant habitat partitioning between the two darters, and seasonal habitat segregation between C. carolinae and the two darters was found. Dietary overlap between the darters was significantly correlated (p<0.0005) to differences in x prey sizes.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Todd, C. Stan (Charles Stan)

Hooking Mortality of Largemouth Bass Caught on Controversial Artificial Lures and Live Bait : Lake Ray Roberts, Texas

Description: A total of 192 largemouth bass were caught at Lake Ray Roberts, Texas (1995) to investigate five controversial bass angling techniques relative to hooking mortality. The bait types were Texas-rigged scented and non-scented plastic worms, Carolina-rigged scented and non-scented plastic worms, and live golden shiners. Overall hooking mortality was 21.87% and mortality was dependent upon bait type. Highest mortality resulted from the Texas-rigged scented lures, while the lowest mortality was generated by live golden shiners. A creel survey indicated that few anglers were having success with the investigated baits. Factors that had a confirmed effect on hooking mortality were hooking location and water temperature. Hooking mortality was not excessive compared to other similar studies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Alumbaugh, Andrew E. (Andrew Edward)

In Vitro Cortical Networks for Disease Modeling and Drug Evaluation

Description: In translational research, disease models in preclinical studies are used as media for discovery of drugs or novel therapeutics. Development of in vitro models for various neurological diseases that enable efficient pharmacological or toxicological screening has been ongoing but challenging. Recognizing the potential benefit of in vitro disease models, dysfunctions in the cortical neuronal networks were induced to mimic the functional pathology of neurological symptoms using microelectrode arrays. Two different disease states – tinnitusand excitotoxicity – were investigated and discussed. In this model, pentylenetetrazol-induced increase in spontaneous firing rate and synchrony in the auditory cortical networks was used as correlate of tinnitus. Potential tinnitus treatment drugs from several different classes – including the novel class of potassium channel openers – were screened and quantified. The potentialtherapeutic values of these drugs were also discussed as the basis for drug repurposing. Functional excitotoxicity was induced by cisplatin (a cancer drug that causes neurological sideeffects) and glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter). As proof-of-principle that the model may contribute to expediting the development of therapeutics, cisplatin excitotoxicity wasprevented by the antioxidant D-methionine, while glutamate excitotoxicity was prevented by ceftriaxone (a modulator of a glutamate reuptake transporter). In the latter part of the study, with results linking two of the screened drugs L-carnitine and D-methionine to GABAA receptor activation, it was demonstrated that this model not only served as an efficient drug-screening platform, but can be utilized to functionally investigate the underlying mechanism of drugs. Inaddition, several practical or conceptual directions for future studies to improve on this in vitro disease model are suggested.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Wu, Calvin

In Vitro Studies of Nuclear Changes in Mammalian CNS Neurons Subjected to Rapid Acceleration Impact Injury

Description: An in vitro model of Rapid Acceleration Impact (RAI) Injury was used to study the effects of multiple impact (220 g/impact, 3-5 sec intervals) trauma on cultures of murine CNS cells. Investigations with spinal cord cultures showed that 1) multiple impacts delivered tangential to the plane of cell growth caused neuronal death (12% after 3 impacts to 46% after 10 impacts); 2) multiple impacts delivered normal to the plane of cell growth were much less effective (8% dead after 10 impacts); 3) most neuronal death occurred within 15 minutes after injury 4) morphological changes observed included increased nuclear prominence and somal swelling; and 5) pretreatment with ketamine (0.1mM) reduced cell death from 51 to 14% and reduced somal swelling. Identical studies performed on cortical cultures revealed minimal differences between the two tissues in their response to multiple tangential impacts.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Wolf, Amy

Influence of Acclimation and Acclimatization to Seasonal Temperatures on Metabolism and Energetics in the Rusty Lizard Sceloporus Olivaceus

Description: Rates and energy equivalents of consumption (C), egestion+ excretion (FU) , assimilation (A), respiration (R) and production (P) were measured in two groups of Sceloporus olivaceus: 1) a laboratory group acclimated at four seasonally encountered temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) ; and 2) four acclimatization groups collected at different seasons when ambient temperatures corresponded to 15, 20, 25 and 30°C.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Dutton, Ronald Hugh

The Life History of the Mayfly Isonychia sicca (Walsh) (Ephemeroptera--Siphlonuridae) in an Intermittent Stream in North Central Texas

Description: The life history of Isonychia sicca (Walsh) was elucidated from samples collected at Clear Creek from Oct. 1976-Jun. 1978, and Elm Fork of the Trinity River from Sept. 1977-Jun. 1978, Denton County, Texas. Adaptations for existence in an intermittent stream were of primary concern. Eggs are capable of diapausing through hot, dry summers and cold, wet or dry winters. Diapause is broken in the fall after rehydration and/or in the spring. I. sicca is usually bivoltine during a Sept.-Jul. wet period. Observations from Elm Fork indicate that emergence continues to Oct. if the stream remains permanent. Considerable overlap occurs between overwintering, spring, and summer populations.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Grant, Peter M., fl. 1978-

Limitation of Primary Productivity in a Southwestern Reservoir Due to Thermal Pollution

Description: Evidence is presented to support the conclusions that (1) North Lake reservoir is less productive, contains lower standing crops of phytoplankton and total organic carbon than other local reservoirs; (2) that neither the phytoplankton nor their instantaneously-determined primary productivity was detrimentally affected by the power plant entrainment and (3) that the effect of the power plant is to cause nutrient limitation of the phytoplankton primary productivity by long-term, subtle, thermally-linked nutrient precipitation activities.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Stuart, Tom J.
Location Info:

Mixed Culture of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa TX71105 and a Variant Strain of Bacillus Megaterium

Description: Very little work has been done on bacteria capable of significantly inhibiting algal growth. This thesis reports the research on mixed cultures of a high-temperature strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa TX71105, and an organism isolated from the air and tentatively identified as a variant strain of Bacillus megaterium.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Yao, Raymond Che-Fong

Neuroregulation and Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation in Ascaris Suum Obliquely Striated Skeletal Muscle

Description: Extraction and quantitation of myosin light chain two coupled with myograph recordings from Ascaris muscle perfused with calmodulin inhibitors and neurotransmitters in conjunction with their respective agonists and antagonists have been used to establish the regulation of contraction in this muscle. Densitometric tracings of isolectric focusing gels separating the regulatory light chain were used to quantitate phosphorylation in resting, contracted and flaccid muscle. These studies indicated that inhibitory neurostimulation is mediated by a true GABA receptor. Myosin-mediated contraction is responsible for maintaining the level of tension observed in resting actin-mediated muscle. Actin-mediated contraction is responsible for the rapid rise in tension following excitatory stimuli. Both systems function simultaneously and are independant.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Martin, Rex E. (Rex Edward)

Nutrient Effects on Autofragmentation of Myriophyllum Spicatum L.

Description: A 2 x 2 factorial design investigated effects of sediment nitrogen and water potassium levels on autofragment production. Reduced nitrogen levels significantly increased autofragment production whereas potassium levels did not significantly alter production. Up to 50% of autofragment production abscised from parent plants grown under low nitrogen conditions compared to 12% or less under high nitrogen conditions.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Smith, Dian H. (Dian Helen)