UNT Libraries - 33 Matching Results

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Analysis and Comparison of a Developmental Task Scale on Differing Adolescent Populations

Description: The following research questions were investigated: (a) Can the age-mates scales from the Dales developmental task scales be used with southwestern-urban adolescent populations? (b) Are there any systematic differences between northeastern-nonurban and southwestern-urban subject populations on the response to these scales? The subjects consisted of 884 adolescents, 11 through 15 years, evenly divided by sex. Subject responses were analyzed by sex and age groups using Guttman scalogram analysis. Goodman's test of significance revealed that the results could have occurred by chance (p > .05). The instrument in its present form was not found useful'-for an urban population. Lack of reproducibility made comparison of the performance of urban and nonurban adolescents unjustified.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Barton, John W.

An Analysis of Test Scores Between Language- and/or Learning-Disabled and Minimally Brain-Injured Special Education Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine significant differences in test scores between LLD and MBI Special Education students. The records of thirty-seven LLD and fifty-six MBI students between the ages of six through eleven were obtained from a small Texas school district. The results indicated no significant differences between groups on WISC Full Scale, Performance and Verbal scales or on WISC subtests scores. No significant differences were found on WRAT scores. Significant differences were found on the Bender-Gestalt Test for Children and the Visual Aural Digit Span Test at the nine- through eleven-year level. No differences were found at the six- through eight-year level.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Peck, Richard L.

A Comparison of Cloze Ability in Deficient and Non-Deficient Readers Matched According to Verbal Ability

Description: The present study was designed to investigate whether a good reader, by the fifth grade, will have attained sufficient knowledge of the language structure to enable him to more exactly and more appropriately reconstruct mutilated texts than a poor reader, matched for verbal intelligence level. Four 250-word cloze-treated passages were administered to twelve deficient and twelve non-deficient sixth grade readers, matched according to sex and the verbal portion of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Analyses of variance failed to show any significant differences between good and poor readers except for a weak indication that good readers produced more exact replacements.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Berrier, Helen Victoria

A Comparison of Sight Word and Phonics Contingencies in the Remediation of Oral Reading and Comprehension

Description: A comparison of contingent word and phonics drilling exercises on oral reading errors was made and the effects of a work skipping contingency on reading comprehension were examined. Five learning disabled elementary school children served as subjects. Reading comprehension increased from 30 to 50% over baseline, while subjects progressed an average of two years through a reading series. Subjects responded differentially to the two drills on oral reading errors, but the combined effects of the drills produced a 50% average reduction in errors. Pre- and post-tests of reading achievement showed increases in reading grade levels ranging from .8 to 1.5 years during the 10 week, 30 session study. Results supported the efficacy of a behavioral approach to reading remediation.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Huffine, John Harold

A Comparison of the Scores on the WISC and WISC-R

Description: The present study evaluated two hypotheses concerning the comparability of scores of the WISC and WISC-R through correlation of obtained scores on both scales. Forty subjects, representing 10 age levels, constituted the experimental sample. Each subject was administered the WISC, followed in 28 days by the WISC-R. Data analysis revealed significant (.05) correlations between scores on comparable WISC and WISC-R subtests except Arithmetic and Coding. The Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores correlated .5468, .5773, and .6240 respectively (p < .01). Conclusions were drawn that caution should be taken in comparison and interpretation of scores on the two scales due to several low correlation coefficients obtained as well as numerous changes between the scales. Further study is recommended.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Pristo, Larry J.

Criteria and Assessment Measures for Diagnosing Learning Disabled Children

Description: A total of 60 school psychologists and educational diagnosticians across Texas completed a survey to identify the instruments used to screen and diagnose learning disabled (LD) students, and to identify the criteria on which the final diagnosis and placement of LD or non-LD is made. The results of this survey indicate that consistent methods and criteria are not being used for identifying children as LD within the state. Many of the instruments currently used may not be technically adequate for use with a LD population. Implications of the use of inconsistent criteria, inadequate screening and assessment measures are discussed.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Moyer, Melynda Karol

Educable Mentally Retarded: Classification of Students and Texas State Guidelines

Description: In Texas, placement of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students has required three factors-- intellectual assessment, educational appraisal, and adaptive behavior. This study examined 28 reclassified EMR students to determine which assessment factor is least stable in defining EMR and to determine significance of change in assessment scores. Data were secured from school records. Type of intellectual assessment test used varied greatly and was found to be the most inconsistent placement factor. However, educational appraisal scores contributed to over half the reclassifications. Adaptive behavior did not contribute to any reclassification. Due to limited sampling and variety of assessment tests, significance of change in scores was not determined. Generally, on retest,performance IQ scores were elevated while verbal IQ scores remained the same.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bonner, Angela Denise

The Effect of Participation in Advanced Placement And/or Dual Credit on Four-year Graduation Rates.

Description: Advanced Placement and dual credit programs are designed for high school students and are used to earn college credit and possibly gain college admissions advantages. The present research examined the impact of participation in one or both programs on four-year college graduation rates. Findings indicated significant differences between the programs as well as with students who did not participate in either program. Students in AP achieved the highest four-year graduation rate, followed by students in dual credit, both programs, and neither program. These findings indicate the need for further study to determine whether the programs substantially contribute to four-year graduation rates and what the implications are.
Date: December 2009
Creator: O'Keefe, Lynette Marie

Effect of the Home Environment on Children's 10 Scores and the Influence of Family Socioeconomic Status

Description: Contributions of home environment and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the intelligence test performance of 24 exceptional children aged five through seven years were investigated. It was hypothesized that higher SES would enrich the children's environment providing a more stimulating learning experience, and would reflect a positive correlation with measures of the home environment. Additional hypotheses were that both HOME scores and SES scales would show a positive correlation with intelligence test performance. The positive association found between SES and HOME Inventory scores suggests that families with a higher SES have the ability to direct more resources toward their children. However, according to the present study, this does not affect the intelligence test performance of exceptional children.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Singer, David D.

The Effects of a Natural Disaster on Academic Abilities and Social Behavior of School Children

Description: Although most research has focused on adults, studies indicate that children also experience detrimental psychological effects as the result of natural disasters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tornado which struck Wichita Falls,, Texas, on April 10, 1979, had any negative effects on the academic performance or social behavior of school children. Three groups of students were studied: (a) victims of the tornado who suffered a significant loss, (b) observers of the disaster who did not suffer a significant loss, and (c) newcomers who arrived after the disaster. Achievement test scores, grades, and attendance over a 4-year period were studied. The overall results do not indicate significant differences among the three groups.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Little, Brenda Stephens

The Effects of Locus of Control and Soluble Discrimination Problems on Intelligence Test Performance

Description: This study investigated the possible differential effects of a series of soluble discrimination problems on internal versus external locus of control subjects. It was hypothesized that externals exposed to a series of discrimination problems would perform better on a test task than external controls, while internals exposed to the same problems would not perform better on the test task relative to their controls. As anticipated, the internals were not affected by the discrimination problems. However, contrary to expectations, the externals were not facilitated by exposure to the soluble problems. Since many external subjects failed to solve all of the soluble problems, a facilitative effect may depend upon the problems being solved.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Smith, Alvin, active 1976-

The Effects of Parental Substance Abuse on the Behavior of School Children

Description: The purpose of the present archival study was to investigate the relationship between parental substance abuse and the risk for maladjustment and psychopathology in children in a clinic sample. Children of alcoholic parents and children of drug-dependent parents were compared to children of non-substance abusing parents. The subjects were 83 boys age 6 to 12. Children of substance abuse parents had lower levels of adaptive functioning and higher levels of school behavioral problems. Although previous studies have reported a strong association between an adverse family environment and the risk of child maladjustment, the present study did not find that the addition of an adverse family environment increased the risk for maladjustment or school behavioral problems in children of substance abusers.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Prelow, Hazel (Hazel M.)

The Effects of Positive Reinforcement on the Self-Concept of Children in a Classroom

Description: This study tests whether positive reinforcement consisting of a positive word, eye contact, and a smile would improve the self-concept of students. Sixty boys and girls in two sixth-grade classes were given an adaptation of Gordon's, How I See Myself scale. A baseline consisting of positive reinforcements given by the teacher to the students was taken. Then a positive reinforcement schedule was instituted by the sixth-grade teacher. The experimental group of thirty students received a mean of 24.78 positive reinforcements per class; the control group received a mean of 1.1 positive reinforcements. The subjects were again given the HISM scale, and no significant score differences were found between the experimental group and control group.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Kalish, Robert B.

The Effects of School Performance on the Self-Concept and Locus of Control of Learning Disabled and Emotionally Disturbed Elementary Students

Description: A number of authors have suggested recently that the behavioral characteristics and self-perceptions of learning disabled and emotionally disturbed children are so similar as to negate the fruitfulness of trying to differentiate between these two groups. These characteristics are quite similar for the two special education groups when they have been compared independently of each other to regular education students. In order to provide support for these prior studies, the self-concepts and locus of control of 36 learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, and regular education students were compared. A significant difference was found between the LD and RE students in terms of self-concept only. No significant differences were noted between the ED and RE students. These results are discussed in relation to the somewhat conflicting results of prior studies with implications for future research.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Ronalder, Ronnie Lee

Family Structure and Self-Esteem of Elementary School Children

Description: Maternal or paternal absence in one- or two-parent families, the presence of stepparents, and reasons for the disruption of the original family were analyzed in relation to the self-esteem of 501 males and females in grades 3-6 as measured by Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. The study provided a review of the broken-home literature followed by the methodology, results, and conclusions pertinent to the investigation. A step-wise multiple regression analysis and two-way and three-way factorial analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in the self esteem levels of children from intact or disrupted families. Conclusions suggested that children from all family structures may have experienced both debilitating and nurturing environments. Recommendations supported parent training.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Anderson, Judy Novak

Infant-Caregiver Attachment and Separation: Single vs. Multiple Caregivers

Description: This study investigates (1) whether infants cared for by a single caregiver exhibit more attachment behaviors than do infants cared for by multiple caregivers and (2) whether sex differences are found in these behaviors. Twenty-six Black infants, nine to twenty-three months of age, in a day-care center, were observed during one brief low-stress separation from a caregiver. Data were taken using six indices of attachment: maintaining proximity, visual regard, touching, protesting, seeking proximity, and greeting. Where subjected to a two-way analysis of variance, the obtained results showed no significant differences in the effects of the two types of care. However, visual regard and greeting behaviors were observed significantly more frequently in females than in males.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Martin, David Wayne

Internal-External Locus of Control, Perception of Teacher Intermittency of Reinforcement and Achievement

Description: This study measured the relationships between locus of control, students' perception of the schedule of teacher reinforcement, and academic achievement. The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire, Perception of Teacher Reinforcement scale, and Wide Range Achievement Test were used to measure these variables. All subscores of the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire correlated significantly with achievement for the females, but no relationships were found for the males. Perception of the teacher as partially rewarding was significantly correlated with reading, spelling, and total achievement for the males and with reading and arithmetic achievement for the females. Perception of the teacher as partially punishing was significantly correlated with arithmetic achievement for the males, but was not related to achievement for the females.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Welch, Linda N.

An Investigation of the Validity and Predictive Value of the NPSDE, a Preschool Assessment Device

Description: The problem under investigation was the predictive value of a preschool screen. The subjects were 111 kindergartners. First, the need for a preschool screen was established. Second, the literature concerning other preschool devices was reviewed. Third, a specific screen was assessed in terms of validity. Fourth, a consideration of the predictive value of this screen in relation to scholastic achievement as indicated by the Metropolitan Readiness Test was made. A multiple regression analysis was performed, and the cross-validation of a number of prediction equations and cutoff scores was significant. Although statistical significance was achieved, high-risk youngsters could not be accurately identified. This research indicated that the instrument evaluated shows promise if refined by additional research.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Moore, Glenn F.

Learned Helplessness: Disconfirming Specific Task-Induced Expectancies of Control and the Immunization Phenomenon

Description: To test the hypothesis that a discrepancy between expectation and experience with regard to the controllability of outcomes would produce the greatest effect on later task behavior, 70 undergraduate volunteers were directed individually in a multiphase experiment. The first phase was designed to induce expectations of control or lack of control over outcomes. The second phase was designed to confirm or not to confirm the expectations induced. The third phase tested for the effects on later task behavior. The results indicated that the first phase procedure failed to induce the required expectancies, thus preventing a test of the experimental hypothesis. Possible procedural changes were discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Taylor, Jerral DeWayne

Models of Consultation, Referral Problems and the Perceived Effectiveness of Parent and Teacher Consultation

Description: This study evaluated the school psychologist's perception of effective models of consultation based upon referral problem and parent, teacher, and student response to treatment. Analyses of covariance determined that (a) parents' receptivity and total number of teacher contacts significantly influenced the parents' response to treatment; (b) teacher receptivity and total number of parent contacts significantly affected teachers' response to treatment; (c) students' response to treatment was significantly affected by the model of teacher consultation and the average number of minutes spent with the school psychologists; and (d) students in a Mental Health consultation group responded significantly more favorably than s tudents in Behavioral or Collaborative consultation groups.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Epperson, Sidney Reins

A Parent Questionnaire Examining Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children's Spatial Skills

Description: Investigations of children's spatial ability have typically looked at performance on laboratory tasks, and none have examined differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children. The present study surveyed sixty-seven parents of third and sixth grade children about the types of spatial activities children engage in everyday. Parents of learning disabled and non-learning disabled children were included. Results provided information about the types of spatial activities children engage in and the relationships between participation and performance. Major findings included differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in navigational ability and in the strategies employed in difficult or ambiguous spatial situations. Findings were discussed in terms of the influence learning disabled children's negative self evaluations have on their performance.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda

Peer Acceptance, Mathematics Achievement, and Birth Order Among Fifth-Grade Students

Description: This study investigated relationships involving peer acceptance, mathematics achievement, and birth order among 74 fifth-grade students. The children were administered a standardized achievement test and a sociometric measurement in one sitting. They were then listed in rank order on the basis of number of choices received for each of two areas-- Social- and Work-acceptance. A comparison of High and Low Social- and Work-acceptance groups in terms of mean mathematics-achievement scores indicated a significant positive interaction between peer acceptance and mathematics achievement. No significant difference was evidenced between mean mathematics-achievement scores of males and females. As expected, birth order was not shown to interact significantly with Social- or Work-acceptance for either sex. Results indicate the importance of utilizing various techniques such as sociometrically determined work groups and seating arrangements in order to improve the peer climate of the classroom.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Gerhardt, Vicki

Relationship Between Reported Exposure to Racial Discrimination and Level of Self-Esteem and Trust of Whites

Description: This study investigated the level of trust of whites and self-esteem as a function of reported exposure to racial discrimination. It was hypothesized that participants reporting high levels of racial discrimination would be less trusting of whites and have lower self concepts than those reporting low levels of exposure to racism. A total of 84 undergraduates were administered three measures designed to assess the amount of exposure to racial discrimination, self-esteem and cultural mistrust. No relationship was found between extent of exposure to racial discrimination and level of self concept. However, mistrust of whites among blacks was found to be related to frequency of exposure to racial discrimination.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Robinson, Deborah L.

Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Academic Behavior Among Students at an Alternative High School

Description: For many years, educators and psychologists have attempted to define the strength of the relationship between self-concept and school performance., A productive approach may be to investigate academic self-efficacy. In the present study, data were collected for students at an alternative high school on the Measure of Academic Self-Efficacy (MASE), Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire (IAR), number of weeks spent in the program, and various descriptive and behavioral measures. Correlations were computed to attempt to demonstrate that participation in an alternative program analogous to participant modeling is associated with increases in academic self-efficacy and internal attributions for educational events, and that these gains are associated with improved academic outcomes.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Matthews, Catherine Henson