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The Big Five Personality Characteristics of World of Warcraft Players

Description: This study is a comparative analysis of the personality characteristics of a sample of World of Warcraft players (n = 147) and a large normative sample (n = 20,993). The 120-item International Personality Item Pool, based on the five factor model, is used. Independent t-tests were conducted and statistical significance was found for some factors; however, the effect sizes were small, indicating a limited practical difference between the two groups.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Winter, Jessica L.

A Comparative Study of Advanced Placement and Learning Differenced Students: Comparing Internal Attribution and Correlation to Hopefulness.

Description: The goal of this research was to determine if there are significant differences in the attribution styles for positive and negative events between students of differing ability and the correlation of these attribution styles to hopefulness. The study examined twelfth grade advanced placement (AP N = 45) students and twelfth grade students with documented learning differences enrolled in college preparatory classes (CP-LD N = 14). Both groups of students came from high socioeconomic backgrounds. The students' internal attributions related to hopefulness were measured with the Hope Scale (Snyder, 1994) which assesses the constructs of agency (will), pathway (way), and produces an overall hopefulness score. Results indicate that AP and CP-LD students had similar measures of internal attribution for positive events, but significantly distinct measures of internal attribution for negative events. However, the AP students show no statistically significant difference from CP-LD students in their measures of agency, pathway, or overall hopefulness.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Hayden, Johanna

Comparing Three Approaches for Handling a Fourth Level of Nesting Structure in Cluster-Randomized Trials

Description: This study compared 3 approaches for handling a fourth level of nesting structure when analyzing data from a cluster-randomized trial (CRT). CRTs can include 3 levels of nesting: repeated measures, individual, and cluster levels. However, above the cluster level, there may sometimes be an additional potentially important fourth level of nesting (e.g., schools, districts, etc., depending on the design) that is typically ignored in CRT data analysis. The current study examined the impact of ignoring this fourth level, accounting for it using a model-based approach, and accounting it using a design-based approach on parameter and standard error (SE) estimates. Several fixed effect and random effect variance parameters and SEs were biased across all 3 models. In the 4-level model, most SE biases decreased as the number of level 3 clusters increased and as the number of level 4 clusters decreased. Also, random effect variance biases decreased as the number of level 3 clusters increased. In the 3-level and complex models, SEs became more biased as the weight level 4 carried increased (i.e., larger intraclass correlation, more clusters at that level). The current results suggest that if a meaningful fourth level of nesting exists, future researchers should account for it using design-based approach; the model-based approach is not recommended. If the fourth level is not practically important, researchers may ignore it altogether.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Glaman, Ryan

Developing a Self-Respect Instrument to Distinguish Self-Respect from Self-Esteem

Description: Throughout the scientific literature, researchers have referred to self-respect and self-esteem as being the same construct. However, the present study advocated that they exist as two distinct constructs. In this quantitative study, an instrument was developed to measure self-respect as a construct, and subsequently distinguish that self-respect is distinct from the construct of self-esteem. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) indicated 32.60% of the variance was accounted for by the 11-item Jefferson Self-Respect instrument (JSR), which measured self-respect as a unidimensional construct. The reliability estimate of the scores from the JSR reached an acceptable α = .82. Fit indices (RMSEA = .031, SRMR = .037, CFI = .982, and TLI = .977) from the confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) signified a well-fitted hypothesized model of self-respect that existed as a unidimensional construct. Additionally, the CFA revealed that the construct of self-respect, and self-esteem was generally distinct, and the strength of the correlation between the two constructs was moderately positive (r = .62).
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Jefferson, Sean G

The Effect of Co-teaching on the Academic Achievement Outcomes of Students with Disabilities: a Meta-analytic Synthesis

Description: Co-teaching has been, and continues to be, a growing trend in American schools since the late 1990s. As the popularity of this service delivery model increases, there is an imperative need for empirical research focusing on how co-teaching affects academic outcomes of students who receive special education services. Evidence regarding the academic outcomes of co-teaching is limited, and reports mixed results. The purpose of this study is to provide a synthesis of research examining academic outcomes of co-teaching on students who receive special education services. Quantitative information from each research report was coded, an overall effect size was computed, and a moderator analysis was conducted. Results suggest a significant effect (g = .281, k = 32, p < .05) of co-teaching on the academic outcomes of students with disabilities when compared to students with disabilities who did not receive instruction in co-taught settings; though a larger effect was found among dissertation reports (g = .439, k = 25, p < .001). Additionally, a significant effect was found when examining the academic outcomes of students in co-teaching compared to the academic outcomes of students in a resource classroom setting (g = .435, k = 27, p < .001. Lastly, effects were stronger the longer these students were in co-teaching environments. Implications of findings and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Khoury, Christopher

Identification of highly gifted 5- and 6-year-old children: Measures to predict academic achievement.

Description: Studies indicate the educational needs of highly gifted students are best met through accelerated learning. It is difficult to recognize very young children that are suited for an accelerated curriculum because younger students frequently lack school records or portfolios used to identify gifted students. This study examined the accuracy of cognitive ability and achievement tests in predicting academic achievement by the end of second grade, correlating test results and final grade averages collected from sixteen children ages five to six who entered a public school program for high-ability learners in kindergarten. A multiple regression analysis indicated the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence produced the highest mean IQ score and a strong correlation with reading achievement. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test contributed in small part to the prediction of academic achievement. The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition had negative correlations with final grade averages, indicating they are not predictors of academic achievement for these students.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Runyon, Lisa

Parenting Style, Frequency of Electronic Communication with Parents, and the Development of Independence in First Year, First Semester College Students

Description: During the transition to college, emerging adults are expected to develop independence and increase individual responsibility as they live away from home for the first time. Modern electronic communication has enabled emerging adults to maintain frequent, daily contact with the parent, a pattern of communication Hofer refers to as an “electronic tether.” This study examined the link between parenting style and the development of independence of first year, first semester college students. Although these students were in frequent contact with their designated parent, no correlation between frequency of communication and parenting style or independence was found. Both authoritative and helicopter parenting significantly positively predicted attitudinal independence. However, permissive parenting functioned as a significant negative predictor. Authoritarian, permissive, and helicopter parenting significantly positively predicted conflictual independence. However, authoritative parenting functioned as a significant negative predictor. Both authoritative and helicopter parenting significantly positively predicted emotional and functional independence.
Date: August 2015
Creator: Etheridge, Lauri McAfee

A Performance Evaluation of Confidence Intervals for Ordinal Coefficient Alpha

Description: Ordinal coefficient alpha is a newly derived non-parametric reliability estimate. As with any point estimate, ordinal coefficient alpha is merely an estimate of a population parameter and tends to vary from sample to sample. Researchers report the confidence interval to provide readers with the amount of precision obtained. Several methods with differing computational approaches exist for confidence interval estimation for alpha, including the Fisher, Feldt, Bonner, and Hakstian and Whalen (HW) techniques. Overall, coverage rates for the various methods were unacceptably low with the Fisher method as the highest performer at 62%. Because of the poor performance across all four confidence interval methods, a need exists to develop a method which works well for ordinal coefficient alpha.
Date: May 2015
Creator: Turner, Heather Jean

Physical Literacy and Intention to Play Interscholastic Sports in Sixth Grade Physical Education Students

Description: Prevalence of physical inactivity in children and adolescents and the associated epidemic of obesity are increasing concerns. U.S. national health statistics indicate early adolescence (i.e., 10-14 years) appears to be a period of importance regarding physical activity, sedentary behavior, health-related physical fitness, and obesity trends. Considering a significant portion of their waking hours are spent in school, it is widely held that schools' should play a significant role in increasing students' physical activity and health-related physical fitness. To do this, physical education in schools focus on providing quality physical education programs that produce physically literate individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of health-producing physical activity. In effect, a call for developing a comprehensive and valid measure of physical literacy has been aptly expressed. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation was to test the psychometric properties of proposed models of physical literacy, examine correlates of the physical literacy factor, and investigate the significance of the relationship between physical literacy and interscholastic sport intention via structural equation modeling. Participants were 400 (231 female, 169 male) sixth-grade physical education students who completed three brief surveys assessing maturation, self-efficacy, self-esteem, knowledge and understanding, motivation, physical activity and sport participation, and interscholastic sport intention. In addition, students completed a sedentary behavior log, a health-related physical fitness assessment, and an overhand throwing skill assessment. Analyses offered overall support for the proposed physical literacy measurement models. Results also supported positive relationship Physical literacy was statistically significantly positively related physical activity and sport team participation, and significantly negatively related and screen-time sedentary behavior. Results also supported a positive path between physical literacy and interscholastic sport intention. The implications of promoting physical literacy within physical education are discussed in light of the three higher-order underlying factors of physical literacy.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Farren, Gene Lee

Relationship between Adolescents Perceptions of Parental Physical Activity and Their Own Well-Being

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' encouragement to lose weight and physical activity habits (i.e., exercise habits and sedentary behaviors) and their own physical health-related fitness (HRF) and psychological well-being. Results of structural equation modeling revealed both similarities and differences between boys and girls. Specifically, parental sedentary behavior and encouragement to lose weight related to girls HRF. Among boys, only encouragement to lose weight related to HRF. When inspecting the relationship between HRF and psychological well-being, HRF related to body satisfaction, but not depressive symptoms, among both boys and girls. Results of this study highlight the complex influence that parental perceptions have during adolescent development.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Yeatts, Paul

Student Scores on Advanced Placement Exams: Gender Variables

Description: The results of the Advanced Placement exams given to students in 2006 were disaggregated according to gender. The level of performance was compared between males and females using Cohen's d. The standardized differences between male and female performance group levels were compared to previous results for the 1992 Advanced Placement (AP) exams. One purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the male-favored results that existed in 1992 still existed in the 2006. This study found that differences still exist in results based on gender and no real progress has been made in reducing the gap in achievement between males and females. A second purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the local data to the national data set to see if scores in Brazosport were similar to scores collected at the national level. To determine if similar results would be obtained at the local level the results of 267 Advanced Placement exams taken by 190 students from Brazsosport Independent School District in 2006 were disaggregated according to gender. The level of performance was compared between males and females using Hedge's g. Because of limited sample size, only 9 Advanced Placement exams were reviewed at the local level. This study found that the results from Brazosport were, in many cases, quite different from those found on the national level and there was no pattern to explain the variation among the differences. This study supports the collection of local data for monitoring gender bias that might exist on Advanced Placement exams. The data collected in the current study indicates that individual district progress in overcoming gender differences that historically have existed in specific scores on the AP exam might be overlooked if only national data is reviewed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Brown, Staci Deanne

Teacher Evaluation as a Function of Leadership Style: A Multiple-Correlational Approach

Description: One of the most persistent issues in contemporary organizations has been how to evaluate individual performance. Basically, the problem is who should evaluate whom and against what productivity criterion. Educational institutions have been the organizations most concerned with this dilemma in recent years. As recently as September, 1973, teachers went on strike over accountability procedures. This study was conducted to identify which mode of teacher evaluation was most efficient, based on fairly objective performance criterion, and to establish a basis for viewing teaching style as leadership style. In existing research, superior ratings were the most used evaluation measure, student ratings were a rapidly growing mode of evaluation, self-ratings were considered biased, and peer ratings were used very little. Hence, who should do the evaluating was an unsolved problem. All four evaluation modes were employed in the present study for comparison.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Swanson, Ronald G.

Teacher Self-Efficacy for STEM Talent Development

Description: In order to implement more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) into K12 classrooms, it is important to find out whether teachers are comfortable with this pedagogy. To determine teachers' current self-efficacy of STEM pedagogy, teachers in a southern state in the United States were asked to enlighten researchers into this phenomenon. Participants were K12 teachers (n = 119) from a public school district undertaking a district-wide STEM initiative. A measure of STEM teacher self-efficacy and a demographic questionnaire were administered online to participants. STEM teacher self-efficacy data were analyzed, along with demographic data, using descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Results suggest some demographic variables are more predictive of STEM self-efficacy (gender, grade level taught, feelings of administrative support, and professional development sessions attended) than others (whether or not gifted courses are taught, age, and length of teaching experience. This data should be used by school administrators that seek to begin or improve STEM pedagogy in their schools.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Margot, Kelly

Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early-College-Entrance Program

Description: The concepts of well-being and life satisfaction are explored in this study of the experiences and psychological traits of highly-gifted students who have been radically accelerated into an early-college-entrance program. The study was conducted after participation in the early-college-entrance program. The primary focus of the study is on personal well-being and life satisfaction including the variables of subjective well-being, efficacy, and the dispositional traits of cheerfulness, seriousness, and bad mood. These variables are gathered as the initial phase of a longitudinal study of the early-college entrants' personal and professional experiences, their life satisfaction, and dispositions. The subjects for this study were participants in the Texas Academy of Math and Science (TAMS). TAMS is a state run early-college-entrance program at the University of North Texas in Denton.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Boazman, Janette Kay