UNT Libraries - 17 Matching Results

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The Activities of Disaster Relief Organizations During the Permanent Housing Phase of Recovery: a Case Study Analysis

Description: This study investigates the recovery efforts provided for low income and ethnic minority populations by organizations during the permanent housing phase of recovery in Watsonville, California, following the Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989. The case study format is used to discover what activities were performed and why each organization chose to perform them. Dynes and Quarantelli's (1968) typology of organization is used to explain how and why established, expanding, extending and emergent organizations participated in the recovery efforts. The findings indicate that the type of organization dictated the kind of tasks each organization performed. Organizations maintained activities during recovery for which they had experience, expertise and proficiency.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Ephraim, Melinda M. H.

AIDS and Aging: Are the Eldery Becoming the New At-Risk Population?

Description: This dissertation breaks new ground. It examines the perceptions of older adults towards AIDS prevention. Using the National Health Interview Survey, 1988: AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Supplement, a modified Health Belief Model is developed. Despite the low number of older adults 55+ with AIDS, some extenuating circumstances increase their risk of AIDS contraction. Older adults have lower levels of knowledge about AIDS, weaker immune systems and receive more blood transfusions. Societal influences include educational neglect at the hands of physicians, healthcare workers and social service personnel. The first stage of the dissertation involved establishing older adults as an at-risk population through an extensive literature review. Next, the data was described utilizing frequencies, correlations and factor analysis. Frequencies clearly indicated that older adults in the data set had low levels of AIDS knowledge and did not view themselves at risk for AIDS contraction. Correlations between the variables were minimal. A modified Health Belief Model was developed and tested. Multiple regression determined that minimal variation in the two dependent variables, "Perceived Effectiveness of Effective Methods to Prevent AIDS Contraction" and "Perceived Effectiveness of Ineffective Methods to Prevent AIDS Contraction" was accounted for by the independent variables. Although F ratios allowed rejection of the two null hypotheses, beta weights were low. Adjusted R^2's accounted for only 21% and 16% respectively of the variation in the dependent variables. Finally, discrepancies in the model were determined and recommendations made for further research. Most health belief models concentrate on individual social-psychological variables. Due to AIDS' societal consequences, it is proposed that societal providers of education: physicians, social service workers and healthcare personnel need to be included in the model. Recommendations were made for additional research into sexual behavior of older adults and exploration of available training of physicians, healthcare and social service professionals. Finally, recommendations were ...
Date: August 1994
Creator: Allen, Annette Marie

Black and White Members and Ministers in the United Methodist Church : A Comparative Analysis

Description: Two primary sources of data were utilized: official church records, and a questionnaire survey administered to a random sample of Anglo and African-American United Methodists in the North Texas area. Questions covered socio-demographic and theological matters as well as perceptions of racism in the church. Ministers and lay members were surveyed separately.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Dunagin, Richard L. (Richard Lee)

A Case Study of Social Transformation in Medical Care at the Community Level

Description: This descriptive case study of the transformation in medical care at the community level was carried out with a triangulation approach. Data from documents and surveys using both semi-structured and unstructured interviews were gathered to evaluate and explain how medical care delivery changed from a primarily public system to one predominantly private.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Lensing, Willene (Willene Crowell)

An Examination of Gender Role Differentiation in Crowd and Collective Behavior

Description: This study examines the relationship between social stress and gender role differentiation. Crowd and collective behavior literature suggests two competing hypotheses. Social contagion theories suggest that gender roles become dedifferentiated in crowds. Social structural theories suggest that gender roles in crowds parallel institutional gender roles. The case study format is used to assess the relationship. Six crowd events, representing varying levels of social stress, were observed. Data were gathered via systematic observations, interviews and document analysis. The findings indicate that gender roles in crowds parallel institutional gender roles. Culturally prescribed gender expectations endure across social stress settings.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Webb, Gary Ray

An Examination of Strain Among Community Police Officers in Northumbria, England

Description: This paper examines some causes of strain and frustration among police officers. Previous research suggests that police officers sufferfromthe lack of communication and support from their community. The failure of communication has caused turmoil in the past between communities and their police. A possible solution is community policing. Community policing is supposed to establish communication between the public and the police. Causes of strain and frustration among the police are discussed along with the possible benefits of community policing. Research has shown that community police officers suffer less strain and frustration than their brethren. On this premise a quantitative examination a police force in Northumbria, England was conducted. The quantitative analysis focuses on two groups; community police officers and police officers not involved in community policing.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Humburg, Joel D. (Joel David)

The Impact of the Ordination of Women and Androgyny on Marital Adjustment

Description: Research on the ordination of women has focused on the effect in the church and on aspects of the personality of the women choosing the priesthood but not on effects on the families of ordained women. Using personal interviews, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory, spouses in 12 families which contain ordained women from Episcopalian, Methodist, Unity and The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints churches were analyzed to determine the effects of ordination on the families. Couples containing an ordained female were found to have slightly higher marital adjustment and significantly higher levels of androgyny than a standardized sample. Androgyny and marital adjustment were significantly correlated. The more androgenous, the greater the marital adjustment.
Date: May 1993
Creator: French, Beverly J. (Beverly June)

Individual Resources, Social Environment, and Flood Victimization

Description: The study is a contextual analysis of flood victimization. Victimization is defined as the social, psychological, and physiological aftermath experienced by victims of a disaster. Disaster researchers concentrate on the victims' characteristics to explain the varying degrees of their victimization, providing only ambiguous results. Theorists such as Kreps, Wildavsky, and Douglas contend that the outcomes of disasters are contingent upon social structure. This analysis treats victimization as one such outcome. The condition and behavior of individuals can be explained by the presence of disaster and the conditions of social organization. A model explains victimization based on individual's attributes (individual resources), his social environment, and the disaster characteristics. This study uses the 1984 Mingo Creek Flood Victims Survey data to test the model. The data contain information measuring victimization. The survey data are linked with 1980 Census tract data. The tract data provide indicators of the social networks. This tract information, the contextual variables, taps the social conditions, including poverty, unemployment, geographic mobility, and family patterns. This study uses factor analysis to identify the dimensions of victimization. Regression tests the relationship between the contextual variables, the individual resource variables, the disaster characteristic variables, and victimization. The results of the analysis show that victimization is multidimensional with different types of variables being significant predictors for each dimension of victimization, one variable indicating the intensity of the disaster, the dollar value of damage victims experienced, is found to be a significant predictor of the psychological, physiological, and social disruption aspects of victimization. Variables measuring the family and unemployment patterns in the victims' census tract are significant predictors of the psychological and social disruption aspect of victimization. The findings provide general support for the proposed model of victimization. However, victimization is multidimensional with each dimension having a unique set of predictors. Based on the ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Rossman, Edwin J. (Edwin John)

Isomorphism as a Paradigm for Examining Self-Managed Work Teams and Work Spillover

Description: This study investigates the effects of a participative-type management approach termed self-managed work teams (SMWTs) and work spillover into the family environment. The perspective of isomorphism by Aldous (1969), and Rapoport and Rapoport (1965), was used as a paradigm to examine both positive and negative effects of the work-family relationship. A total of 76 employees from the Department of Defense's Quality Division was used in the regression analysis, due to recent transitions into SMWTs. Results reported overwhelming support for the perspective of isomorphism: over 40% of the variation in positive work spillover was explained by SWMT characteristics. Communication with other teams was the single most important factor found to have a significant effect on positive work spillover.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Cyphers, Amy E. (Amy Elizabeth)

Organizational Commitment in a Self-Managing Work Team Environment

Description: This study examines the determinants of organizational commitment in a self-managing work team setting. The data used in the study are from a sample of 313 employees in an electronics manufacturing plant. Chapter one introduces the reader to the topic of self-managing work teams and explains the relevance of commitment to this organizational structure. Chapter two is a review of the literature which focuses on commitment, its determinants, and two theories used to explain the relationship between them. The remaining chapters describe the methodology used in the study, explain the findings and draw conclusions. Of all the factors analyzed, only perceived organizational support and autonomy were found to influence commitment in this sample. The relevance of these findings for business and academia is discussed.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Ruggiere, Paul John

Organizational Perceptions of Women's Vulnerability to Violence in the Wake of Disaster

Description: Women as a group hold little power in the social system which increases women's vulnerability to domestic violence. According to Merton (1970), social problems may be revealed through the disaster recovery process. A coraHunity1s organizational response to social problems such as wife abuse depends upon organizational members' perceptions. The data suggest that organizational perceptions of domestic violence largely depend upon the setting or environment in which an organization exists and operates. A second factor that greatly determines an organization's perception of domestic violence after disaster is organizational type. Organizations which provide services to domestic violence victims pre-disaster are more likely to perceive domestic violence following disaster than organizations which do not provide domestic violence related services prior to disaster.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Wilson, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lyn)

Predicting the Retirement Intentions of Professional Workers

Description: While research focusing on the retirement intentions of individuals within the general population has been undertaken, only two empirical studies have examined the retirement intentions of professional workers. This study expands the small, existing body of literature focusing on this topic by presenting eighteen hypotheses, grouped into five categories of factors, and testing them with the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Knapp, James L. (James Lyndon)

Predictors of Health Care and Social Service Utilization and Perceived Need Among the Disabled Elderly in Canada

Description: The world has experienced a tremendous growth in its elderly population. With the aging of the population, policy makers are concerned about the health of these elderly as well as their utilization of health care and social services and perceived need for additional services. The Canadian elderly population is similar to other elderly populations in that a few tend to be the heaviest users of the available services. The predictors of this utilization behavior and perceived need primarily include need variables, such as the number of limitations of daily living -- both ADLs and IADLs, and functional limitations. In addition, enabling variables, such as income, work activity and geographic region of residence were also found to be significant.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Dietz, Tracy L.

Sexual Behavior Among Secondary School Going Adolescent Women in Zambia

Description: Adolescent fertility is a problem that is urgent in developing countries due to rapid population growth rates. To gain a better understanding of adolescent fertility within developing countries a study was undertaken to examine adolescent sexual behavior among teens within a developing country, Zambia. A self-administered questionnaire was given to secondary school going teenage women in Zambia. The sample population consisted of 503 women between the ages of 12 and 19. The survey was analyzed using both regression and univariate analysis of the data. The findings revealed that a high percentage of the teens have initiated sexual activity; yet few (4.2%) have ever used modern contraceptive methods. Suggestions were made for family planning programs that would involve both parents and their children.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Palka, Karen

Traditionalism and the Abused

Description: Battered women's perceptions of gender roles within the family were studied. Twenty white, working-class women who were victims of domestic violence were interviewed. It was determined that battered women have very traditional views of gender roles in the family and these views affected the choices that they made within their relationships and their ability to escape these abusive relationships.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Neal, Suzanne P.