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Antecedents of Power in the Distribution Channel : A Transaction-cost Perspective

Description: A discussion of reward, coercive, expert, legitimate, and referent power bases was the initial focus of this research. A review of the power sources literature suggested that vertical integration within a channel of distribution was a crucial precursor to develop a structure to facilitate the use of power without creating a significant conflict among channel participants. Elements of transaction cost analysis (TCA) were offered as being suitable for determining the existing level of vertical integration among respondent firms. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to develop a tentative model to determine proper use of power within varying levels of vertical integration.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Erdem, S. Altan (Selim Altan)

Characteristics of Purchasing Managers That Influence Preferences to Enter Buyer-Seller Partnerships by Single Sourcing

Description: This research addresses the question of whether there are personal characteristics of purchasing managers that lead them to make decisions regarding buyer-seller partnerships, and supplier sourcing in particular, that may be suboptimal, therefore affecting the performance of the firm. This question warrants study due to the current business environment, in which business firms have been entering into both formal and informal buyer-seller partnerships as a means of surviving in a highly competitive environment.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Swift, Cathy Owens

Continuity Expectations in Vertical Marketing Systems: a Dyadic Perspective of Domestic and International Franchising

Description: An emerging paradigm shift in the marketing discipline has prompted renewed research interest in the nature and scope of exchange. A common theme in the research to date is a departure from the traditional transactional orientation to a relational perspective of exchange. The relational emphasis is particularly germane to contractual Vertical Marketing Systems (VMS) where the emphasis is on long-term, mutually beneficial interaction between various channel members. The franchisor-franchisee relationship, a type of contractual VMS, is governed by norms that impact system efficiency and effectiveness. Despite the unprecedented growth of international franchising systems in the marketplace, a paucity of empirical attention has focused on cross-national franchisor-franchisee relationships. With many U.S.-based business format franchisors penetrating foreign markets, the primary purpose of the dissertation is to provide insights into tools which franchisors, and franchisees can use during the evolution of the exchange relationship. To identify differences across geographic boundaries, the dissertation simultaneously studies domestic and cross-border franchisor-franchisee relationships.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Mehta, Sanjay S. (Sanjay Subhash)

Determinants and Outcomes of Salespeople's Coping Style

Description: Some salespeople cope with the chronic stress that accompanies sales jobs better than others. That is, while all salespeople possess some ability for coping with job stress, some coping mechanisms work better than others. Thus, it is critically important to identify the coping mechanismwhich are associated with the most positive organizational outcomes (i.e., higher performance, increased retention). Research on the coping mechanisms of salespeople is in its exploratory stage. Increased knowledge concerning how salespeople cope with chronic job stress would help researchers and managers to clarify why certain job outcomes occur instead of others (i.e., performance, retention, and burnout). This study proposes and tests a set of relationships pertaining to the dimensionality and the outcomes of salespeople's coping styles. The model identifies the antecedents of coping style and proposes three types of coping style salespeople employ to reduce job stress- emotion focused coping (EFC), problemfocused coping (PFC) and action oriented coping (AOC). It also elucidates the outcomes associated with EFC and PFC styles. The empiricalfindingssuggest that among salespeople, those who use PFC possess a more pronounced internal locus of control, perceive higher social support, and project higher continuance commitment, and higher self efficacy than those who use EFC. The findings also suggest that salespeople who use PFC tend to be more satisfied and express greater well being than those who use EFC. Additionally, salespeople who use EFC tend to exhibit greater propensity to burnout and greater tendency to withdraw than those who use PFC. The model holds considerable promise froma managerial standpoint. Because the model partially predicts whether the outcome of a particular coping style will be positive or negative, managers can train their salespeople to cope with job stress more effectively. Additionally, it may be significantly helpful to those who recruit salespeople. Sales recruiters ought to be able to ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Srivastava, Rajesh, 1964-

Determinants of the Magnitude of Foreign Direct Investment: An Analysis of Korean Manufacturing MNCs

Description: The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate empirically the firm- and location-specific determinants of the magnitude of FDI by Korean manufacturing MNCs--one of the leading Third World MNCs. This study also examines firm-specific characteristics that distinguish Korean MNCs investing in developing countries from those investing in developed countries.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Kim, Seong-Soo

Development and Testing of a Resource-Based Theory of International Entry Mode Choice

Description: A firm can deploy a variety of arrangements (entry modes) like wholly owned subsidiaries, joint ventures, contracts, and export modes to implement its product market strategies in foreign countries. Each of these arrangements entails decisions about the location of production facilities and/or marketing operations, and the type of ownership of these operations. The choice of an entry mode is of strategic importance to a firm because it can involve investment of substantial amount of resources and has a strong bearing on the firm's marketing mix. Due to its strategic importance, the entry mode choice phenomenon has been extensively researched. In the past, seven major theories have been proposed but none is able to explain the choice from the complete set of entry modes. Thus, there exists a gap between the theory and practice of entry mode choice. This study provides breakthrough on two fronts. First, it develops a new theory of entry mode choice grounded in the resource-based perspective of the firm. The theory posits that the decision to locate its production and/or marketing operations in a country is related to the actualizability of the firm's competitive advantage in that country. However, the ownership decision is related to the sustainability of that advantage. Second, based on this theory, a model is developed which explains entry mode choices from the complete set of entry modes. Mail survey responses of Presidents/CEOs of 163 American firms with international operations support the model. The proposed framework is an effort to fill the gap between theory and practice of entry mode choice. It is expected to make a substantial contribution toward developing a sound theory of international operations of the firm. The framework is broader in scope than the extant theories because it transcends across industries and nationalities of firms.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Sharma, Varinder M. (Varinder Mohan)

The Eclectic Paradigm of Salesperson Compensation: a New Framework for Investigating the Role of Salary versus Commission

Description: Numerous researchers, employing theories from either psychology or economics, have investigated the circumstances under which firms are likely to adopt salary-based versus commission-based compensation plans. This study integrates the most common theoretical bases of salesperson compensation literature into a broad framework labeled the Eclectic Paradigm of Salesperson Compensation (EPSC). The EPSC proposes that there is a positive association between a firm's salary orientation and resource commitment, and a firm's salary orientation and firm control. There should be a negative association between salary orientation and dissemination risk, and salary orientation and salesperson motivation/performance. Twenty-three hypotheses originating from the EPSC were tested using a pretest sample of 48 real estate salespersons and a test sample of 311 real estate salespersons. The data were analyzed using common factor analysis, logistic regression, multivariate analysis of variance, and median tests. Of the 23 hypotheses, 10 were supported, 7 were partially supported, and 6 were not supported. The results suggest that the eclectic paradigm of salesperson compensation is a promising initial step toward developing a comprehensive model for understanding the determinants of salary versus commission.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Massad, Victor J. (Victor James)

The Effect of Comparative Well-Being on the Perceived Risk Construct: a Study of the Purchase of Apparel

Description: The purpose of this research was to examine how the intervening variable of comparative well-being (which is how persons view their age, financial resources, and health compared to others of their own age) will enhance the significance of the relationship between selected demographic and psychographic variables and perceived risk. Specifically, the research investigated the structural relationship between comparative well-being in four different statistical models: (1) as an independent predictor of perceived risk; (2) as an intensifier of the psychographic and demographic predictors of perceived risk; (3) as a covariate of perceived risk; and (4) finally, as a jointly dependent variable with perceived risk. This approach was pursued in an effort to enhance the traditional marketing use of demographic and psychographic variables in predictingconsumer buying behavior. The data for this study were gathered as part of a national consumer-panel mail survey utilizing approximately 3,000 households. The research instrument was a self-administered questionnaire which collected demographic, psychographic, and perceived risk information from purchasers of apparel wear. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The findings have identified the importance of how consumers position themselves in society, based on their locus of external involvement (community and social activity) and how satisfactory their position is in their social structure as measured by comparative well-being (perceived age, income, and health). The research results challenge the value of using only age and income as predictor variables for perceived risk, in that no significant relationships were found between age, income, and perceived risk. However, comparative well-being was found to intensify these relationships, in addition to functioning as an independent variable and a covariate in the perceived risk relationship. Also, it was found that respondents with higher degrees of comparative well-being perceived less ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: McConkey, C. William (Charles William)

The Effect of Information Technology on Productivity in the Retail Sector

Description: Three major research questions were addressed in this study. First, does information technology contribute to the productivity of retail institutions? Second, to what degree can information technology be substituted for labor and capital in retailing? Finally, is the market efficient in allocating information technology? These questions were chosen after a careful review of the literature revealed gaps in these areas.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Reardon, James F.

Effects of Perceived Quality, Product Category Similarity, and Brand Breadth on Consumers' Perceptions of Brand Extensions: Tests of Categorization Theory and Cognitive Response Theory

Description: Various constructs are related to predicting consumers' perceptions of brand extensions. Among these, three constructs, perceptions of perceived quality (PQ) associated with the parent brand, product category similarity (PCS) of an extension to its parent brand, and brand breadth (BB) of the parent, are central to many brand extension studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the roles of these three constructs and to pit predictions from an alternative theoretical perspective — cognitive response theory — against predictions based on categorization theory.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Lee, Dongdae

An Empirical Investigation of the Structural Form and Measurement Validity of the Hill Inventory

Description: This research began with the Hill Inventory. Cognitive style preference variables were classified as one of following four types: Theoretical Codes, Qualitative Codes, Social-Cultural Codes or Reasoning Modalities. A consumer behavior perspective was then used to form an alternative structure for the Hill Inventory variables. The following three constructs were proposed: Evaluation Codes, Perceptual Codes, and Reasoning Modalities. The purpose of this research was to assess the structural form and measurement validity of the Hill Inventory. Specific steps taken to accomplish this objective included: developing confirmatory factor and structural equation models; using the LISREL software package to analyze the model specifications; and assessing the validity of the questions used to measure the variables. A descriptive research design was used to compare the model specifications. The research instrument consisted of eight statements for each of twenty-eight variables for a total of 224 questions. Five-point response choices were described by the words: often, sometimes, unsure, rarely, or never. The sample consisted of 285 student subjects in marketing classes at a large university. Data analysis began by comparing the distributions of the data to a normal case. Parameter estimates, root mean square residuals and squared multiple correlations then were obtained using the LISREL VI software package. The chi-square statistic was used to test the hypotheses. This statistic was supplemented by the Tucker-Lewis index which used a null model for comparisons. The final step in data analysis was to assess the reliability of the measurements. This study affected the potential usage of the Hill Inventory for consumer behavior research. The major conclusion was that the measurement of the variables must be improved before model parameters can be tested. Specific question sets on the inventory were identified that were most in need of revision.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Blake, Faye W.

An Empirical Study on the Use of Promotion in Hospitals

Description: The role of marketing and marketing communication in hospitals has grown in the last decade. The need for hospitals to make careful decisions about their marketing communication efforts is mandated, given the changes taking place in the hospital industry. The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct empirical research to determine whether for-profit and non-profit hospitals perceive and utilize promotion as a marketing strategy element. The two steps taken included: identifying important factors considered by hospital administrators and marketing staff in the development of communication messages designed for patients, hospital staff and medical staff; and testing the factors developed and studying the attitudes of hospital personnel toward promotion using a national sample of hospitals. In phase 1, focus group interviews were conducted in a surrogate for-profit hospital and a surrogate non-profit hospital. In phase 2, an original mail questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 80 hospitals. A total of 38 hospitals participated, providing 114 usable responses. Test statistics included content analysis, Chi-Square, Pearson correlation coefficient and Analysis of Variance. The results of the focus group study indicated the practice of marketing in hospitals is in its early growth stages and marketing is viewed as nothing more than advertising and public relations. The results of the mail survey indicated that respondents in small for-profit hospitals with 20 to 30 years of experience as professionals, with key decision making authority, are favorably disposed to marketing and marketing communication. It was also found that respondents in large non-profit hospitals are very positive towards marketing. In contrast, respondents in medium and large for-profit hospitals, who are not directly involved in decision making, tend to be less positive towards marketing. The study serves as a basis for future research which may involve, (1) a larger sample frame, (2) hospitals in inner-city ...
Date: December 1988
Creator: Gopalakrishna, Pradeep

An Examination of the Nature of a Problematic Consumer Behavior : Compulsive Purchasing as a Learned Adaptive Response, Addiction, and Personality Disorder

Description: The problem examined in this study was the nature of compulsive purchasing behavior. Three proposed models depicting this behavior as a learned adaptive response to anxiety and/or depression, an addiction, and a personality disorder were introduced and discussed in Chapter I. Background information concerning the areas examined in the models was presented in Chapter II. The research methodology was discussed in Chapter III and the findings of the research presented in Chapter IV. A summary, conclusions, implications, and recommendations were presented in Chapter V.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Briney, Alicia L. (Alicia Lyn)

An Exploratory Analysis of the Food Consumption Behavior of Up-scale Asian-American Consumers

Description: The first objective of this research was to identify whether Asian-Americans having higher than average levels of income and education represent an appropriate target market for four food product categories. Second, the impact of national origin membership, demographic variables, and level of acculturation on food consumption was determined. In addition, perceptions related to sensory and nutritional factors and the cultural acceptability of the products were identified and interpreted to determine if the variables differed among specific groups of Asian-American consumers.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Boykin, Nancy J. (Nancy Jo)

An Exploratory Empirical Investigation of Information Processing among Incubator-Housed Manufacturers during Channel Member Selection

Description: The purpose of this research was to conduct an exploratory study of the information processing utilized by incubator-housed manufacturers during channel member selection. The study included the evaluation of the decision models used by the manufacturers as well as criteria used in the selection process. The study was specifically designed to achieve the following objectives. First, the research was to identify the evaluation modes used by the manufacturers as either compensatory or noncompensatory. Second, the study was to evaluate the effect of the task on the selection of the evaluation model(s) used during the channel member selection process. Third, the study was to evaluate the effect of the selected decision strategy on the amount of information used during the decision process. Finally, the study was to identify and examine the importance of the criteria used by the manufacturers in the selection process. The methodology in this study consisted of primary research using protocol analysis as the main data gathering technique. A ranking instrument was also mailed to the respondents prior to the protocol session. The population for the study was identified as all manufacturers located in publicly-sponsored business incubators. A total of 235 incubators were in existence with approximately 47 percent of them being publicly-sponsored. Approximately 42 percent of the incubators house at least one manufacturing firm. It was estimated that there were approximately 46 manufacturing firms located in public incubators. A sample of six was used in this study. The statistical analysis included frequencies, cross tabulations, correlations, paired comparisons, and measures of association. The findings of this study suggest that the incubator-housed manufacturers' choice of evaluation models was not affected by the task nor did the selected strategy influence the amount of information used by the manufacturers. The findings indicate a need for further research to evaluate the relationships ...
Date: December 1988
Creator: Fontenot, Gwen F.

An Exploratory Field Study of Adolescent Consumer Behavior: The Family Purchasing Agent

Description: An exploratory field study was conducted to examine internal and external factors that influence adolescents' consumer behavior when serving as the family purchasing agents. Demographic, lifestyle, and marketing activities were examined to determine the influences that affect whether the adolescent will purchase the preferred family brands or other brands. Participating adolescents were sent by their parents to the grocery store on two separate occasions to purchase four preselected grocery items. The brands purchased were recorded and compared to the preferred brand names provided by the parents. While no statistical significance was found, occasional trends were observed. The analysis indicated that adolescents who experience a pluralistic family communication style will purchase products other than the preferred household brands. Adolescents who are exposed to television and radio tend to deviate more from the preferred family brands more often than do adolescents with less media exposure. Adolescents who work are more likely to go to the grocery store more often for their families than do nonworking adolescents. Also, adolescents seem to possess a price sensitivity to both high and low-involvement grocery items.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Hardy, Jane P.

An Exploratory Study of the Information Search Stage of the Consumer Decision Process: Based on Elderly Consumers' Selection of a New Housing Bundle

Description: This dissertation deals with the decision-to-move process of elderly persons—from a marketer's perspective. The central problem addressed is the lack of empirical knowledge concerning the factors and influences associated with the information search process of elderly persons in making a residential move decision. The purpose was to investigate and understand the key factors and influences which are viewed as important by elderly individuals in their search for and use of information.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Judd, Vaughan C. (Vaughan Charles)

Factors Associated with Salespersons' Use of Influence Tactics and Their Outcomes : An Exploratory Study

Description: The use of influence tactics by sales representatives appears to be related to a number of latent constructs and factors such as, manifest needs, role conflict and role ambiguity, and perception of sales managers' power bases. However, such relationships have not been examined by researchers. These relationships were examined in this study in an effort to improve the current level of understanding of causes and results of the use of influence tactics in a sales environment. The contention of this study was that individuals in work settings engage in a variety of influence tactics, and that the type of influence tactics used are influenced by factors such as personal characteristics of the salespersons, the nature of goals to be achieved, the salespersons' perceptions of their superiors' power bases, and the nature and complexity of the dyadic relationship that exists between supervisor and subordinates.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Nonis, Sarath A. (Sarath Alban)

The Industrial Representative's Perception of the Impact of Managerial Control Systems on Performance

Description: The objective of this study was to examine whether the factors which constitute the manufacturer/industrial-representative relationship, influence performance as predicted by control theory. In addition, the study evaluated the contribution of selected demographic factors such as size of the firm, and the representative's experience, on performance.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Dunipace, Richard A. (Richard Alan)

Influence Impacting Female Teenagers' Clothing Interest: a Consumer Socialization Perspective

Description: Female teenagers have been found to be the most affluent teens according to the Rand Youth Poll's nationwide survey. The survey finds the average weekly income from female teens age 16 to 19 to be $82, with $50 from earnings and the balance from their allowances. Other findings from the survey indicate that adolescent girls receive more than adolescent males in allowance from parents, as mothers understand the need for the female teen to have the income necessary to purchase clothing and cosmetics. Past research studies have attempted to measure the influence sources on teenagers when purchasing clothing by asking teens to rank different influence sources or by asking the teens who accompany them when shopping. The current research study develops a structural equation model that allows for the comparison of the three predominant influence sources identified in the consumer socialization literature, i.e., parental influence, peer influence, and promotional communications sought out by the teen. To test the model, 206 randomly selected female teenagers completed a mail questionnaire regarding the influences on clothing interest. The female teens were all members of a non-denominational youth group, age 13 to 19, living in the North Texas region. The model derived is only the third model in the marketing literature to examine the consumer socialization process, and the first in fifteen years. Examining the three main influence sources identified from consumer socialization literature, peer, parent, and media sources, the results differ from past models. The female teens perceive parental influence as a negative influence on clothing interest, contrary to past findings. Peers and media are perceived as positive influences on teen clothing interest as in past models. The results signify the need for marketing researchers to continue to investigate the dynamic nature of consumer socialization.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Waguespack, Blaise P. (Blaise Philip)

Innovation Teams: an Empirical Examination of the Relationship of Team Climate and Development Strategies in Consumer Packaged Goods Industries

Description: Companies’ new primary source for sustainable revenue growth comes from creating new innovations, rather than from mergers and acquisitions. Companies are finding it difficult to align internal support for the innovative creativity of teams with standard operating procedures. This research aims to discover how innovative teams contribute to forming development strategies that CPG firms use to create new products. Dimensions of the Theory of Team Climate in Innovation (TTCI) offer insight on the dimensions of development strategy. Specifically, by integrating the theories, a proposed model identifies the innovation team’s impact on the firm’s development strategies. Such understanding has the potential to increase firm profits, lower innovation costs, increase innovation speed, and support innovation training. To empirically test this model, employees responsible for product development in the consumer packaged goods (CPG) industries were surveyed. Structural modeling techniques were used to analyze the data. Findings indicate support for using TTCI to explain the compressed development strategy. Theoretical contributions include: 1) extending TTCI and its associated measures into tangible products industries, 2) refining and adding to TTCI measures, 3) extending the development strategies theory into tangible products industries, and 4) adding to the measures for development strategy. Future research appears fertile for methods and measures used in this study, and managers in CPG will benefit from an enhanced understanding of how to better structure innovation teams in alignment with a firm’s development strategy.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Mims, Tina C.

An Investigation of the Perception of Delivered Quality at Different Levels of Organizational Hierarchy in Services

Description: The overall purpose of this research was to add to existing theory of quality pertaining to the service provider's perception of quality. Quality in the service industry is difficult to assess because of the intangible, heterogeneous and labor intensive nature of services. In addition, personnel have varying perceptions of delivered quality based on their position within the organizational hierarchy. This study enhanced the Service Quality Model developed by Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman (1988). An additional gap ("gap 6") was hypothesized and investigated. This gap describes the differences in perceived delivered quality by employees at different organizational levels (e.g., managerial, supervisory, and non-management employees) across different market segments. The researcher proposed that "gap 6" has a significant impact on total perceived delivered quality. The survey instrument addressed five dimensions of overall quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The survey was administered to employees from hotels representing three market segments located within the same metropolitan area and managed by the same company. A 3 X 3 factorial design was used with three organizational levels (managers, supervisors, and hourly employees) and three lodging market segments (luxury, business-traveller, and long-term/suite). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Getty, Juliet M. (Juliet Margolin)

Modeling the "Make-or-Buy" Logistics Decision: An Empirical Analysis of the Logistic Decision Drivers for Suppliers and Manufacturers in Vendor Managed Inventory Relationships

Description: Managing the movement of components and products from suppliers to customers and ultimately to end-users is undergoing rapid changes. Supply chain management has increasingly gained attention as companies have sought to reduce costs and improve service performance in a quest for gaining an advantage on the competition.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Ricketts, Philip M.

Perceptions of Work Group and Managerial Behaviors as Antecedents of a Salesperson's Commitment, Performance, and Turnover

Description: Theoretically grounded and empirically testable conceptualizations that offer alternative explanations regarding sales force performance and turnover can: (a) enhance understanding regarding these pivotal outcomes, and (b) augment an organization's capability to increase sales and decrease turnover. The study advances one such explanation by conceptualizing and testing a perceptual model that links a salesperson's psychological climate dimensions to organizational commitment, performance, and turnover. The framework the study proposes respecifies the leadership and work group dimensions of psychological climate into four distinct perceptions (i.e., a salesperson's perceptions regarding the behaviors of work group, sales manager, senior management, and non sales employees in the organization). These climate dimensions are posited to influence positively a salesperson's organizational commitment which consequently influences positively the salesperson's effort and intention to stay with the organization. The proposed outcomes of organizational commitment result in increased performance and decreased turnover. Success beliefs and perceived behavioral control are posited to moderate the relationship between the salesperson's organizational commitment and effort. The study tests the hypothesized relationships on a sample of salespersons belonging to a telecommunications organization utilizing path and hierarchical regression analyses.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Gulati, Rajesh, 1964-