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The Association Between Computer- Oriented and Non-Computer-Oriented Mathematics Instruction, Student Achievement, and Attitude Towards Mathematics in Introductory Calculus

Description: The purposes of this study were (a) to develop, implement, and evaluate a computer-oriented instructional program for introductory calculus students, and (b) to explore the association between a computer-oriented calculus instructional program, a non-computer-oriented calculus instructional program, student achievement on three selected calculus topics, and student attitude toward mathematics. An experimental study was conducted with two groups of introductory calculus students during the Spring Semester, 1989. The computer-oriented group consisted of 32 students who were taught using microcomputer calculus software for in-class presentations and homework assignments. The noncomputer-oriented group consisted of 40 students who were taught in a traditional setting with no microcomputer intervention. Each of three experimenter-developed achievement examinations was administered in a pretest/posttest format with the pretest scores being used both as a covariate and in determining the two levels of student prior knowledge of the topic. For attitude toward mathematics, the Aiken-Dreger Revised Math Attitude Scale was administered in a pretest/ posttest format with the pretest scores being used as a covariate. Students were also administered the MAA Calculus Readiness Test to determine two levels of calculus prerequisite skill mastery. An ANCOVA for achievement and attitude toward mathematics was performed by treatment, level, and interaction of treatment and level. Using a .05 level of significance, there was no significant difference in treatments, levels of prior knowledge of topic, nor interaction when achievement was measured by each of the three achievement examination posttests. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between treatments, levels of student prerequisite skill mastery, and interaction when attitude toward mathematics was measured, at the .05 level of significance. It was concluded that the use of the microcomputer in introductory calculus instruction does not significantly effect either student achievement in calculus or student attitude toward mathematics.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Hamm, D. Michael (Don Michael)

The Effect of Sequencing Microeconomics and Macroeconomics on Learning

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on student learning from the sequence in which microeconomics and macroeconomics courses are taken. The sample for this study consisted of all students enrolled in 23 sections of Economics 1100 (Principles of Microeconomics) and 10 sections of Economics 1110 (Principles of Macroeconomics) during the fall semester, 1987, at the University of North Texas. The sample also consisted of all students enrolled in 14 sections of Economics 1100 and 12 sections of Economics 1110 during the spring semester, 1988, at the University of North Texas. The instruments chosen for use in measuring cognitive gains were two versions, each with 14 items, selected from the Joint council on Economic Educations's Revised Test of Understanding College Economics. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression on five models. Each model used a different dependent variable to measure cognitive gain. The dependent variables were additive grade points, additive absolute improvement posttest scores, gap-closing posttest scores, microeconomic gap-closing scores and macroeconomic gap-closing posttest scores. The general hypothesis that students who complete microeconomics instruction followed by macroeconomics instruction have significantly higher cognitive gains than students who complete macroeconomics instruction followed by microeconomics instruction was not verified by the main effects. While the main effect of sequence was not significant, the interaction of sequence with previous high school economics was significant in the models using dependent variables of additive absolute improvement posttest score, gap-closing posttest score and microeconomic gap-closing posttest score. In addition, the interaction of sequence with previous college economics was significant on the dependent variable gap-closing posttest score. These findings seem to indicate that students who complete a sequence of macroeconomics followed by microeconomics with no previous exposure to economics have higher cognitive gains. In addition, students who complete a sequence of microeconomics followed by macroeconomics and ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Trask, Jill A. (Jill Ann)

Medication Knowledge and Compliance among the Elderly: Comparison and Evaluation of Two Teaching Methods

Description: The problem of this study was to compare and evaluate two methods of teaching medication compliance to an elderly population with a variety of medical problems, cultural backgrounds, and educational levels. Eighty patients over 65 years old who were attending clinic at a county health care facility participated in the study and were randomly placed into two groups. The Medication Knowledge and Compliance Scale was used to assess the patients' medication knowledge and self—reported compliance. Group I (control) received only verbal teaching. Group II (experimental) received verbal teaching as well as a Picture Schedule designed to tailor the patients' medication schedule to their daily activities. Each patient was re—evaluated two to three weeks later. Medications were also counted at each visit and prescription refill records were examined. Knowledge and compliance did increase significantly among all 80 participants. Patients in Group II demonstrated a significantly greater increase in compliance than Group I but did not show a greater increase in knowledge. Patients in Group II also improved compliance as evidenced by their prescription refill records. This study demonstrates that even though significant barriers to learning exist, knowledge and compliance can be significantly improved when proper teaching techniques are utilized.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Hussey, Leslie C. Trischank (Leslie Corrine Trischank)

The Spiritual Quest and Health and C.S. Lewis

Description: In this study, C. S. Lewis's books, essays, stories, and poems, in addition to biographies and essays written about Lewis, were read in an attempt to understand the relationship between Lewis's spiritual quest and his total health. The spiritual quest is defined as the search for the ultimate truth and meaning of life. For Lewis, who was a Christian, the quest for the Spirit is a journey toward God-Jesus-the Holy Spirit. Health is defined as total experience; the interrelationship of the body, mind, and spirit with all there is, has been, and will be. Health is considered a changing perception, not a fixed state. The dimensions of Lewis's health—physical, psychological, social, and spiritual—are studied. Lewis's physical states, literary works, literary themes, friendships, ethics, marriage, and views on religion are considered as each relates to his determination to know and to love God. For Lewis, anything without God is nothing. God is the creator of all living things and all matter. He is the inventor of all loves and is Love. In Lewis's opinion, one's health is in direct proportion to one's love for God. When man loves God he is healthy, the more he loves Him the healthier, the less he loves Him the less healthy.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Guthrie, Barbara Ann Bowman