UNT Libraries - 44 Matching Results

Search Results

The Relationship of Force on Myosin Subfragment 2 Region to the Coiled-Coiled Region of the Myosin Dimer

Description: The stability of myosin subfragment 2 was analyzed using gravitational force spectroscopy. The region was found to destabilize under physiological force loads, indicating the possibility that subfragment 2 may uncoil to facilitate actin binding during muscle contraction. As a control, synthetic cofilaments were produced to discover if the observations in the single molecule assay were due to the lack of the stability provided by the thick filament. Statistically, there was no difference between the single molecule assay data and the synthetic cofilament assay data. Thus, the instability of the region is due to intrinsic properties within subfragment 2.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Hall, Nakiuda M.

NSAID effect on prostanoids in fishes: Prostaglandin E2 levels in bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus) exposed to ibuprofen.

Description: Prostanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid with a wide range of physiological effects in vertebrates including modulation of inflammation and innate immune responses. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids. In order to better understand the potential of environmental NSAIDS for interruption of normal levels COX products in fishes, we developed an LC/MS/MS-based approach for tissue analysis of 7 prostanoids. Initial studies examining muscle, gut and gill demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was the most abundant of the measured prostanoids in all tissues and that gill tissue had the highest and most consistent concentrations of PGE2. After short-term 48-h laboratory exposures to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100 ppb ibuprofen, 50.0ppb and 100.0 ppb exposure concentrations resulted in significant reduction of gill tissue PGE2 concentration by approximately 30% and 80% respectively. The lower exposures did not result in significant reductions when compared to unexposed controls. Measured tissue concentrations of ibuprofen indicated that this NSAID had little potential for bioaccumulation (BCF 1.3) and the IC50 of ibuprofen for inhibition of PGE2 production in gill tissue was calculated to be 0.4 µM. Short-term laboratory exposure to ibuprofen did not result in significant alteration of concentrations of PGE2 at environmentally relevant concentrations.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Bhandari, Khageshor

Identifying genetic interactions of the spindle checkpoint in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Description: Faithful segregation of chromosomes is ensured by the spindle checkpoint. If a kinetochore does not correctly attach to a microtubule the spindle checkpoint stops cell cycle progression until all chromosomes are attached to microtubules or tension is experienced while pulling the chromosomes. The C. elegans gene, san-1, is required for spindle checkpoint function and anoxia survival. To further understand the role of san-1 in the spindle checkpoint, an RNAi screen was conducted to identify genetic interactions with san-1. The kinetochore gene hcp-1 identified in this screen, was known to have a genetic interaction with hcp-2. Interestingly, san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(ok1757) had embryonic and larval lethal phenotypes, but the phenotypes observed are less severe compared to the phenotypes of san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals. Both san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) and san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(RNAi) produce eggs that may hatch; but san-1(ok1580):hcp-1(RNAi) larvae do not survive to adulthood due to defects caused by aberrant chromosome segregations during development. Y54G9A.6 encodes the C. elegans homolog of bub-3, and has spindle checkpoint function. In C.elegans, bub-3 has genetic interactions with san-1 and mdf-2. An RNAi screen for genetic interactions with bub-3 identified that F31F6.3 may potentially have a genetic interaction with bub-3. This work provided genetic evidence that hcp-1, hcp-2 and F31F6.2 interact with spindle checkpoint genes.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Stewart, Neil

Interactions of N-Acylethanolamine Metabolism and Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedlings

Description: N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous plant lipids hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). When wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were germinated and grown in exogenous NAE 12:0 (35 µM and above), growth was severely reduced in a concentration dependent manner. Wildtype A. thaliana seeds sown on exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) exhibited similar growth reduction to that seen with NAE treatment. AtFAAH knockouts grew and developed similarly to WT, but AtFAAH overexpressor lines show markedly enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When low levels of NAE and ABA, which have very little effect on growth alone, were combined, there was a dramatic reduction in seedling growth in all three genotypes, indicating a synergistic interaction between ABA and NAE. Notably, this synergistic arrest of seedling growth was partially reversed in the ABA insensitive (abi) mutant abi3-1, indicating that a functional ABA signaling pathway is required for the full synergistic effect. This synergistic growth arrest results in an increased accumulation of NAEs, but no concomitant increase in ABA levels. The combined NAE and ABA treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in ABI3 transcript levels, which was inversely related to growth. The ABA responsive genes AtHVA22B and RD29B also had increased expression in both NAE and ABA treatment. The abi3-1 mutant showed no expression of ABI3 and AtHVA22B, but RD29B expression remained similar to wildtype seedlings, suggesting an alternate mechanism for NAE and ABA interaction. Taken together, these data suggest that NAE metabolism acts through ABI3-dependent and independent pathways in the negative regulation of seedling development.
Date: August 2010
Creator: Cotter, Matthew Q.

Evidence for the Interaction of GTP with Rat Liver Glyoxalase II

Description: Glyoxalase 11, the second enzyme of the glyoxalase system, hydrolyzes S-D-lactoylglutathione (SLG) to regenerate glutathione (GSH) and liberate free D-lactate. It was found that GTP binds with Gil from rat liver and inhibits Gil activity. Preincubation experiments showed that the binding is relatively tight, since more than 15 minutes are required to release GTP from the complex following dilution. Inhibition kinetics studies indicate that GTP is a "partially competitive inhibitor"; Thus, it would appear that the binding sites for substrate (SLG) and inhibitor (GTP) are different, but spatially close. Glyoxalase 11 binds to a GTP affinity medium, and with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Gil has a higher relative mobility when GTP is present (ATP has no effect). The functional consequences of GTP binding with a specific site on Gil are still unclear. It is speculated that Gil may interact with tubulin by serving as a dissociable GTP carrier, delivering GTP to the tubulinGTP binding site, and thus facilitating tubulin polymerization.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Yuan, Win-Jae

Studies on ADP-Ribose Polymer Metabolism in Cultured Mammalian Cells Following DNA Damage

Description: ADP-ribose polymer metabolism has been studied in human cells derived from a patient with Glutamyl Ribose Phosphate Storage Disease (GRPSD) and in mouse C3H1OT1/2 cells following oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H202 ). It has been postulated that GRPSD resulted from an abnormality in ADP-ribose polymer metabolism. This study has shown that these cells exhibit reduced poly(ADP ribose) polymerase activity which is proposed to result from modification of the enzyme with ribose phosphate groups. The modification in the polymerase is proposed to be secondary to a defect in either ADP-ribosyl proteinlyase or an overproduction of a cellular phosphodiesterase. The metabolism of ADP-ribose polymers was rapidly altered by H202 and there were independent effects on adenine nucleotide pools. The results suggest that ADP-ribose polymer metabolism is involved in cellular defenses to oxidative stress.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Maharaj, Geeta

Synthesis and Kinetic Mechanism Study of Phosphonopeptide as a Dead-End Inhibitor of cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

Description: DL-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, an isostere of phosphoserine, was incorporated into the heptapeptide sequence, Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-(DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid)-Leu-Gly, for kinetic mechanistic studies of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. To block the phosphono hydroxyl groups, methyl, ethyl and 4nitrobenzyl esters were studied as possible protecting groups. The phosphono diethyl ester of the N-Fmoc-protected amino acid was utilized in the synthesis of the heptapeptide. Two configurational forms of the protected peptide were obtained and were separated by C18-reverse phase HPLC. Characterization of the two isomeric forms was accomplished by 3 1P NMR, 1H NMR, 13C% NMR and amino acid analysis. The protecting groups of the isomeric phsophonopeptides were removed by HBr/AcOH and purified by cation exchange HPLC. Both phosphonopeptides were found to be inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, having Ki values of 0.6 mM (peptide A) and 1.9 mM (peptide B).
Date: December 1991
Creator: Yang, Chunhua

Homologous Recombination in Q-Beta Rna Bacteriophage

Description: Q-Beta phage RNAs with inactivating insertion (8 base) or deletion (17 base) mutations within their replicase genes were transfected into Escherichia coli spheroplasts containing QB replicase provided in trans by a resident plasmid. Replicase-defective (Rep~) Q3 phage produced by these spheroplasts were unable to form plaques on cells lacking this plasmid. When individual Rep~ phage were isolated and grown to high titer in cells containing plasmid derived Q3 replicase, revertant Q3 phage (Rep'), with the original mutation (insertion or deletion) repaired, were obtained at a frequency of ca. 1 x 108. RNA recombination via a "template switching" mechanism involving Q3 replicase, the mutant phage genome, and the plasmid-derived replicase mRNA was shown to be the primary means by which these mutant phages reverted to wild type.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Palasingam, Kampan

Pre-Steady State Kinetics of the NAD-Malic Enzyme from Ascaris suum in the Direction of Oxidative Decarboxylation of L-Malate

Description: Stopped-flow experiments in which the NAD-malic enzyme was preincubated with different reactants at near saturating substrate concentrations suggest a slow isomerization of the E:NAD:Mg complex. The lag is eliminated by preincubation with Mg˙² and malate suggesting that the formation of E:Mg:Malate either bypasses or speeds up the slow isomerization step. Circular dichroic spectral studies of the secondary structural changes of the native enzyme in the presence and absence of substrates supports the existence of conformational changes with NAD˙ and malate. Thus, a slow conformational change of the E:NAD:Mg complex is likely one of the rate-limiting steps in the pre-steady state.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Rajapaksa, Ranjani, 1949-

Characterization of Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase of Different Sizes

Description: Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified from human placenta utilizing cross-linked spherical particle phosphocellulose. In three steps, GPI could be purified approximately 5500 fold with greater than 50% recovery. The purified enzyme exhibited four bands upon non-denaturing PAGE and isoelectric focusing (IEF) when stained with GPI specific activity stain. The four isozymes were isolated by preparative IEF. The isoelectric points of the isozymes were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis showed two types of subunits with different molecular weights. Structural analyses showed both types of subunits had blocked amino termini. Other properties of the isozymes and subunits, including immunological reactivity, pH stability, peptide mapping and amino acid composition, were also established.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Sun, An Qiang

Protein Kinase C Activation in Hyperglycemic Bovine Lens Epithelial Cells

Description: This study demonstrates the presence of protein kinase C activity in both cytosolic and membrane fractions of bovine lens epithelial cells in culture. Protein kinase C activity is similar in normal and hyperglycemic cells. Furthermore, the ability of the enzyme to translocate from the cytosol to the membrane following phorbol ester treatment is unimpeded by hyperglycemic conditions. Moreover, protein kinase C activation had no effect on myoinositol uptake either in normal cells or in cells exposed to hyperglycemic conditions.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Fan, Wen-Lin

The Nucleotide Sequences of a Mammalian Tyrosine Transfer RNA and a Cluster of Human Transfer RNA Genes

Description: Tyrosine tRNA was isolated from bovine liver and its nucleotide sequence was determined using in vitro 32p_ labeling techniques. Several important structural features of the tRNA are: the presence of gal-Q in the first position of the anticodon, acp3U at position 20, and a pair of adjacent N,N-dimethylguanosines (residues 26 and 27). A human DNA fragment harbored in a lambda phage clone was isolated, and restriction enzyme analysis revealed the presence of three tRNA genes in a 6.0-kb BamHI subfragment. Portions of the 6.0-kb DNA fragment containing the tRNA genes were sequenced by the method of Maxam and Gilbert and analyzed for transcriptional activity in vitro using homologous cytoplasmic extracts. A threonine tRNAUGU gene exhibited high transcriptional activity dependent on its 5'- flanking sequence. The enhanced transcription is not completely inhibited by alpha-amanitin. The value of studying tRNA structure in concert with the cognate tRNA. genes is discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Johnson, Gary D. (Gary Dean), 1960-

Studies of the Interaction of LCAT with Lipoprotein Substrates in HDL Deficient Plasma Systems

Description: Enzymatic and lipid transfer reactions involved in reverse cholesterol transport were studied in HDL deficient plasma systems. Fasting plasma samples were obtained from control and cholesterol fed guinea pigs as well as from a fish eye disease patient and were used to localize the enzyme LCAT among plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, and HDL). In both guinea pig and fish eye disease patient plasma, the LCAT activity was found in association with the HDL type particles. Cholesterol feeding in guinea pigs altered the properties of lipoprotein substrates for LCAT resulting in some changes, specifically: 1) decreased fractional rate of plasma cholesterol esterification and, 2) lower transfer of free cholesterol (FC) and esterified cholesterol (CE) within the lipoprotein fractions.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Paranjape, Sulabha

Structural Analyses of a Human Valine Transfer RNA Gene and of a Transfer RNA Pseudogene Cluster

Description: Two different cloned human DNA segments encompassing transfer RNA gene and pseudogene clusters have been isolated from a human gene library harbored in bacteriophage lambda Charon 4-A. One clone (designated as λhVal7) encompassing a 20.5-kilobase (Kb) human DNA insert was found to contain a valine transfer RNA_AAC gene and several Alu-like elements by Southern blot hybridization analysis and DNA sequencing with the dideoxyribonucleotide chain-termination method in the bacteriophage M13mp19 vector. Another lambda clone (designated as λhLeu8) encompassing a 14.3-Kb segment of human DNA was found to contain a methionine elongator transfer RNA_CAT pseudogene and other as yet unidentified transfer RNA pseudogenes.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Lee, Mike Ming-Jen

Molecular and biochemical characterization of phospholipase D in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) seedlings.

Description: N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are enriched in seed-derived tissues and are believed to be formed from the membrane phospholipid, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) via the action of phospholipase D (PLD). In an effort to identify a functional NAPE-PLD in cotton seeds and seedlings, we have screened a cotton seedling cDNA (cotyledon mRNA from 48 h dark grown seedlings) library with a 1.2 kb tobacco partial cDNA fragment encoding the middle third of a putative PLDβ/γ (genbank accession, AF195614) isoform. Six plaques were isolated from the Uni-ZAP lambda library, excised as pBluescript SK(-) phagemids and subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Alignment of derived sequences with Arabidopsis PLD family members indicated that the cDNAs represent six different PLD gene products -three putative PLD β isoforms and three putative PLD δ isoforms. The PLD β isoforms, designated Ghpldβ1a, GHpldβ1b and a truncated Ghpldβ1b isoform. Both the full-length PLD β proteins contained characteristic HKxxxxD catalytic domains, a PC-binding domain, a PIP2-binding domain and a C2 domain. In addition both cotton PLD β isoforms had a N-terminal "SPQY" rich domain which appeared to be unique to these PLDs. The three PLD δ isoforms, designated Ghpldδ1a, Ghpldδ1b and Ghpldδ1b-2 encode full-length PLDδ proteins, and like the above PLDs, contained the characteristic catalytic and regulatory domains. The expression of Ghpldδ1b showed hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activity toward radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine (PC) but it appears Ghpldδ1b does not utilize NAPE as a substrate to produce NAEs nor does it seem to be suppressed by NAEs.
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Date: May 2005
Creator: McHugh, John

Sensitive Microtiter Assays for NAD, NADP and Protein Quantification in Human Lymphocytes

Description: Intracellular levels of NAD are of renewed interest in clinical and basic science research due to the new discovery of enzymes which utilize NAD as a substrate. Microtiter assays for the determination of NAD, NADP and protein were developed as modifications of previously published methods. The resulting assays are simple, cost effective and sensitive. An improved method of isolating lymphocytes was also developed. The resultant procedure requires one hour and removes greater than 99.9% of the platelets. Lymphocyte pools were stabilized with the addition of ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitors and a modified extraction procedure. These studies have led to the development of a method for evaluation of NAD in human lymphocytes that is sensitive, selective and suitable for automation.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Johnson, James, 1964-

In Vitro Modulation of Rat Liver Glyoxalase II Activity

Description: Glyoxylase II (Glo II, E.C. 3.1.2.6) catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-Lactoylglutathione (SLG) to D-Lactate and glutathione. This is the rate limiting step in the conversion of methylglyoxal to D-Lactate. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between some naturally occuring metabolites and in vivo modulation of Glo II. We have observed a non-competitive inhibition (~ 45%) of Glo II in crude preparation of rat liver by GTP (0.3 mM). A factor (apparently protein),devoid of Glo II,when reconstituted with the purified Glo II, enhanced Glo II activity. This coordinate activation and inhibition of Glo II suggest a mechanism whereby SLG levels can be modulated in vivo.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Mbamalu, Godwin E.

Physical Mapping of Human Transfer RNA Gene Clusters

Description: Two plaque-pure phage lambda clones designated as λhtX-l and λhtX-2 that hybridized to unfractionated bovine liver tRNA were isolated from a human X chromosome-specific library. The λDNAs were characterized by restriction mapping and Southern blot hybridization techniques. The human DNA segment in λhtX-l contains five or more presumptive tRNA genes and at least one Alu family member. The 19-kilobase human DNA insert in λhtX-2 contains two or more presumptive tRNA genes and at least three Alu family members. Another human genomic clone designated λhVKV7 hybridized to mammalian valine tRNA IAC. The clone was characterized by physical mapping and Southern blot hybridization techniques. The 18.5-kilobase human DNA fragment in λhVKV7 contains a cluster of three tRNA genes and at least nine Alu family members.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Wang, Luping

Tobacco Phospholipase D β1: Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization

Description: Transgenic tobacco plants were developed containing a partial PLD clone in antisense orientation. The PLD isoform targeted by the insertion was identified. A PLD clone was isolated from a cDNA library using the partial PLD as a probe: Nt10B1 shares 92% identity with PLDβ1 from tomato but lacks the C2 domain. PCR analysis confirmed insertion of the antisense fragment into the plants: three introns distinguished the endogenous gene from the transgene. PLD activity was assayed in leaf homogenates in PLDβ/g conditions. When phosphatidylcholine was utilized as a substrate, no significant difference in transphosphatidylation activity was observed. However, there was a reduction in NAPE hydrolysis in extracts of two transgenic plants. In one of these, a reduction in elicitor- induced PAL expression was also observed.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Hodson, Jane E.

Identification and Characterization of a Calcium/Phospholipid-Dependent Protein Kinase in P1798 Lymphosarcomas

Description: Calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC) was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. Phospholipid-dependence was specific for phosphatidylserine. PKC phosphorylated Histone 1, with an apparent K_m of 14.1 μM. Chlorpromazine, a lipid-binding drug, inhibited PKC activity by 100%. Further studies were undertaken to establish analytical conditions which could be applied to the study of PKC in intact cells. The conditions included (1) determining optimum cell concentration for measuring PKC activity, (2) recovering PKC into the soluble fraction of cell extracts, (3) evaluating calcium and phospholipid requirements of PKC in this fraction, and (4) inhibiting PKC in this fraction. Final studies involved treatment of intact cells with potential activators. Both phytohaemagglutinin and a phorbol ester increased PKC activation.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Magnino, Peggy E. (Peggy Elizabeth)

Purification and Studies of Methylglyoxal Reductase from Sheep Liver

Description: The objectives of these investigations were (1) the purification of MG reductase from sheep liver and (2) studies of some of its characteristics. MG reductase was purified 40 fold and showed a single band on SDS-PAGE. Molecular weight estimations with SDS-PAGE showed a molecular weight of 44,000; although gel filtration with Sephadex G-150 gave a molecular weight of 87,000 indicating that the enzyme might be a dimer. The Km for MG is 1.42 mM and for NADH it is 0.04 mM. The pH optimum for the purified enzyme is pH 7.0. Isoelectric focusing experiments showed a pI of 9.3. In vivo experiments involving rats treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T_3) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) indicated that MG reductase was depressed by T_3 and elevated by PTU.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Lambert, Patricia A.

FLP-mediated conditional loss of an essential gene to facilitate complementation assays

Description: Commonly, when it is desirable to replace an essential gene with an allelic series of mutated genes, or genes with altered expression patterns, the complementing constructs are introduced into heterozygous plants, followed by the selection of homozygous null segregants. To overcome this laborious and time-consuming step, the newly developed two-component system utilizes a site-specific recombinase to excise a wild-type copy of the gene of interest from transformed tissues. In the first component (the first vector), a wild-type version of the gene is placed between target sequences recognized by FLP recombinase from the yeast 2 μm plasmid. This construct is transformed into a plant heterozygous for a null mutation at the endogenous locus, and progeny plants carrying the excisable complementing gene and segregating homozygous knockout at the endogenous locus are selected. The second component (the second vector) carries the experimental gene along with the FLP gene. When this construct is introduced, FLP recombinase excises the complementing gene, leaving the experimental gene as the only functional copy. The FLP gene is driven by an egg apparatus specific enhancer (EASE) to ensure excision of the complementing cDNA in the egg cell and zygote following floral-dip transformation. The utility of this system is being tested using various experimental derivatives of the essential sucrose-proton symporter, AtSUC2, which is required for photoassimilate transport.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Ganesan, Savita

Regulation of an S6/H4 Kinase in Crude Lymphosarcoma P1798 Preparations

Description: Purified S6/H4 kinase (Mr 60,000) requires autophosphorylation for activation. A rabbit anti-S6/H4 kinase peptide (SVIDPVPAPVGDSHVDGAAK) antibody recognized both the S6/H4 kinase holoenzyme and catalytic domain. Immunoreactivity with p60 kinase protein, and S6/H4 kinase activity were precisely correlated in fractions obtained from ion exchange chromatography of P1798 lymphosarcoma extracts. An enzyme which catalyzed the MgATP-dependent phosphorylation and activation of S6/H4 kinase coeluted with immunoreactivity from Mono 5, but not Mono Q chromatography. Since S6/H4 kinase is homologous with rac-activated PAK65, the observation that phosphorylation is also required for activation suggests a complex mechanism for in vivo activation of the S6/H4 kinase.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Taylor, Allison Antoinette

The Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase by Enzyme-Lipid Interactions

Description: The temperature-dependent catalytic activity of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3 -methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) displays the nonlinear Arrhenius behavior characteristic of many membrane-bound enzymes. A two-conformer equilibrium model has been developed to characterize this behavior. In the model, HMG-CoA reductase undergoes a conformational change from a low specific activity to a high specific activity form. This conformation change is apparently driven by a temperature-dependent phase transition of the membrane lipids. It has been found that this model accurately describes the data from diets including rat chow, low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and diets supplemented with fat, cholesterol or cholestyramine. The effects characterized by the model are consistent with the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase by enzyme-lipid interactions.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Smith, Vana L.