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Woodrow Wilson in the Council of Four: A Re-Evaluation
It was Woodrow Wilson who played the dominant role in the Council of Four. With his dedication to the vague, often contradictory Fourteen Points, and with the power of the office of President of the United States supporting him, he determined the very nature of the treaty. Wilson's use, and misuse, of his influence over his colleagues makes him responsible for much of the final form of the Treaty of Versailles.
A Study of the Anti-Catholic Bias Contained Within Jacob Burckhardt's The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
This work examines the anti-Catholic bias of Jacob Burckhardt as he employed it in the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. A biographical chapter examines his early education in the Lutheran seminary and the influence of his educators at the University of Berlin. The Civilization is examined in three critical areas: Burckhardt's treatment of the popes in his chapter "The State as a Work of Art," the reform tendencies of the Italian humanists which Burckhardt virtually ignored, and the rise of confraternities in Italy. In each instance, Burckhardt demonstrated a clear bias against the Catholic Church. Further study could reveal if this initial bias was perpetuated through later "Burckhardtian" historians.
Creating a Mythistory: Texas Historians in the Nineteenth Century
Many historians have acknowledged the temptation to portray people as they see themselves and wish to be seen, blending history and ideology. The result is "mythistory." Twentieth century Texas writers and historians, remarking upon the exceptional durability of the Texas mythistory that emerged from the nineteenth century, have questioned its resistance to revision throughout the twentieth century. By placing the writing of Texas history within the context of American and European intellectual climates and history writing generally, from the close of the eighteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth, it is possible to identify a pattern that provides some insight into the popularity and persistence of Texas mythistory.
Populism and the Poll Tax: the Politics and Propaganda of Suffrage Restriction in North Texas, 1892-1904
This thesis challenges the traditional interpretation of the history of Populism in America through the use of an intensive regional study. Using precinct-level returns, this thesis proves that, contrary to the conclusions of more general studies, voters from predominately Populist areas in North Texas did not support the poll tax amendment that passed in November 1902. The Populists within this region demonstrated their frustration and distrust of the political process by leaving the polls in higher percentages than other voters between 1896 and 1902. The Populists that did participate in 1902 reentered the Democratic Party but did not support the poll tax, which was a major plank within the Democratic platform. This thesis also proves that the poll tax had a significant effect in reducing the electorate in North Texas.
Black Nationalism Reinterpreted
Black nationalism responded to America's failure to examine the effects of slavery's legacy. Its aims represent those issues that were either unsupported by or in opposition to the goals of the civil rights leadership. In particular, the civil rights movement dismissed any claims that the history of slavery had a lasting effect on African-Americans. This conflict developed because of mainstream America's inability to realize that the black community is not monolithic and African-Americans were differentially affected by slavery's legacy. It is those blacks who are most affected by the culture of poverty created by America's history of slavery who make up today's inner-city populations. Despite successes by the civil rights movement, problems within lower-class black communities continue because the issues of the black underclass have not yet been fully addressed.
The Texas Presidencies : Presidential Leadership in the Republic of Texas, 1836-1845
This thesis examines the letters, proclamations, and addresses of the four presidents of the Republic of Texas, David G. Burnet, Sam Houston, Mirabeau B. Lamar, and Anson Jones, to determine how these men faced the major crises of Texas and shaped policy regarding land, relations with Native Americans, finances, internal improvements, annexation by the United States, and foreign relations. Research materials include manuscript and published speeches and letters, diaries, and secondary materials.
Lucca in the Signoria of Paolo Guinigi, 1400-1430
This study analyzes the once great medieval Tuscan capital of Lucca's struggle for survival at the beginning of the fifteenth century. This was the age of the rise of regional states in Italy, and the expansionistic aims of Milan, Florence and others were a constant challenge to city-states such as Lucca which desired a political and cultural status quo. Yet, it was a challenge that was successfully met; unlike Pisa, Siena, Perugia, and various other major Tuscan cities, Lucca did not succumb to Milanese or Florentine aggression in the early Quattrocento. Why it did not is a major topic of discussion here. One of the means in which the Lucchese faced the new political and military realities of the time was the establishment of a monarchial system of government in the signoria of Paolo Guinigi (r. 1400-1430). The Guinigi Signoria was not characterized by the use of intimidation and violence, but rather by clientage, kinship and neighborhood bonds, marriage alliances, and the general consent of the people. Paolo garnered the consent of the people at first because his wealth allowed him to protect Lucca and its contado to a greater extent than would have been possible otherwise, and because of his family's long ties with the powerful Visconti of Milan; he held it later because he provided the city-state with capable leadership. This study extends the evidence of recent scholars that every Italian Renaissance city was unique based on its particular geography, alliances, civic wealth, and a number of other factors. Lucca in the period of Paolo Guinigi, a monarchy in the setting of one of the traditionally most republican cities of Italy, provides a most interesting example. “Civic humanism,” for example, has a decidedly different slant in Lucca than elsewhere, and is best exemplified in the figure of Giovanni ...
The Provincial Congress of North Carolina 1774-1776
The Provincial Congress assumed the leadership of North Carolina at a time when, almost simultaneously, the seeds of the American Revolution were beginning to take root throughout the neighboring provinces. The task faced by that body was, therefore, not only one of reinstituting their own civil government, but also of providing for the protection of North Carolina and working, in union, for the defense of the entire continent.
America's Postwar Settlement : Dollar Diplomacy in Europe, 1919-1925
Prosperity was the positive goal of America's postwar policy. For several years, the United States was successful in her attempt to be at the same time politically aloof and economically opportunistic. But politics and economics were radically intertwined in the reparation settlement, and when reparations interfered with the prosperity of the Atlantic community, it shattered as well America's resolve to "let Europe stew in her own juice," and caused American reinvolvement in European concerns. America's postwar settlement can be expressed in two words: disentanglement frustrated.
British Opponents of the Great War
The intensely divided but vocal minority that denounced Great Britain's declaration of war in 1914 and decried Britain's continuance in the war illustrated both the strengths and weaknesses of their nation's politics and the impotence of dissent against a majority united in arms.
The Papal Aggression: Creation of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy in England, 1850
This thesis studies the Papal Aggression in England, which was the zealous reaction to a papal decree that had created territorial hierarchy for English Roman Catholics. The study seeks answers to the following questions: Why did the pope create the heirarchy? Why did the English people react so vehemently? Why did Lord John Russell write his Durham Letter? Why did the government fail to enforce the Ecclesiastical Titles Act? What light, if any, does this episode shed on the zeitgeist of the Victorian Age?
American Public Opinion During Crises in Japanese-American Relations in the Early Twentieth Century
Throughout the period following Pearl Harbor, as one crisis in Japanese-American relations followed another, the American public opinion was divided. Some newspapers and personalities feared that there would be war over the San Francisco school board crisis, while others believed that talk of war was ridiculous. Partisan politics often affected the course of affairs on the Japanese question.
Russia and the Balkan Wars
This thesis is a study and evaluation of Russian foreign policy in the Balkan Wars, 1912-13. Its primary purpose is to seek out and define the goals and aspirations of Russian diplomacy at this time and evaluate them in terms of success or failure.
The Expeditions of Narcio Lopez and the South, 1850-1851
This thesis relates the expeditions of General Narcio Lopez in 1850-1851, and the influence he had in the southern United States.
Attempts to Curb the Power of the Supreme Court during the Marshall Era, 1801-1835
This study intends to examine criticisms of the Court and efforts to curb its power during the formative period of American constitutional law.
Professional Baseball and the Antitrust Laws
This study concerns the threatened imposition of the antitrust laws on baseball and the response of the sport, both in court action and in pressures upon Congress.
Sinn Fein and the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921
The purpose of this thesis is to examine De Valera's objections in the light of his statements prior to the negotiations and of his proposals during the debate in the Dail.
The Hoare-Laval Plan and the Sanctions Crisis of 1935
This study deals primarily with the efforts of Great Britain to bring the Italian-Ethiopian War to a halt through the Hoare-Laval peace plan of December 10, 1935. Based on memoirs, diaries, and public documents, this study is devoted to an examination of the reasons, both internal and external that formulated British foreign policy toward the war.
Great Britain and the Russian Ukase of September 16, 1821
The affair of the Ukase of September, 1821, evokes such questions as these: What was its real purpose? Was Alexander guilty of aggression in North America or was he only attempting to solve a domestic problem, viz., smuggling in the Alaskan colony? Why did George Canning negotiate separately with Russia after he had expressed a desire to cooperate with the United States? Did he really believe that Russia would be more impressed by separate negotiations, as Harold Temperley has suggested? Did the tsar deliberately appease Britain in the hope of securing her aid in a Russo- Turkish war, as S. B. Okun and Hector Chevigny have contended, or did he follow a policy of expediency?
Lenin : Theorist and Politician
This thesis is a study of Lenin and his ideas and actions during the first five months that he was political leader of Russia. Its primary purpose is to discover the particular relationships between theory and expediency as roles in influencing Lenin's actions as head of state for that period, hoping that a basic understanding of the mind of Vladimir I. Lenin will evolve.
General Albert C. Wedemeyer and the Fall of China
This thesis examines the facts surrounding General Arthur C. Wedemeyer's time in China and attempts to dispel some of the myths surrounding Chinese-American relations.
The Early Career of Daniel Finch, Second Earl of Nottingham, 1679-1693
The purpose of this study is to present an account of the early career of Daniel Finch from 1679 to 1693. The investigation begins with an account of Finch's rise to prominence in parliament and at the Admiralty. It subsequently traces his role and involvement in the revolution settlement, and, after the accession of William III, Finch's responsibility as Secretary of State dealing principally with ecclesiastical affairs and naval affairs until his dismissal in 1693.
The Role of the Journalists during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson
This thesis examines the role of the "kitchen cabinet" established by Andrew Jackson during his presidency, and which primarily consisted of experienced journalists.
The Missionary Work of Samuel A. Worcester Among the Cheroke, 1825-1840
Worcester made two major contributions to the Cherokee before his death at Park Hill in 1859. First was his faith and the propagation of Christianity among them. However, this was done by other missionaries both before and after him. But his truly unique accomplishment was his work with the Cherokee language.
Women's Suffrage in Oklahoma
This study considers the nature of life and society in the Indian and Oklahoma Territories and the factors contributing to the narrow defeat of the women's suffrage proposal in the Constitutional Convention.
William Livingston: Revolutionary War Governor of New Jersey
This investigation is concerned with the importance of the role that William Livingston played in the struggle for American independence. Two methods were used to present this role. First, a narrative account describes his work as governor of the state of New Jersey. Second, subjective opinions of his contemporaries and others evaluate the effectiveness of his work.
The South and the Mexican War
This thesis examines newspapers and correspondence of public men in the era of the Mexican war to provide some answers to pertinent questions regarding the South's role in the Mexican War. It attempts to reveal to some degree whether Southerners uniformly supported the war, whether their support arose from an expansionist sentiment or a desire to extend the area of slavery, whether any strong opposition to the war existed in the South, and why they supported or opposed it.
Goethe and the Classical Ideal
This thesis was written to examine Goethe's efforts to emulate the Greeks and write in their spirit. Works most helpful in the study were Humphry Trevelyan's Goethe and the Greeks, Kenry Hatfield's Aesthetic Paganism in German Literature, Eliza Butler's The Tyranny of Greece over Germany, and the works of Goethe which show his relationship with the Greeks.
The Slave Trade Question in Anglo-American Relations, 1840-1862
This thesis has three main objectives in examining the Slave Trade Question, an aspect of British-American diplomacy from 1840-1862: (1)to give a balanced treatment to both issues,(2) show their relationship to other foreign and domestic problems of the early Victorian Era, and (3) to present new material and views.
John Sevier--A Re-evaluation
The purpose of this study will be to examine, once again, and chapter by chapter, those chief areas of controversy in Sevier's life, and in the process to arrive at some conclusions as to where the criticism is justified and, just as importantly, where the critics may have overstepped their bounds. For the sake of completeness and historical perspective, this re-examination will also include brief chapters on Sevier's ancestry and early life and his last years in the United States House of Representatives.
British Reactions to the Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-1858
English and Indian historians have devoted considerable research and analysis to the genesis of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 but have ignored contemporary British reaction to it, a neglect which this study attempts to satisfy.
Thomas Burke : Southern Patriot in the American Revolution
This thesis is an attempt to determine the extent of Burke's influence at the state and national level, and the effect of one man's personality on the revolutionary period in America.
Mobil Oil Corporation : Evolution of Its Corporate Identity
The purpose of this thesis is to explain this evolution of Mobil's corporate identity, and to determine the effect of the 1911 dissolution decree on it.
Slavery, Fear, and Disunion in the Lone Star State: Texans' Attitudes toward Secession and the Union, 1846-1861
This work is a study of white Texans' attitudes toward their role in the federal Union and their right to secede from it during the antebellum period. The central question of the study is why did people so strongly Unionist in 1846 became so strongly secessionist by 1861. In tracing this significant shift in Texans' sentiment, the author especially emphasizes the racial attitudes of white Texans, their emotional defense of the institution of slavery, and their strong conviction that the Negroes, if emancipated, would destroy white society. Of special importance to this study is the relationship of Texans' racial attitudes to their attitudes toward the Union.
The Rise and Fall of the Texas Radicals, 1867-1883
The purpose of this monograph is to study the early Texas Republican party within the framework of well-known political party functions, i.e., to provide political leadership, recruit governmental personnel, generate public policy, and propagate ideology.
The Fashoda Crisis: A Survey of Anglo-French Imperial Policy on the Upper Nile Question, 1882-1899
The present study is a survey of Anglo-French imperial, policies on the Upper Nile question and the Fashoda Crisis which resulted, and it is an attempt to place this conflict within the framework of the "new imperialism" after 1870.
Locofocos, Van Buren Democrats and Progress
An investigation of the origins and history of the Locofoco party, with particular emphasis upon the divergent theories which made up its heterogeneous ideology, is the first object of this study. A comparison can be made between this ideology and the national administration by studying the developments that took place in 1837 and by evaluating the reasons for the ultimate defeat of the Van Buren Democrats three years later.
The Political Approach of the British Labour Party toward Unemployment during the Labour Premierships of J. Ramsay Macdonald
Although this study reveals the positions that the opposition parties took regarding unemployment, it is primarily concerned with unemployment as an internal political problem of the British Labour party.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935: A Study of the Nexus of British Naval Policy and Foreign Policy
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of June 18, 1935, came as a complete surprise and was contrary to established British policy; what were the circumstances that influenced the decision to reach the accord with Germany? Was it appeasement? If the compact was not political, then what was its primary purpose and who was responsible for the treaty?
Henry Watterson, The Coincidental Redeemer
The major conclusion of this thesis is that Henry Watterson, while representative of the Redeemer element, was the product of a Jacksonian, rather than a Whig, heritage which had an ideology quite similar to the Redeemer appeal. In determining his exact philosophy the study shows that the editor was quite different from his contemporaries in the New South in both the substance and integrity of his beliefs.
Agrarian Reform and the Negro Farmer in Texas 1886-1896
The history of the agrarian reform movement in Texas, its origin and its activities, reveals a minimal participation of the Negro. The relationship of the white farmer and the Negro in Texas with regard to agrarian reform demonstrates what they had in common and why the black did not choose to embrace agrarian reform.
Reform Government in Dallas 1927-1940
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Progressive reformers attacked the problem of corruption and lack of efficiency in city government. Reform groups in individual cities banded together in the National Municipal League and, because they believed that partisan politics were the root of the problem, attempted to devise a system which would remove politics from municipal government. Their work culminated in the introduction of the city manager, or as it is often called council-manager, form of city government. Under this plan, which closely resembles the organization of a business corporation, the elected council would serve as a board of directors and the city manager as the operating head of city government. Reformers hoped that by taking the day-to-day decisions out of the hands of elected officials and placing them in the hands of a professionally trained manager they might remove the stigma of corruption and partisanship from city government and promote efficiency. Whether this plan as it was originally conceived was or was not successful in Dallas is the subject of this thesis.
Calles, the Church, and the Constitution: Relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the Mexican State, 1924-1929
From 1924 to 1929 the Roman Catholic Church and the Mexican State engaged in the crucial stage of a long-time struggle to determine whether the former would be independent of or subordinate to the latter. This thesis analyzes Church-State relations during this five year period and stresses the activities of President Plutarco Elías Calles, the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and more fanatic Mexican Catholics.
The Humanism of George Orwell
This paper argues that George Orwell was a myth maker in the twentieth century, an age of existential perplexities. Orwell recognized that man is innately "patriotic," that the will-to-believe is part of his nature, but that the excesses of scientific analysis have disrupted the absolutes of belief. Through the Organic Metaphor, Orwell attempted to reconstruct man's faith into an aesthetic, and consequently moral, sensibility. Proposing to balance, and not replace, the Mechanistic Metaphor of industrial society, Orwell sought human progress along aesthetic lines. "Socialism" was his political expression of the Organic Metaphor: both advocated universal integrity in time and space.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's Attitude Toward The Asian Empires of Great Britain and France
The purpose of this thesis is to examine Franklin D. Roosevelt's role as an anti-colonialist and his plan for a post-war world. Roosevelt believed that colonialism was the cause of hatred, discontent and war. With this in mind, he pursued an anti-colonial policy against the British and French empires, to him, the mainstay of colonial power.
National Promotion of Western Roads and Canals, 1785-1830
This thesis discusses the development of roads and canals as a means of transportation and communication in the years following the Revolutionary War.
The Evolution of the Civil Rights Movement: 1866-1883
An understanding of the development of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 from its beginnings in the Senate to its culmination in April necessitates a few brief statements concerning the condition of the nation and the relations between the President and Congress.
The Changing Basis of the Republican Party, 1865-1877
This study is an attempt to re-investigate the Republican party during the Reconstruction era in order to understand the degree and nature of the changes. The paper reviews the basis of the party at different points in its metamorphosis to demonstrate what happened to the organization.
The Military and Political Career of Santos Degollado, 1854-1861
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Santos Degollado in the history of Mexico during the 1850's and to determine his contributions to the cause of constitutional reform in that period.
Anglo-Spanish Relations during World War I
This investigation is concerned with the determination of the exact nature of Anglo-Spanish relations during World War I. It examines the nature of these relations in an attempt to define Spain's commitment to her neutrality policy and the amount of pressure placed upon Spain by Britain in order to force Spain to adopt a policy of at least "benevolent neutrality." Most historical accounts heretofore have accepted the idea that Spain simply refused to abandon her neutrality policy.