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The Effect of Self Concept and Various Conceptual and Physical Practice Methods Upon the Performance of a Selected Basketball Motor Skill
The problem investigated was the effect of various methods of conceptual, physical, and conceptual-physical practice procedures upon performance of the basketball motor skill of foul shooting. The sub-problem under investigation was the effect of self-concept upon the performance of foul shooting.
A Comparison of the Desirability and Feasibility of Accountability Measures as Perceived by Public School Administrators and Teachers
This study had three main purposes. The first was to determine the perceptions of public school administrators toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The second was to determine the perceptions of public school teachers toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The third was to compare the perceptions of administrators with those of teachers and to indicate areas where they seemed to be in agreement or disagreement.
The Relationship of Fifth-Grade Students' Self-Concepts and Attitudes toward Mathematics to Academic Achievement in Arithmetical Computation, Concepts, and Application
The purpose of this study was to determine the interrelationship of self-concept and attitude toward mathematics to academic achievement in the areas of arithmetical computation, concepts, and application.
The Predictive Validities, as Measured by Multiple Correlation, of Certain Mathematics Grades and a Test Battery Using Academic Achievement as Criteria
The problem of this study was to determine the predictive validities, as measured by multiple correlation, of certain mathematics course grades and the American College Test (ACT) battery when various achievement criteria were used. This study had a two-fold purpose: (1) to determine measures which could be used effectively to predict academic achievement in college mathematics, and (2) to determine whether the multiple correlation between selected predictors and each criterion were significant.
Mentoring the first-year superintendent in Texas public schools.
This study determined what mentoring experiences first-year superintendents have had and what they need from a mentoring relationship. Structured interviews and field notes were used in this qualitative study focused on Texas first-year superintendents' perceived needs from mentors. Three patterns of mentoring relationships were found: 1) no mentor in the first year, 2) mentor-protégé relationship - those who developed mentoring relationships early in a career with a more senior person in the same school system, and 3) mentoring relationships of convenience - young relationships which developed outside the same system. Skills and knowledge areas novice superintendents identified as critical for mentor assistance were school finance, development of effective relationships with groups that have expectations of the superintendent while also improving student achievement, and working within the politics of the position. Mentor characteristics novice superintendents considered necessary for a positive effect on job success include: trustworthiness, confidentiality, empathy, encouraging, active listening, and integrity. An attitude in which the mentor problem solved with the protégé, and did not give an immediate solution was displayed. Mentors actively and frequently initiated contact. Ideas were freely exchanged, giving the protégé undivided attention while not making the protégé feel inferior. The effects that previous mentoring experiences had on novice superintendents influenced whether they chose to mentor another person. Most reported seeking or engaged in a new mentoring relationship. Differences in areas where help was needed among first-year superintendents associated with district size were reported. Assistance in finance was needed regardless of district size, gender, or ethnicity. Superintendents in small districts reported needing assistance in specific skill and knowledge areas. Those in larger districts reported mentor assistance in problem-solving processes to accomplish a task. Differences in needs of first-year superintendents based on gender or ethnicity were identified but generalizations could not be made due to small numbers. ...
A History of Public Education in the Town of Islip, New York
The purposes of this study were, 1. To develop a documented history of the founding of the town of Islip. 2. To trace the development of public education within the town and to parallel this development with state-wide developments in the field.
A Study of Attitudes Held by Superintendents and Principals toward Career Education in Texas
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is to identify attitudes held by superintendents and principals in Texas public schools toward career education. Particular attention is given to the nature of career education and the development of career education from the management structure point of view. The emphasis of this study is determining what would be desirable in the planning and establishing of new directions and structures for career education in Texas public schools.
A Quantitative Description of Texas Public Junior College Boards of Trustees Meetings
The purposes of this study were (1) to describe through the technique of content analysis the board of trustees meeting in Texas public junior colleges, (2) to determine relationships which might exist between aspects of the board of trustees meeting and various characteristics of public junior colleges, and (3) to measure differences which might exist between board proceedings of junior colleges.
The Comparison of a Team/Group Dynamics Training Model with a Team/Traditional Training Model within Leadership Training Workshops
This study was conducted to compare two different approaches to leadership training workshops—a team/group dynamics training model with a team/traditional training model—with regard to the changes in tolerance, open-mindedness, flexibility, adaptability, and cooperativeness of the participants in the group dynamics model.
Levels of Questioning Used by Student Teachers and its Effect on Pupil Achievement and Critical Thinking Ability
The purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the effect of levels of questioning used on secondary public school students in social studies, as measured by (a) their achievement scores, and (b) their critical thinking ability; 2. To determine the effect of feedback to student teachers on their patterns of asking convergent and divergent questions, as measured by coding frequencies of each type on an Observation Schedule and Record form? 3. To draw conclusions from the findings--and develop implications concerning levels of questioning used by teachers and the use of feedback from college supervisors to student teachers.
An Analysis of Economic Understanding and Values of High School Seniors in a Large Metropolitan School District
The problem of this study was to analyze the economic understanding and values of high school seniors in a large metropolitan school district. To attack the problem, three purposes were formulated. The first purpose was to determine if students enrolled in a one-semester, elective course in economics differed significantly in terms of economic understanding from students enrolled in a comparable non-economic social studies course. Another purpose was to determine if an already existing value orientation had some effect on a change in economic understanding. The final purpose was to see if a change in a particular value orientation was related to a change in economic understanding.
The Development of a Theory of Sports Competitiveness
The purpose of this study was to construct a theory of sports competitiveness which would (1) contribute to a greater understanding of competitiveness as an aspect of human behavior affecting sports performance, and (2) serve as a source of hypotheses for experimental research and as a framework for interpretation of the results of experimental studies of competitiveness.
Group Counseling Experience for Elementary Education Majors: Effects on Selected Personality Characteristics and Interrelationships Between Selected Counselor and Client Variables
The problem with which this study was concerned was twofold; the effect of group counseling experiences on elementary education majors, and the relationship between certain counselor and client variables.
A Study of House Bill 235 and Its Impact upon the Role of the High School Principal in Texas as Perceived by Selected Groups of Educators
The problem of this study was the investigation of the development of H.B. 235 and its impact upon the role of the high school principal in Texas, as perceived by high school principals, superintendents, and selected professors of educational administration. The purpose of the study was twofold. First, it analyzed the development and provisions of H.B. 235, and second, it tried to determine the impact of its implementation upon the role of the high school principal in Texas.
The Impact of the Texas Cooperative Student Teaching Program, 1970-72
The problem of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the cooperative agreement section of Senate Bill 8 and its impact on the student teaching program in Texas. The purposes of the study are (1) to analyze the data available from the Texas Education Agency concerning the cooperatively developed in-service improvement program for supervising teachers, (2) to survey the public school personnel charged with the responsibility of developing and implementing section three of Senate Bill 8 in order to determine the effectiveness of this bill, and (3) to interview college personnel who are involved in developing and implementing section three of Senate Bill 8.
A Study of Industrial Education Graduates and Non-Graduates of Texas Southern University with Implications for Curriculum Revision
The problem was a study of the School of Technology graduates and non-graduates of Texas Southern University with implications for curriculum revision.
A Study of Title III, Higher Education Act of 1965, and an Evaluation of Its Impact at Selected Predominantly Black Colleges
The purpose of this study was to describe the passage of the Higher Education Act of 1965, and to evaluate faculty development programs at selected black institutions in light of the objectives and guidelines established for the use of Title III funds.
An Investigation of the Effect of Violating the Assumption of Homogeneity of Regression Slopes in the Analysis of Covariance Model upon the F-Statistic
The study seeks to determine the effect upon the F-statistic of violating the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes in the one-way, fixed-effects analysis of covariance model. The study employs a Monte Carlo simulation technique to vary the degree of heterogeneity of regression slopes with varied sample sizes within experiments to determine the effect of such conditions. One hundred and eighty-three simulations were used.
The Effect of Film-Mediated Models on the Verbal Behavior and Selected Attitudinal Variables of Participants in Group Counseling
The main objective was to determine the effect of film-mediated models on the frequency of a specific quality of verbal responses which have been found to be indicative of high- levels of therapeutic movement in group counseling. Secondly, this study examined the effect of models on selected attitudes of group counseling participants toward interpersonal interactions reflective of the intense interaction involved in therapeutic movement in group counseling.
The Result of Differential Seating Arrangements upon Students' Anxiety Level, Acquaintance Volume, and Perceived Social Distance
The study was conducted to investigate the result of three differential seating arrangements in college classrooms on anxiety level, acquaintance volume, and perceived social distance among students.
Incidental and Intentional Learning of Economic Information in Beginning Typewriting
The problem in this study was to determine whether students enrolled in beginning typewriting who typed between fifteen and fifty-five words a minute would learn economic facts incidentally and intentionally through the typing of timed writings on the topic of economics.
The Campus Ombudsman as Perceived by College and University Presidents, Vice-Presidents of Student Affairs, Study Body Presidents and Functioning Campus Ombudsmen
The purposes of this study are (1) to ascertain whether the implementation of a campus ombudsman is viewed differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, and student body presidents, and (2) to determine whether the ombudsman concept itself is perceived differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, student body presidents, and functioning campus ombudsmen.
An Analysis of Current Teacher Orientation Programs and Practices in Selected Texas Secondary Schools with Implications for Program Planning and Assessment
The problem with which this study deals is that of describing and analyzing current new teacher orientation programs and practices in selected Texas secondary schools.
A Study of the Generalization of the Effects of Group Systematic Desensitization of Test Anxiety on Co-Existent Anxiety in College Students
The problem of this study was to measure the generalization of the effects of group systematic desensitization of test anxiety on certain coexistent anxieties in college students.
A Survey of the Impact of Senate Bill 408 on a Selected Group of Texas Schools
The purposes of this study were (1) to review the development of SB 408, and (2) to analyze the impact of this action upon a selected group of public schools. The study involved a survey of the influence that provisions of SB 408 have had on the school program in terms of the following: (a) policy, (b) economy, (c) instructional program, and (d) management.
The Impact of the Regional Education Service Centers on the Public School Superintendency in Texas
The problem of this study was to determine the impact of the Regional Education Service Centers on the public school superintendency in Texas and the desired future development of the centers.
The Relative Effectiveness of Two Methodologies in the Development of Composition Skills in College Freshman English
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the relative effectiveness of the Christensen Rhetoric Program and of a traditional write-revise approach in freshman English composition classes.
The Relationship of Selected Abilities to Gross Motor Performance of Educable Mentally Retarded Students
The problem of this study.was the relationship of selected abilities to gross motor performance of educable mentally retarded students at different chronological age levels.
A Differential Study of Reasons Why Students Drop Out of School as Related to Actual Dropout-preventive Practices of a Metropolitan School District
The problem of this study was the differentiation of high schools in a metropolitan school district from the standpoint of the measures taken to prevent student dropouts.
A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials.
The Role of the Principal in Open Plan Elementary Schools in Texas as Perceived by the Principals of theses Schools
The problem of this study was to analyze the role of the principal in open plan elementary schools in Texas. The analysis was limited to the principals' perception of their role in these schools.
Group Implosive Therapy in the Treatment of Test Anxiety
The purposes of the study were to: 1. Determine the level of test anxiety present, as measured by the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ), prior to treatment. 2. Develop an implosive therapy procedure to reduce test anxiety. 3. Administer implosive therapy to subjects in the experimental treatment group. 4. Determine the post-treatment level of test anxiety in the implosive therapy group, placebo-attention control group, and the no-treatment control group. 5. Determine if there were any significant differences in the test anxiety levels in the three groups on the post-treatment TAQ. 6. Investigate the results of a one month follow-up administration of the TAQ to determine the relative stability of test scores.
The Most Important Educational Problems Affecting the Growth of Elementary Schools of Texas, 1972
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the identification of conditions, situations, and events that are important problems faced in the public elementary schools of Texas. Problems are categorized into sixteen areas: finance, desegregation and busing, school organization, school personnel, preschool and kindergarten, instructional improvement, reporting systems, pupil behavior, curriculum, in-service staff training, humanizing the schools, public relations, minority groups, migrant children, special education, and recent trends. The purpose of the study is to determine perceived importance of problems and to establish priorities of current issues from information obtained from education leaders of elementary schools.
The Image of Nursing and Job Satisfaction of United States Air Force Nurses
The problem of this investigation was concerned with ascertaining the image of nursing and job satisfaction of United States Air Force nurses as determined by the type of nursing education and the length of time in the service.
A National Survey to Analyze the Prevailing Approaches to Elementary School Guidance
The problem of this study was to analyze the prevailing approaches to elementary school guidance in the United States.
A Program to Improve Choral Conducting Students' Ability to Detect Rhythmic Errors in Choral Rehearsal
The purposes of this study were (1) to develop and evaluate a self-instructional program designed to assist choral conducting students in improving their ability to detect rhythmic errors during rehearsal, (2) to analyze the data acquired from a pre-test, a mid-test, and a post-test given in connection with the evaluation of the program, and (3) to determine the relationship of initial error detection ability, and gains in error detection ability, and each of several variables representing prior conditions which might be expected to affect an individuals error detection ability.
Student, Parent, and Teacher Perception of College Environments
The problem of this investigation was to compare the perceptions of college environments held by college-bound high school seniors, their teachers, and their parents, from a specified geographical area with the perceptions of students actually experiencing the environments represented by these campuses.
Impact of Absent Father-Figures on Male Subjects and the Correlation to Juvenile Delinquency: Findings and Implications
This study was predicated on the belief that a father brings something unique to the family, thus, making irreplaceable contributions to the life of a child. Fathers are unique in that they provide something different from mothers. They are irreplaceable because when they are absent, children are said to suffer emotionally, intellectually, socially, and behaviorally. The contributions of fathers to a child's well being cannot be fully replaced by better programming, ensuring child support programs, or even by well-intentioned mentoring programs. A review of literature relevant to delinquency and adolescent behavioral and academic success revealed that there may be a correlation between a male role-model and the teaching of self-control and socially appropriate behaviors. Indeed, much of what the large body of research pertaining to fatherhood reveals is that, compared to children raised in two-parent homes, children who grow up without their fathers have significantly worse outcomes, on average, on almost every measure of well being (Horn, 2002). In addition, an understanding of the factors that may influence delinquent behaviors, in particular within the family unit, can better equip parents and educators to support those who may be exhibiting the beginning signs of delinquent behavior. This study was designed to determine the influence of, or correlation between, juvenile delinquency and the presence or absence of a father-figure in a child's life. Responses made on the Delinquency Check List between two sample sets, delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents, were examined. The study attempted to determine if delinquent activity among adolescents was differentiated by the absence or presence of a father-figure in a child's life. This study also investigated the frequency and severity of delinquent activities between adolescents in the determined sample groups.
A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test
This study investigated the effects of test length (10, 20 and 30 items), scoring schema (proportion of dichotomous ad polytomous scoring) and item analysis model (IRT and Rasch) on the ability estimates, test information levels and optimization criteria of mixed item format tests. Polytomous item responses to 30 items for 1000 examinees were simulated using the generalized partial-credit model and SAS software. Portions of the data were re-coded dichotomously over 11 structured proportions to create 33 sets of test responses including mixed item format tests. MULTILOG software was used to calculate the examinee ability estimates, standard errors, item and test information, reliability and fit indices. A comparison of IRT and Rasch item analysis procedures was made using SPSS software across ability estimates and standard errors of ability estimates using a 3 x 11 x 2 fixed factorial ANOVA. Effect sizes and power were reported for each procedure. Scheffe post hoc procedures were conducted on significant factos. Test information was analyzed and compared across the range of ability levels for all 66-design combinations. The results indicated that both test length and the proportion of items scored polytomously had a significant impact on the amount of test information produced by mixed item format tests. Generally, tests with 100% of the items scored polytomously produced the highest overall information. This seemed to be especially true for examinees with lower ability estimates. Optimality comparisons were made between IRT and Rasch procedures based on standard error rates for the ability estimates, marginal reliabilities and fit indices (-2LL). The only significant differences reported involved the standard error rates for both the IRT and Rasch procedures. This result must be viewed in light of the fact that the effect size reported was negligible. Optimality was found to be highest when longer tests and higher proportions of polytomous ...
Presidents' Leadership Behaviors Associated with Followers' Job Satisfaction, Motivation Toward Extra Effort, and Presidential Effecitveness at Evangelical Colleges and Universities
Transformational leaders have tendencies that include: 1) projecting confidence and optimism about goals and followers' ability, 2) providing a clear vision, 3) encouraging creativity through empowerment and rewarding experimentation, 4) setting high expectations and creating a supportive environment, and 5) establishing personal relationships with followers. Transactional leadership as a process in which leaders and followers decide on goals and how to achieve them through a mutual exchange. The leader provides followers with resources, rewards, and punishment in order to achieve motivation, productivity, and effective task accomplishment. Laissez-faire leadership is the process of letting followers work without direction or guidance from the leader. The laissez-faire leader avoids providing direction and support, shows a lack of active involvement in follower activity, and abdicates responsibilities by maintaining a line of separation between the leader and the followers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the assumption that a combination of transformational and transactional leadership factors is more predictive of greater followers' job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either leadership style alone. The study investigated perceptions of the degree to which transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership were practiced by presidents of member colleges and universities in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). In addition, the study considered whether some combination of transformational and transactional behaviors is more predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either transformational or transactional leadership alone. The independent variables in the study included the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership behaviors of the college and university presidents and the dependent variables were job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. This study points to specific behaviors that are predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. By combining ...
The impact of alternative school intervention on subsequent student performance in the mainstream school environment.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of alternative school intervention on subsequent student performance. The literature review examined the history and development of alternative schools, the legislation pertaining to alternative schools, and related studies. The population consisted of students placed in the discipline alternative education program (DAEP) of an alternative school located in a large suburban school district in north Texas. Students placed in DAEP in the spring semester of 2001 in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10 were included in the sample. Data on student success was gathered for the one semester prior to placement (pre-intervention) and for the two semesters after placement (post-intervention). Student success was measured in terms of course grade averages and attendance. The student sample was divided into the following subgroups: grade level, sex, ethnicity, and qualification for the school meal program. The students' grade averages were compared within the subgroups utilizing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Tukey's post hoc comparison was utilized on the groups when ANOVA was found to be significant. The students' attendance was analyzed by comparing the proportion of days attended in each of the three semesters included in the study. A normal test of two independent means was conducted on the attendance proportions. The results of the study indicated the following significant findings (p <. 05): the eighth-grade students' grade averages were significantly lower in the second post-treatment semester, the 7th-grade students had lower attendance in the first post-treatment semester, the 8th-grade students had lower attendance in the second post-treatment semester, and the 10th-grade students had higher attendance in the first post-intervention semester. The female students' attendance was higher in both post-intervention semesters and significantly higher in the second. A discussion of the dropout rate for this group and recidivism to DAEP was included.
The impact of computer assisted instruction on sensory cognitive factors in literacy learning.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of computer assisted instruction on the development of literacy skills. The effect of instructional methodologies designed to stimulate sensory processing (auditory, visual, and somatic sensory) through information processing activities was analyzed. A software program was designed to present instruction to stimulate learning in one sensory modality, visual processing. Also, the effect of delivery mechanisms on the acquisition of literacy skills was investigated. Three treatment groups and a control group were established to analyze differences: cognitive processing methodologies presented via computer technology, conventional methodologies presented via computer technology, cognitive processing methodologies presented through traditional classroom tools, and a control group. A portable keyboard computer with word processing capabilities was selected to deliver technology-enhanced instruction. Results from this study suggest that activities designed to specifically promote processing in one sensory modality, do not promote acquisition of skills in other regions. There was no change in scores when visual methodologies were applied to auditory and somatic sensory cognitive processing goals. When spelling tests that utilized all sensory modalities were analyzed, visual processing instruction had no effect on achievement. This result was duplicated when tests requiring auditory processing skills were examined. However, when visual processing skills were applied to words requiring sight word memorization techniques, the methodologies improved achievement scores. Therefore, it can be concluded that methodologies increase achievement only if activities are designed to stimulate the sensory cognitive modality that the skill requires. Results of analysis concerning the effect of delivery mechanisms on spelling achievement revealed that technology is a useful tool when used to promote information processing related to the learning goal. Visual cognitive processing activities delivered via computer technology were effective only when practice activities matched instructional objectives. When conventional methods of learning spelling skills were presented utilizing technology, student scores ...
Student preferences in screen design factors for Internet delivered college courses.
Colleges and universities throughout the world are offering many of their courses via the Internet. Some institutions offer entire degrees online. This has ushered in a renewed interest in the debate on the effectiveness of non-traditional course delivery method. Numerous educational research studies have been conducted in an attempt to quantify that effectiveness. In any form of experimental research, control of variables is paramount. The rich multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web give educators a wide variety of delivery media. However, with the exception of advice from artisans on design factors of the media, little research has been conducted with regard to the aesthetics of Web page design as viewed by the student. This study was conducted in an effort to establish student preferences with regard to two factors of Web page design as they might be used on those Web pages, background color and typeface used for text. In addition, it contains an analysis of whether or not there is an interaction between the two factors. Use of the results of this study should prove beneficial to both educators and educational researchers in their future endeavors.
Megatrends in Higher Education
Utilizing the theory of John Naisbitt's 1982 Megatrends, this study identifies eight trends for the future of higher education using content analysis of generalized print media reports for three bell-wether states. For the period of 2001-2005, generalized reporting for three newspapers, the Los Angeles Times from Los Angeles, CA, the Miami Herald from Miami, FL, and the Denver Post from Denver, CO, included over four thousand articles and covered 21 primary topics and over 200 secondary topics. Eight trends emerge from the content analysis. Trend 1, from the ivory tower to the public domain, identifies increasingly critical public scrutiny of higher education standards and curricula. Fight or flight, Trend 2, reveals more consistent no-tolerance policies for student behavior. Trend 3, scholar to celebrity, reveals an increasingly public role for university presidents. Academic freedom to academic flexibility, Trend 4, identifies a tightening of academic freedom policies for university staff and faculty. Trend 5, pay now, learn later, focuses on increased popularity of pre-paid and tax free plans for saving college tuition. Fraternity party to fraternity accountability, Trend 6, identifies increased scrutiny of Greek organizations and Greek life within the university environment. Trend 7, tenure to temporary, reflects the growing trend of hiring more part-time faculty rather than hiring faculty for tenure track positions or full-time instructor jobs. Lastly, campus to cyberspace, Trend 8, identifies the continued success of online instruction at the university level.
Physical activity and its association with selected dietary behaviors
This study examined the association between level of physical activity and changes in dietary behaviors of 3,945 employees after a 10-week work-site physical activity program. Fifty-seven percent of the participants met the CDC/ACSM standard for physical activity sufficient for a health benefit. Physical activity was not significantly related to increased fruit and vegetable consumption, decreased dietary fat and calorie intake, and participants acquiring new nutrition skills. Physical activity was negatively associated with increased food label awareness. Participants who exercised sufficient for a health benefit were less likely to increase their food label awareness. Physical activity and dietary behaviors are generally not associated. Interventions to improve these behaviors should be behavior-specific.
The Interacting Effects of Anxiety Levels, Task Complexity, and Warm-Up Conditions on Learning a Serial Type Motor Task
The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of manifest anxiety, task complexity, and warm-up conditions on learning a two-phase serial type motor task. Another purpose was to consider the implications of these effects for physical educators, coaches, and others interested in improving educational practices and securing optimum performance levels.
The Effects of Written Comment on Expository Composition
This study was planned to investigate the effects of written comments on the expository compositions of eleventh-grade students using a cross section of ability groups. Data for combined groups and data for high-, middle-, and low-ability groups were used to determine whether one type of comment was more effective than another in improving the quantity and quality of student compositions and in improving student attitudes toward composition. Teachers may use the findings as a guide to what kinds of comments are most effective in reinforcing good writing skills and attitudes.
An Analysis of Selected Characteristics of Persons Twenty-Five and Older Seeking Teacher Certification
The purposes of this study were (1) to describe the persons twenty-five and older entering the teacher education program and seeking certification, and (2) to compare the persons twenty-five and older with a "typical" group of persons under twenty-five with respect to (a) ability, as measured by the Cooperative School and College Ability Test, (b) factors for entering teaching, as measured by "Factors Influencing the Decision to Become a Teacher," (c) attitudes held toward teaching, as measured by the Kerlinger Education Attitude Scale, (d) professional aspirations, and (e) role expectations, as measured by the Teacher Practices. Questionnaire.
Effects of Praise and Reproof on Digit-symbol Learning at the Elementary School Level
The principle problem of the present research was to determine the relative effects of two major variables, nature of verbal reinforcement and achievement history, upon the performance of elementary school children on a relatively simple learning task.
Receptivity to Dissonant or Consonant Information Via Taped Media with Self-Esteem as a Variable in Counseling Classes
The problem of this study was to determine through the use of taped media receptivity to dissonant or consonant information and to appraise those conditions which bring about change in attitude in light of dissonance theory.