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Breast Cancer Screening Health Behaviors in Older Women
Health beliefs of 221 postmenopausal women were assessed to predict the Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of breast self-examination (BSE) and utilization of mammography. Champion's (1991) revised Health Belief Model (HBM) instrument for BSE, which assesses the HBM constructs of Seriousness, Susceptibility, Benefits, Barriers, Confidence and Health Motivation, was utilized along with her Barriers and Benefits instrument for mammography usage. Ronis' and Harel's (1989) constructs of Severity-Late and Severity-Early were evaluated along with Cuing and demographic variables. These exogenous latent constructs were utilized in a LISREL path model to predict Breast Cancer Screening Behavior.
Using Steepest Descent to Find Energy-Minimizing Maps Satisfying Nonlinear Constraints
The method of steepest descent is applied to a nonlinearly constrained optimization problem which arises in the study of liquid crystals. Let Ω denote the region bounded by two coaxial cylinders of height 1 with the outer cylinder having radius 1 and the inner having radius ρ. The problem is to find a mapping, u, from Ω into R^3 which agrees with a given function v on the surfaces of the cylinders and minimizes the energy function over the set of functions in the Sobolev space H^(1,2)(Ω; R^3) having norm 1 almost everywhere. In the variational formulation, the norm 1 condition is emulated by a constraint function B. The direction of descent studied here is given by a projected gradient, called a B-gradient, which involves the projection of a Sobolev gradient onto the tangent space for B. A numerical implementation of the algorithm, the results of which agree with the theoretical results and which is independent of any strong properties of the domain, is described. In chapter 2, the Sobolev space setting and a significant projection in the theory of Sobolev gradients are discussed. The variational formulation is introduced in Chapter 3, where the issues of differentiability and existence of gradients are explored. A theorem relating the B-gradient to the theory of Lagrange multipliers is stated as well. Basic theorems regarding the continuous steepest descent given by the Sobolev and B-gradients are stated in Chapter 4, and conditions for convergence in the application to the liquid crystal problem are given as well. Finally, in Chapter 5, the algorithm is described and numerical results are examined.
Multiresolutional/Fractal Compression of Still and Moving Pictures
The scope of the present dissertation is a deep lossy compression of still and moving grayscale pictures while maintaining their fidelity, with a specific goal of creating a working prototype of a software system for use in low bandwidth transmission of still satellite imagery and weather briefings with the best preservation of features considered important by the end user.
Eutrophication Monitoring and Prediction
Changes in trophic status are often related to increases or decreases in the allocthonous inputs of nutrients from changes in land use and management practices. Lake and reservoir managers are continually faced with the questions of what to monitor, how to monitor it, and how much change is necessary to be considered significant. This study is a compilation of four manuscripts, addressing one of these questions, using data from six reservoirs in Texas.
A Study to Determine an Adequate Program of Readiness for Texas History
This study will attempt to determine an adequate program of readiness for Texas History.
A Study of Unsatisfactory Adjustment of Pupils in a Third Grade
The purpose of this study is to find the factors that cause maladjustment for third-grade pupils and to find means of eliminating or reducing the causal factors, thereby eliminating the unsatisfactory adjustment.
A Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Mainstream Versus Pullout Treatment Programs in Addressing the Needs of At-Risk Students
The purpose of the study was to compare the relative benefits of treating at-risk students, those considered to be potential dropouts, by separating them into special classes at a separate facility—a pullout program—versus having them remain in regular classes with periodic supplemental counseling based upon individual needs—a mainstream program. To carry out the purpose of the study, students enrolled in the two types of treatment programs were compared in respect to retention in school, attendance, academic achievement based upon pretest and posttest scores, report card grades, and attitude toward school.
An Evaluation of Achievement Scores and Teacher Ratings of Boys and Girls in the Fourth Grade
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the total achievement scores and teacher ratings of pupils in three fourth grades in Chico and Decatur elementary schools to determine differences, if any, in the rate of progress between boys and girls and in teacher ratings. A secondary purpose was to make a study of individual differences in achievement and to make a number of case studies of pupils in one school.
A Study of Some Congenital Anomalies of the Hands and Feet
This paper has been undertaken, first, to contribute several more cases of various congenital anomalies to the literature on human genetics, and, second, by an analysis of the genealogies, to determine the possible modes of transmission of these anomalies.
Modeling State Repression in Argentina and Chile: A Time Series Analysis
This study is an attempt to contribute to the emerging theoretical literature on state repression. A time-series model was developed to test the hypothesis that state violence in Argentina and Chile is largely a function of four internal political factors and their interactions: 1) the inertial influence of past restrictive policies on the formulation of current policies, 2) the annual incidence of political protest demonstrations, 3) the perceived effectiveness of repressive measures on unrest, 4) and the institutionalization of military rule.
State Participation in Funding Capital Projects and Improvements in Texas Public Schools
The impact of four basic capital project funding models for state participation was determined for the school districts in Texas. A review of the historical background for funding of capital projects and improvements by states was followed by a review of the historical background of state support for funding capital projects in the State of Texas. Additionally, the current funding models and methods of determining need were reviewed for all of the states. This historical review revealed that facility funding, like aid for maintenance and operation, has evolved with all the states at different stages.
From Knowing Content to Constructing Knowledge: A Trend Analysis of Secondary Science Education, 1953-1992
The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze secondary science education curriculum and instruction trends for the period 1953-1992 by using the technique of content analysis to examine a representative portion of journal articles and policy statements in secondary science education. Two major science publications, The Science Teacher and Science Education, were selected for analysis.
A Role Modification Model: the Foreign Policy of the Palestine Liberation Organization, 1964-1981
This study is a Comparative Foreign Policy (CFP) analysis of the Palestine Liberation Organization's (PLO) foreign policy behavior from 1964 through 1981. This study develops and tests a role modification model that accounts for evolutionary changes in foreign policy behavior. One of the major premises of this research is that what often appears as dramatic restructuring in foreign policy is actually the culmination of a series of modifications that transpired over an extended period of time. The model relies on a total of six independent variables as determinants of PLO foreign policy output representing multiple levels of analysis. There are a total of 12 dependent variables expressed as either foreign policy tactical roles or strategic goals. Relying on content analysis of relevant PLO documents, the role modification model demonstrates that the foreign policy output of the PLO experienced a gradual, over time change in both the means and ends of its foreign policy. The model also identifies the conditions under which any one of the independent variables is able to exclusively determine foreign policy output and which roles one can reasonably expect the PLO to exercise under a given circumstance.
Young Children's Construction of Physical Knowledge on Swings in the Outdoor Play Environment
This investigation examined the development of young children's behaviors on swings in the outdoor play environment and their emerging understanding of the physics principles associated with those behaviors. The children's language interactions were also examined in an effort to determine the relationship between language and cognitive development in their construction of physical knowledge. The procedures involved observing the children's behaviors and collecting samples of their spontaneous language interactions during their swinging activities. Informal interviews were also conducted with individual and groups of children. The findings indicate that young children's swinging behaviors develop in eight hierarchical stages. As these behaviors develop, children experiment with the physics principles of balance, gravity, force, resistance, and resonance. Children's swinging behaviors develop in a social context. Many early behaviors are acquired through observing and modeling other children. Language provides the medium for more-experienced peers to assist novice swingers through encouragement and direct instruction. The stage development of swinging behaviors is compared to Cratty's Theory of Perceptual-Motor Development and Harrow's Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain. Children's cognitive processing and language interactions are discussed in the context of Piagetian and Vygotskian theories of development. Implications for instruction and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Functional Properties and Organization of Primary Somatosensory Cortex
The physiological characteristics and organization of cat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were studied in electrophysiological and anatomical experiments. In single cell recording experiments, quantitatively controlled mechanical stimuli were used to examine the responses of SI cortical neurons to the velocity component of skin or hair displacement. The firing frequency of most rapidly adapting neurons increased as stimulus velocity was increased. Rapidly adapting neurons were classified based on their response patterns to constant-velocity ramp stimuli. Neurons in these classes differed significantly in sensitivity to stimulus velocity and amplitude, adaptation rate, and spontaneous firing rate. The results suggest that frequency coding of stimulus displacement velocity could be performed by individual SI rapidly adapting neurons, and that the classes of rapidly adapting neurons may play different roles in sensation of tactile stimuli. Tract-tracing experiments were used to investigate the ipsilateral corticocortical connections of areas 3b and 2 in SI. Different patterns of connections were found for these areas: area 2 projects to areas 3b, 1, 3a, 5a, 4 and second somatosensory cortex (SII), and area 3b projects to areas 2, 1, 3a and SII. To further compare the organization of these areas, the thalamic input to the forepaw representation within each area was studied. The forepaw region in area 3b receives thalamic input exclusively from ventroposteriopr lateral nucleus (VPL), while area 2 receives input from VPL, medial division of the posterior complex (PoM), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP). These results suggest that area 2 lies at a higher position in the hierarchy of somatosensory information flow.
An Evaluation of Methods of Reporting Grade Progress in a Selected Number of Schools
The purpose of this study is to make an evaluation of the type of reports on pupil progress made by a selected number of elementary schools in Texas to determine the extent to which the reports meet criteria for reporting grade progress to parents.
A Study to Determine the Adequacy of the Science Programs of the Small High Schools of North Central Texas
The purpose of this study is to determine how adequately the smaller high schools of North Central Texas are conforming to certain standards in the science field. The problem of this study is to determine whether science teachers' objectives and methods are in line with educational objectives and certain sound psychological practices and whether the science training has made any contributions to the general education of the high-school students in this area.
An Evaluation of the School Lunch Programs of Bryan County, Oklahoma to Determine a Sound Procedure for Their Operation
In this study it is proposed to survey ten selected school lunch programs in Bryan County, Oklahoma, in order to determine a sound procedure for the operation of a successful school lunch program. the increasing knowledge of nutrition as an element in the scholastic progress of children is a factor that the school administrator must consider.
A Study of the Trends in Methods and Content of Nature Study Teaching in the Primary Grades in Texas since 1900
The problem of this study is to determine the trends in the Nature Study in Texas with reference to the quantity and quality of printed materials for primary grades and the trends in methods of presenting them.
An Investigation of Heart Response During Trumpet Playing
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trumpet playing upon the heart. A Holter monitor was used to record electrocardiograms (ECGs) to examine the heart's response during musical performances and practice sessions.
The Evaluation of a Library Service Program Designed to Increase Recreational Reading Among Elementary School Age Children
The problem in this study is to evaluate a library service program designed to increase recreational reading among elementary school age children.
Semi-continuity and Related Properties
The elementary notion of a function originated in the work of mathematicians of the seventeenth century, and was somewhat closely connected with investigations in the field of algebra. This paper will be concerned with an investigation of a generalized type of continuity known as semi-continuity.
Integrating Art with Other Subjects in a Fifth Grade of the Robert E. Lee School in Denton, Texas
The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop an integrative program using art as its core which was put into effect in one of two fifth grades in the Robert E. Lee School in Denton, Texas, (2) to develop criteria for evaluating an art program used as an integrating agent, and (3) to evaluate the program in terms of the criteria and in outcomes in achievement in subject matter.
Scaling Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels
Polymer gels undergo a volume phase transition in solvent in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon has resulted in many potential applications of polymer gels. The understanding of its mechanical properties has both scientific and technological importance. For this purpose, we have developed a novel method for measuring Poisson's ratio, which is one of the most important parameters determining the mechanical property of gels. Using this method, Poisson's ratio in N-isopropyacrylamide (NIPA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels has been studied.
A Criterion-Referenced Analysis of Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges
The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze subjects' responses from Form F of the Standardized Bible Content Tests of the American Association of Bible Colleges by factor analysis and the Rasch measurement model and (b) determine dimensionality of Form F, determine the correlation to the Literal, Anti-literal, Mythological Scales, and determine the best criterion-referenced test design of Form F using Rasch measurement procedures. Volunteers from a purposefully selected sample of nine colleges from the American Association of Bible Colleges participated in the study. One research instrument with five demographic questions, the Standardized Bible Content Test Form F, and the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales was administered to 179 volunteer graduating seniors. Frequencies and percentages of responses were computed for the demographic questions. Mean scores on the Literal, Anti-literal, and Mythological Scales were computed for gender and religious affiliation. Principal components analysis of Form F with varimax rotation and list-wise deletion of missing data was used to assess the dimensionality of Form F. Correlations between scores on the Literal, Anti-literal and Mythological Scales and scores from the principal components analysis of Form F were computed. Dunn's multiple comparison procedures were used to test for statistical significance. Rasch-Model measurement analysis of the scales extracted by principal components analysis was accomplished to obtain suggested target description, test design, variable definition, and item calibration.
Body Image as Mediated by Age, Sex, and Relationship Status
Traditionally, body image research has focused on young women. However, there are indications of cultural shifts which extend physical appearance pressures to both men and women, as well as to middle-aged and older adults. Two hundred and ten subjects were administered objective body image measures including the Figure Rating Scale, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, as well as projective measures including the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Draw-A-Person. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Social Anxiety Subscale were also used to explore variables which might covary with body image. A 3 X 2 X 2 Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was utilized with social desirability as the covariate.
An Investigation of the Perception of Delivered Quality at Different Levels of Organizational Hierarchy in Services
The overall purpose of this research was to add to existing theory of quality pertaining to the service provider's perception of quality. Quality in the service industry is difficult to assess because of the intangible, heterogeneous and labor intensive nature of services. In addition, personnel have varying perceptions of delivered quality based on their position within the organizational hierarchy. This study enhanced the Service Quality Model developed by Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman (1988). An additional gap ("gap 6") was hypothesized and investigated. This gap describes the differences in perceived delivered quality by employees at different organizational levels (e.g., managerial, supervisory, and non-management employees) across different market segments. The researcher proposed that "gap 6" has a significant impact on total perceived delivered quality. The survey instrument addressed five dimensions of overall quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The survey was administered to employees from hotels representing three market segments located within the same metropolitan area and managed by the same company. A 3 X 3 factorial design was used with three organizational levels (managers, supervisors, and hourly employees) and three lodging market segments (luxury, business-traveller, and long-term/suite). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test.
The Undergraduate Teaching of Archetypal Patterns in the Writings of Alice Walker
Significant passages in Alice Walker's writings give evidence of archetypal patterns from Carl Jung and feminine archetypal patterns from Annis Pratt. Since a knowledge of archetypal patterns can influence the total understanding of aspects of Walker's writings, a study of these patterns in the undergraduate classroom benefits the student and opens up another system of analyzing writings, particularly writings by African-American women.
Reliability of Authentic Assessment in Fourth-Grade Narrative and Descriptive Written Language for Students with and without Learning Disabilities
The purpose of this study was to determine reliability estimates of authentic assessment for fourth-grade narrative and descriptive writing samples for students with and without learning disabilities. Three types of reliability estimates were established: (a) inter-rater, (b) score stability, and (c) alternate-form. The research design involved 40 teachers, trained in holistic scoring by Education Service Centers 10 and 11 in Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, who scored 16 writing samples. Approximately 2 weeks later the teachers rescored 8 of the same writing samples. In addition to scoring the writing samples, the teachers also completed a demographic questionnaire. The writing samples, which consisted of eight narrative and eight descriptive writings, were selected based upon teachers' holistic scores and scores from 1993 writing sample of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Based upon these scores, two narrative and descriptive writings of above-average, average, and below-average writings were selected. In addition, two narrative and descriptive writing samples of students with learning disabilities in written language were selected.
The Riemann Definite Integral of a Bounded Real Function
The object of this paper is to define, to establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of, and to consider the elementary properties of the Riemann definite integral of a bounded function.
An Analysis and Comparison of Music Appreciation Books for the Junior High School and the High School
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze and compare a selection of books that can be used in the teaching of music appreciation in the junior high school and the high school.
The Disappearance of Crude Fiber and Lignin from the Digestive Tracts of Young College Women
The purpose of this study is to investigate the disappearance of crude fiber and lignin from the digestive tracts of healthy young college women consuming a self-selected diet.
Contributions of Educational Therapy to the Veteran Patients in the Veterans Administration Hospitals
It is the purpose of this study to bring together the history of the development of educational therapy as one of the phases of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Service for disabled war veterans in Veterans' Hospitals, the aims of the educational therapy, its functions, and the therapeutic values to the patients while they are hospitalized and following discharge from the hospital.
In Vitro Determination of the Cellulose-Decomposing Rates of Twelve Denton County, Texas Soils
In this study twelve types of top soil were collected under aseptic conditions. The cellulose-decomposing rates of these were compared in order to determine the relative rates in the cellulose-decomposing potential of the microorganisms involved. Furthermore, this investigation is designed to acquire pertinent information on the rate at which natural cellulose materials are returned to available plant food.
A Method of Analyzing Linear Perspective for Presentation to Junior and Senior High School Students
The general purpose of this study is to develop a series of peep shows, or visual models, which will enable the young student to understand what the laws of perspective are, how they were found, and why his drawings will appear to have three dimensions if he follows the rules. The study is based upon a widely accepted idea--that it is much easier for most people to understand and remember a principle when they can actually see how it works. When rules are merely memorized, one is not assisted by reason, which is essential for useful retention.
The Value of the Tachistoscope in the Reading Program on the Seventh Grade Level
The problem of this study is to determine the value of the tachistoscope in the reading program of students at the seventh-grade level.
An Experimental Study to Ascertain the Amount of Achievement Made in Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Social Studies by the Use of Audio-Visual Aids
The present study is an attempt to obtain, from two groups of students, useful facts with which to evaluate the most effective method of presenting educational materials to junior-high-school students. The study is an attempt to measure and evaluate the achievement made in social studies, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in 1949 and 1950. The following questions form the basis for the present study: What method is best for the purpose of presenting materials to a class? Which method helps to solve the problem of the student most effectively? By which method is greater achievement made? If the two methods prove of equal value, then how much achievement may be attributed to the use of each method?
Wholesale Quarterly Prices of Fifty Leading Commodities Adjusted to the Purchasing Power of the 1926 Dollar and Charted as a Ratio of all Commodity Prices for the Period 1940 through 1949
It is a broad function of this thesis to provide the commodity world with a new and valuable informational tool. This thesis shows quarterly prices for a ten year period 1940 through 1949, on fifty major commodities, giving in each case the actual cash price and the cash price adjusted to the purchasing power of the 1926 dollar. This adjusted price is a statistically derived relative price and for the purposes of this study is called a constant dollar value.
Criterion Analysis: a Factorial Study of School Grades
It is the purpose of this paper to present a technique for analyzing grades and other criteria, and by so doing, arrive at the factors which will explain the variance of the criteria. This technique is not new; however, it has received very little use. The technique is simply that of factor analyzing a matrix of intercorrelations of variables which include the grades and related measures necessary to define the factors. The selection of the related variables is the crucial problem.
The Systematic Exclusion of Negroes from Jury Service
It is the purpose of this paper to present the historical record of Negro service on grand and petit juries in the United States, as that record is revealed by decisions of both state and federal courts; particularly the decisions of the United States Supreme Court. It is the desire of this treatise that such record shall be presented fairly. Finally, it is the aim of this document to present this historical record of cases in such a manner as to allow the prediction of certain potential developments visible in the course of justice. This then is a presentation of the record of the systematic exclusion of the Negro race in the matter of service on grand and petit juries in the United States, and with especial attention to the State of Texas.
Some Properties of Derivatives
This paper is concerned with certain properties of derivatives and some characterizations of linear point sets with derivatives. In 1946, Zygmunt Zahorski published a letter on this topic listing a number of theorems without proof, and no proof of these assertions has been published. Some of the theorems presented here are paraphrases of Zahorski's statements, developed in a slightly different order.
A Critical Analysis of the Educational Program of the Lorenzo De Zavala Elementary School and the Northside Junior High School of Corpus Christi, Texas, to Determine whether Industrial Arts is Needed and Wanted
The purpose of this study was to determine, by means of a survey, the desires and needs of Latin-American children in connection with an educational program in the elementary school and at the junior-high-school level. It was recognized at the outset of this investigation that these pupils may be influenced materially both by the lower standard of education of their parents and the higher standard of education of their teachers. Language difficulties, living conditions at home, and loyalty to native teachings, customs, and traditions act as opposing forces in the effective educational training of these pupils in the schools of Texas.
The Theory of Administered Wages
There is at the present time a need for a great deal more study regarding the way in which wage payments are determined. Are wages determined or fixed by natural law? Or are they administered through the conscious effort of man? It will be the purpose of this study to partially investigate the determination of wages both theoretical and actual. Perhaps some insight may be gained that will give rough answers to the above questions.
The Economic Theory of the Chemical Industry
The purpose of this thesis is to contrast classical theory with the operations of a controlled industry whose foremost raw material is technical knowledge, and to observe whether these operations can approximate the conditions of orthodox theory.
Basic Operations in the Prefabrication of Leather Projects and the Construction and Uses of Leathercraft Tools
The purpose of this study is to determine the use of homemade tools for leatherwork, and to examine the possibilities of making a part of the tools and equipment needed in leathercraft classes. This study will include inquiries made to the high schools of Texas where courses in leathercraft are offered.
A Sound Basis for Interaction among Community Agencies
The purpose of this study is (1) to determine the need for a creative program of interaction among the various community agencies, and (2) to determine the sound processes to be used in bringing about desirable social change through interaction among the agencies. Improving social conditions that affect the welfare of youth in the community is the primary concern of this study.
Industrial Espionage and Surveillance : A Study of Employer Resistance to the Institution of Collective Bargaining
The primary object is to make an exploration of and to examine in detail the practice of industrial espionage and surveillance. Many people, while they may be aware of the existence of such a practice, have only a limited knowledge of the ramifications inherent in it. This study, then, will seek to localize and to classify the facts on the subject of espionage and surveillance of the union activities of workers. An attempt will be made to present the facts in such a way that one who is completely unaware of the existence of the practice may also be made to know the significance of industrial espionage and surveillance by reading this paper.
The Fashoda Crisis: a Study in European Imperialism and Diplomacy
In this thesis the author attempts to answer the questions: What was there in the Egyptian Sudan that rival colonial powers wanted, and why would they consider war as a means of getting it? Under what circumstances did Britain go into Egypt and lay a claim to the Egyptian Sudan? How did France expect to gain and hold territory in the Egyptian Sudan with a mere handful of men under Jean Baptiste Marchand in competition with the much greater force of the British leader, Sir Herbert Kitchener? What happened when these forces met at a Shilook village on the Nile, and what was the reaction in Europe? To what extent was the Fashoda Crisis and its settlement responsible for a treaty of friendship between the two rival powers that was to place them side by side in World War I?
A Study and Evaluation of the Lighting in the Industrial Arts Shops of the Fort Worth Public Schools
There are many factors to be considered when studying the lighting of industrial arts shops. Adequate light is one of the most important factors, and by adequate lighting is meant light that is sufficient in quantity and quality. Other factors to be considered include the location of the shops in the building, the windows, interior painting, width, and length, and the ceiling height of the shoprooms. The study herein is directed toward better lighting in the industrial arts shops for more efficient work.
A Study of the Personal Problems of the Ninth-Grade Students in the Schools of Denton, Texas
The purpose of this study is to determine what problems the ninth-grade students of the North Texas Demonstration School at Denton, Texas, and the Denton Junior High School, say concern them most and to make some recommendations for helping students solve these problems.