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The Relationship between Self-Reported Bulimic Behavior and Cardiovascular Reactivity to a Weight Stressor
This investigation sought to identify anxiety responses to weight measurement, assessed by verbal report and cardiovascular reactivity CCR3 (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate), which might differentiate females with either high or low self-reported bulimic behavior. Secondar i ly,, the study attempted to examine specific autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal patterns of each group over time. The Bulimia Test (BULIT), Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BD), and a demographic questionnaire were administered to 105 undergraduate females at The University of North Texas. Based on BULIT scores, females were divided into high or low bulimic behavior groups. Of the 105 females screened, forty participated in the experiment which consisted of four phases: relaxation, anticipation of weight measurement, weight measurement, and recovery. Subjects had no prior knowledge of the weight stressor until presentation during the experiment. Results showed that subjects' notion of ideal weight was substantially lower than measured weight. During weight measurement, all subjects reported increased anxiety although the high group reported significantly more anxiety. Contrary to prediction, no significant group differences in CR were found when repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed. Orthogonal polynomial trend analysis was done with pooled groups, resulting in significant within-subject trends for all cardiovascular measures. There was also a significant group by time of measurement interaction for heart rate during the weight measurement phase. Correlational analyses failed to produce significant results between verbal report of anxiety and CR. There was, however, a significant correlation between BULIT and BD scores. It was concluded that heightened subjective anxiety during weight measurement could not be attributed to group differences in CR. Regarding ANS arousal patterns, mixed evidence of active and passive coping was seen. Nevertheless, both psychological and physiological measures supported an overvaluation of female thinness consistent with societal trends regardless of group membership. Implications ...
Characteristic Memory Functions in Subtypes of Arithmetic Disabled Children
The role of memory as measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) was studied in an outpatient clinic sample of 62 arithmetic disabled children.
Memory and Attention in the Healthy Elderly
This study investigated the influence of age and health status on verbal and visual memory and attention. The objective was to select subjects resembling participants in normative studies, and to contrast the genuinely healthy component with the "contaminants." A rigorous and detailed self-report of health status plus a standard neurological examination were used to screen and divide subjects into two health status groups: normal and super healthy. It was speculated that the strong effect of age on memory and attention commonly found among the elderly would be diminished with more restrictive control over health status.
Compulsive Sexual Behavior and Personality Characteristics : A Comparative Analysis
The purpose of the present study was to compare the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Coopersmith Inventory of heterosexual men with compulsive sexual behavior (N = 22), homosexual men with compulsive sexual behavior (N = 19), heterosexual men without compulsive sexual behavior (N = 38), and homosexual men without compulsive sexual behavior (N = 8). The Sex Addiction Screening Test was used to determined placement in a group. Findings revealed men who exhibit compulsive sexual behavior are significantly more depressed, experience lower self-esteem and have higher state anxiety (situational) than controls.
Performance of Psychiatric and Head Injury Patients on the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scales
Reitan and Wolfson's General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale and Left and Right Neuropsychological Deficit Scales were applied to Halstead-Reitan test data of individuals with psychotic or substance abuse disorders with and without a head injury.
Conceptualizations of Young, Middle-aged, and Older Adults and the Ingroup-outgroup Complexity Effect
The purpose of the present study was to investigate Linville's (1982) ingroup-outgroup complexity hypothesis through descriptive card sorts created by young, middle-aged, and older adults regarding their own and other age groups.
MMPI-2 Correlates of Chronic Pain: An Examination of the Role of Anger
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the potential relationships that exist between anger expression, as measured by several MMPI-2 scales, and chronic pain.
Perceived Parental Goal Projections and Parental Pressure on the Development of Children's and Adolescents' Goal Orientations in Sport
The present investigation evaluated sport-related motivational climates by assessing personal and perceived parental goal orientations and perceived parental pressure in children and adolescents. Data were collected from 202 middle-class, racially diverse students, including 43 male and 50 female children aged 12 or below (M age = 10.6) and 51 male and 58 female adolescents aged 13 or above (M age = 14.7), who had participated in a variety of organized sports, and were enrolled in elementary, middle, and high schools of the Dallas (TX) Independent School District. Measures included personal and parental projected versions (mother's and father's) of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Sport Parental Pressure Scale (mother's and father's versions), and a background assessment.
Judgment of Contingency in Hospitalized Depressives
Numerous investigations with college students have found that mild depressives perceive environmental contingencies more accurately than do nondepressives. The present study explores this 'depressive realism' phenomenon in a hospitalized sample.
Psychosocial and Spiritual Factors Affecting Persons Living with HIV and AIDS
The purposes of this study were (a) to examine whether social support decreases as the person with HIV disease progresses from asymptomatic HIV to symptomatic AIDS and (b) to examine the extent to which general well-being might be mediated through a religious and/or spiritual support system.
Control, Commitment, and Challenge: Relationships to Stress, Illness, and Gender
Male and female college students were administered scales assessing their daily hassles, negative life events, control, commitment, challenge, psychological symptomatology, psychological distress, and physical symptomatology. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that control, commitment, and challenge act in an additive (rather than multiplicative) manner in relation to psychological and physical outcome measures.
Biological and Environmental Determinants of Self-conception : Implications for Empathy
The purpose of this study was to determine if two elements of self-conception, environment and biology, influenced trait and dyadic measures of empathy.
The Process of Ritual: a Twenty-Year Survey of Literature
Use of the term "ritual" in PsycLit from 1975-1995 was examined through an archival study. Abstracts identified as including any form of the term were coded for valence, target population, study type, and differential area of interest. Valence was predominantly positive, consistent across time, with a growing negative trend. Interest in ritual has increased. Key elements of adaptive ritual were identified as recurrence across time, shared symbolism and volitional participation. A Dynamic Process of Ritual is proposed which includes the individual, society, and chaos in a fluctuating relationship, all operating within an additional dimension of a continuum of ritualization in which the individual's position is determined by personal and societal complexity and individual response to crisis.
Alcohol Use, Violence, and Psychological Abuse in Intimate Relationships
Women in distressed relationships who had sustained severe psychological abuse and either no, moderate, or severe violence from their partner were included (N = 93). Men's and women's alcohol use did not differ with level of violence. Different patterns were found in the moderate violence group regarding women's beliefs about their partner's substance problem, men's psychological abuse, and the relationship of men's and women's quantity of alcohol use and times intoxicated. Uncertainty resulting from moderate violence may strengthen the emotional impact of psychological abuse. Even when psychological abuse is exacerbated by violence, women may use active coping techniques rather than drinking to cope with abusive relationships. The findings suggest that an inordinate focus on alcohol abuse may be ineffective in combating the problem of domestic violence.
Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale Among Cardiac Patients
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was originally designed as a measure for screening depression among elderly medical patients. Although this instrument is well validated among a general medical population, it has never been evaluated with specific regard to cardiac patients, the largest single group of medical patients over 40 years of age. A general cardiac sample of 655 patients completed the GDS within 10 weeks of the cardiac event. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on the main sample, then on several subgroups of participants with regard to diagnostic category, gender, and age. The GDS generally produces factor structures with several symptom domains with a high rate of total variance. The myocardial infarction group endorsed general symptoms of depression whereas the coronary artery bypass graft group reported greater levels of despair regarding their condition. Overall, males primarily reported agitation and hopelessness while females reported symptoms of depressed mood.
A Continuation in the Defining of the Construct of Optimism
One hundred twenty-two undergraduate students at the University of North Texas were administered several different optimism scales and also measures of similar constructs such as hope. Results indicated that most measures of optimism show only low to moderate intercorrelations with other measures of the same construct. Additionally, factor analysis confirmed that the measures of optimism actually appear to be assessing multiple factors and not necessarily optimism alone. Implications of the present study include the necessity of individual researchers to be familiar with the specific measure of optimism used in a given study as scores on differing measures of optimism may actually be providing very different information.
Relationship of Leadership Importance Ratings and Leadership Competency Ratings Across Adjacent Management Levels
Effective leadership can and does influence organizational performance. The Executive Success Profile, a multi-rater feedback instrument, was used to gather perception data on 51 executives and 310 senior managers of a large Fortune 500 electronics manufacturing company in regards to three critical leadership dimensions: visionary thinking, empowering others, and global perspective. Paired t-tests were run to compare the means of the two samples. Significant differences were found between executives and senior managers on the perceived importance of and ability to perform on the empowering others dimension. Additionally, correlational measures indicate a statistically significant relationship between importance and competence ratings on the empowering others and global perspective dimensions for executives, and on the empowering others dimension for senior managers.
Investigating the Relationship Between Integrity and Job Turnover
Integrity tests have become a widely used tool in modern-day selection systems. These instruments are generally designed to predict dishonest and counterproductive attitudes/behavior. A group of participants who had quit a job without notice was found to have higher scores on an Integrity/Pessimism scale (indicating low integrity and highly pessimistic attitudes) than an involuntary turnover group of those who had been fired or laid off. Post hoc analyses also found supporting evidence in that the quit without notice group also had higher expressed exit intentions scores (indicating negative attitudes toward current occupation/industry) and shorter average tenure than the involuntary (fired and laid off) group. The potential benefits of developing a predictive Integrity/Pessimism scale are discussed.
Contributing Risk Factors in the Association Between Sexual Abuse Experiences and Disturbed Eating Patterns in College Females
This study examined two theoretical factors proposed to explain the relationship between sexual abuse experiences and disturbed eating patterns. Over 300 women completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual abuse histories, bodily shame, body disparagement, and disordered eating behaviors. Multivariate analyses indicated that bodily shame, body image dysphoria, and bodily dissatisfaction were significantly higher in participants with previous sexual violations. In addition, disordered eating symptoms and behaviors were related to reported severity of sexual abuse experiences. However, the relationship between the severity of disturbed eating patterns and sexual abuse histories appears to be more meaningful in relation to the presence of bodily shame and body dissatisfaction, as proposed in previous research. Future research implications are discussed.
Sociocultural and Psychological Correlates of Eating Disorder Behavior in Nonclinical Adolescent Females
The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and psychological correlates of bulimic symptomatology and drive for thinness in a sample of nonclinical female adolescents.
The Relationship of Gender Discrepant Attitudes, Behaviors and Characteristics to Disordered Eating
This study extended earlier research supporting discrepancy theory by including a multidimensional conceptualization of gender including attitudes, behaviors, and characteristics. Analyses revealed that gender discrepancy when assessed multidimensionally or unidimensionally (as in past research) was not significantly related to eating disordered symptomatology.
Cognitive Appraisal, Anxiety, and Coping Strategies in Mediating SAM Activation to a Psychological Stressor
The purpose of this study was to examine Dienstbier's (1989) hypothesis that SAM elicitation is prompted by subject's cognitive expectations of an acute stressor ('challenge' or 'threat' appraisal). Reported anxiety was also measured.
Construct Use and Self-Aspect Change in Recovery From Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: a Personal Construct Analysis
Cognitive ratings that use bipolar constructs based upon similarity and contrast have been shown to be biased towards the similarity pole in approximately a 62/38 ratio. This bias has also been known to shift in the contrastive direction for individuals who have psychiatric problems. This quantitative measure of cognitive change has a potential for characterizing cognitive changes that occur during the disease process, including recovery from disease. The present study investigated changes in self-aspect ratings and bipolar construct use in adult male veterans who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results indicated that treatment subjects' self-aspect and construct ratings were more negative than controls'. Results also indicated that all subjects rated core interpersonal self-aspects closest to the expected bias, while self-aspects related to cardiac recovery problems were rated in the most contrastive direction. The results finally suggested that the greatest degree of change for the treatment subjects were in emotionally generated constructs. The results suggested a preliminary validation for characterizing cognitive changes in the disease process by measuring shifts in bipolar construct ratings.
Effects of Family of Origin Violence on Partner Violence: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis
Meta-analyses with 144 correlations from 44 studies to assess the relationship between experienced, father-to-mother, and mother-to-father violence in the family of origin and partner violence for males and females in clinical, community and student samples.
Family and Self-concept Factors Contributing to the Adjustment and Achievement of Early Entrants
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of students' self-concept and their perceptions of family environment in the psychosocial adjustment and academic achievement of accelerated college students in a residential program. A secondary purpose was to investigate the differential role of those factors for students of diverse ethnic backgrounds.
The Process of Sharing Team Leadership : A Study of Key Leadership Behaviors and Who Exhibits Them
Using a manufacturing setting that is organized into self-managed teams, the current study identified and measured key leadership behaviors within the teams. Questions that were asked include: are some team leadership behaviors more critical to a team's level of functioning than other behaviors? and do successful self-managed teams rely on formal leadership to a lesser extent than members of less successful teams? These questions were asked in the context of leadership as a process, not an individual.
Test-Retest Reliability on the Revised Conner's Parent Rating Scale
The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale. The Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48) was administered to 59 elementary school children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. After a period of two weeks, the same children were re-tested with the CPRS-48. The results of this research lend support to the integrity of the test-retest reliability of the CPRS-48. The need for further psychometric studies on the Conners' Scales is noted.
Optimism, Health Locus of Control, and Quality of Life of Women with Recurrent Breast Cancer
The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that specific factors play in the quality of life (QL) for women with recurrent breast cancer.
Perceptions of Family Environment of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Mothers
Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience a significant number of psychological symptoms and behavioral problems which negatively affect their interactions within their families. The purpose of the present study was to explore the perceptions of family environment of boys with ADHD and their mothers and compare them to those of nonreferred boys and their mothers. Maternal reports of emotional distress and perceptions of hyperactive behavior in the two groups of boys were also studied.
Neuropsychological Functioning of Blind Subjects with Learning Disabilities Compared to Those with Blindness Alone
It has been hypothesized that a disproportionate percentage of the blind population are learning disabled. In the past, norms and technology were not available to assess in a cost effective manner the blind client's neuropsychological functioning. Norms for the Wide Range Achievement Test - Revised (WRAT-R2) are now available for a blind population without any neuropsychological dysfunctioning. This study utilized the adapted WRAT-R2 and the Comprehensive Vocational Evaluation System (CVES), a neuropsychological test battery adapted for the blind, to investigate the possibility that learning disabilities are present in the adult blind population. Suspected learning disabled, blind subjects were compared with normal blind subjects. There were significant neuropsychological differences between the two groups.
Dual Factor Socially Desirable Responding and Contrasts in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Motivation
A follow-up was done to Leak and Fish's (1989) study of intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals using Paulhus' (1984) Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, a two factor scale of socially desirable responding measuring self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and impression management (IM). 275 introduction to psychology students were group tested and categorized by gender and by religious orientation with Allport and Ross's (1967) fourfold Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). Differences between the four types were hypothesized on the religious relevance of the SDE and IM scale items. A difference score was also computed by contrasting two instructional sets on the BIDR as a measure of variation across situations. Measures of private and public self-consciousness, social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and self esteem were included.
Forensic Hypnosis and Memory Enhancement: Recall, Recognition, and Confidence
The recent finding of memory enhancement using either cognitive mnemonic or standard hypnotic interviews (Geiselman et al., 1985) suggests the possibility of additive forensic utility when these methods are combined. The present crime-analogue study compared waking and hypnotic cognitive mnemonics to investigate this and potential problems previously unaddressed. Recall and recognition accuracy and confidence were measured for low and high density stimuli in a videotaped murder, including central, peripheral, and facial detail. The effect of misleading information given after stimulus presentation was also examined.
Self Cognitions of Depressed Adolescents: a Personal Construct Approach
The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the characteristics of certain self cognitions that occur in depressed adolescents. A secondary purpose was to assess the change that occurs in these self cognitions during a depressive episode. The intervention, in the form of guided imagery about a previous drug-using episode, was used to induce a mood change. The REP, a Personal Construct Theory measure, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used in a repeated measures design.
Relationship between Selected Behaviors and Developmental Skills in Children with Autism
The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain more information about the developmental skills and abnormal behaviors of children with autism. Major interests included exploring the pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses, the relationship between unusual behaviors, and the relationship of autistic behaviors to development and IQ.
The Relationship of Individual Choice Status to Severity of Personal Problems
The present study is intended to be, as far as possible, an exhaustive examination of sociometric status groupings in regard to the way in which members of the group rate themselves and the others in their groups concerning happiness, problems and worry.
Client-Therapist Interaction and Perceived Therapeutic Outcome
This study sought to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of client-therapist dyads in a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The theories of George Kelly's personal construct psychology were utilized in assessing the dyadic relationship. The four elements investigated were organizational similarity, understanding, organizational congruency and predominant selves. The sample consisted of 140 dyads comprised of 10 adolescent boys and girls and 14 therapeutic staff of a residential treatment center in the southwest United States. Responses to Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test were compared to four relational factors—parental/respect, identity, problem-solving, and sexual/affection—and two rating scales of client-therapist preference and ratings of therapeutic effectiveness. Contrary to expectations, as content similarity among dyads composed of clients and staff increased, there was not an increase in functional aspects of the therapy relationship. Possible mitigating factors may have been level of client disturbance and/or methodological issues relating to how organizational similarity was determined. Dyadic understanding was not found to be related to perceptions of the therapy relationship. This may be a function of adolescent of adolescent clients' need for independence and resistance to adult understanding and control. Therapy dyads with a moderate level of lateral or vertical organizational congruence were not found to be curvilinearly related to functional aspects of the therapy relationship. However, a weak linear relationship regarding client perceptions of the therapy relationship was noted on four measures. Several methodological recommendations related to the instruments used to determine therapeutic effectiveness and the means of eliciting personal constructs on the REP test.
Causal Attributions, Attributional Dimensions, and Academic Performance in a School Setting
The attribution model of achievement motivation has been applied to academic achievement as a way of understanding underachievement and as a basis for developing intervention programs. There has been little applied research in this area, however, that supports the use of the model in school settings. The purpose of the present study was to test the applicability of the model to an actual school setting. Subjects were 149 tenth grade students in a large urban school district. In accordance with the model, specific attributions for success or failure were assessed, as well as subjects' perceptions of the locus, stability, and controllability of attributions. Attribution patterns found in previous analog research were not found in a school setting. Immediate effort attributions were the most prevalent, regardless of performance level or outcome. Causal beliefs were found to relate to performance in ways predicted by the model but also in some ways not predicted. Relationships were generally stronger for high performers. Comparing subjects' perceptions of the dimensional properties of attributions across outcomes showed a strong outcome bias. Attributions were perceived as more internal and stable following successes, consistent with previous research. In addition, a performance level bias was found. Low performers rated attributions as less internal, stable, and controllable following successes and more so following failures than did high performers. This bias, termed the underachievement bias, was discussed in terms of its detrimental effects on school performance. The differences between high and low performers regarding perceptions of dimensionalities were consistent with the predictions of the attribution model. It was concluded that the attribution model is applicable to school settings. Suggestions were made that more applied research be conducted, that intervention programs based on this model should target subjects' perceptions of attributions rather than just the specific attributions themselves, and that because of the ...
Absorption, Relaxation, and Imagery Instruction Effects on Thermal Imagery Experience and Finger Temperature
A skill instruction technique based on cognitive behavioral principles was applied to thermal imagery to determine if it could enhance either subjective or physiological responsiveness. The effects of imagery instruction were compared with the effects of muscle relaxation on imagery vividness, thermal imagery involvement, and the finger temperature response. The subjects were 39 male and 29 female volunteers from a minimum security federal prison. The personality characteristic of absorption was used as a classification variable to control for individual differences. It was hypothesized that high absorption individuals would reveal higher levels of imagery vividness, involvement, and finger temperature change; that imagery skill instruction and muscle relaxation would be more effective than a control condition; and that the low absorption group would derive the greatest benefit from the imagery task instruction condition. None of the hypotheses was supported. Finger temperature increased over time during the experimental procedure but remained stable during thermal imagery. The results suggest that nonspecific relaxation effects may best account for finger temperature increases during thermal imagery. Results were discussed in relation to cognitive-behavioral theory and the characteristic of absorption.
The Influence of Self-Monitoring on Return Rate Following Intake at a Child Guidance Clinic
Research has yet to identify any characteristics of clients, therapists, or treatment dyads which consistently identify those clients most likely to drop out of treatment. A frame of reference which may prove useful in identifying such clients is the social psychological construct of selfmonitoring. This theory proposes that individuals involved in any social encounter differ from each other in their approach to constructing a relevant self-presentation. High self-monitors emphasize matching their behavior to situational cues while low self-monitors match their behavior to perceived internal values and traits. The present study demonstrates the effects that selfmonitoring styles of therapists and clients have on the effectiveness of a therapeutic intake interview and the client's decision whether or not to return for treatment. Additionally examined are the effects of therapist selfmonitoring style on theoretical orientations toward psychotherapy. The hypothesis that pairings of high self-monitors would be most effective is tested by Chi-square and found to be nonsignificant. Using the Chi-square test, low self-monitoring therapists are found to endorse a single approach to therapy and to strongly endorse the psychoanalytical orientation. Low self-monitors are found to be eclectic in approach. Satisfaction with the interview is examined using ANOVA. Results are nonsignificant with the exception that low self-monitoring therapists are more satisfied with the intake interview than are high selfmonitoring therapists. Finally, within-cell Pearson correlations are examined to measure agreement about satisfaction between therapist and client. Pairs of high self-monitors show the highest rate of agreement. Implications for further research in this area are discussed.
Attribution to Deviant and Nondeviant Social Roles
A questionnaire was used to study causal attribution to social roles as influenced by perceived deviance of the role, instructions to identify with the role, and participant gender. The perceived deviance or nondeviance of the roles was determined by a pilot study. The roles were varied randomly through 12 hypothetical events, and identification or nonidentification instructions randomly assigned. The participants were 194 male and female university students. Participants gave the cause of each event and rated the cause on five dimensions: internality, externality, stability, globality, and controllability. Causal attribution to deviant social roles was found to result in a significantly higher across-scales score and to be more internal, less external, and more global than attribution to nondeviant roles. Participant gender showed an interaction with deviance overall and on the dimensions of stability and globality due to significantly higher ratings by women participants than those by men. Identification instructions did not produce a significant effect.
Characteristics of Children With Behavior Disorders Who Drop Out of Therapy
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics that distinguish children with behavior disorders who drop out of psychotherapy treatment from those who remain in treatment. The sample included 379 children (268 male and 111 female) who were diagnosed with a behavior disorder at Dallas County Mental Health/Mental Retardation (MH/MR), a community mental health clinic in Dallas, Texas. The results indicated that certain characteristics increased the likelihood that a child would drop out of therapy, including reliance on aid, the presence of maternal psychopathology, and more severe externalizing and internalizing behaviors. This study also found that younger children with behavior disorders had a greater probability of dropping out of treatment. Minority status, gender, parent marital status, and referral source were not found to be associated with dropping out of treatment. Future studies should focus on specific interventions that clinicians could employ to deter premature termination from treatment.
Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of Women of Mexican Descent: A Grounded Theory Approach
A culturally-based theoretical model about how cultural beliefs about cancer and breast cancer screening techniques influence the screening behaviors of women of Mexican descent was developed using grounded theory. Across levels of acculturation and socioeconomic status, 34 women (49 to 81 years old) were interviewed through focus groups. Women who hold more traditional health beliefs about causes, nature, and responsibility with regard to breast cancer are more likely to "feel healthy" and not engage in breast cancer screening. Women who hold more traditional beliefs about propriety of female and health care provider behavior are more likely to "feel indecent" and also not engage in screening. The cultural health belief model is integrated within a sociocultural and a socioeconomic context.
Memory Functions among Children Irradiated for Brain Tumor
Children who have received radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors have been shown to experience neurocognitive deficits which appear to increase over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the memory functioning of 22 children irradiated for brain tumor and 22 healthy children of the same age who had not received irradiation. Subjects were administered a brief form of the WISC-III, to obtain an IQ, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), to evaluate visual and verbal memory. Results indicated that, although there were no significant differences between the IQ scores of healthy children and children who had been irradiated, children who have received radiation therapy for brain tumor evidence memory deficits which effect visual and verbal memory abilities. Among the children who had been irradiated, as time since treatment increased, visual memory and overall memory functioning appeared to decline. Findings also suggested that children who received total tumor resection may evidence greater memory deficits than those who received only a partial resection. Visual memory was more closely related to IQ in the children irradiated for brain tumor than in the healthy children. The overall importance of research with this population lies in refining the understanding of memory deficits and strengths in order to formulate more effective remediation compensation, strategies.
Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia and Their Neuropsychological Correlates
The distinction of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia was examined in relation to demographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures.
The Relationship between Level of African-American Acculturation and Affiliation with Fraternities and Sororities
Ninety-nine African-American undergraduates, at a historically Black college, completed the African American Acculturation Scale to compare fraternity/sorority members with independents' participation in Black cultural traditions versus dominant White society. Greek members were hypothesized to be more traditional, because these organizations represent ethnic enclaves, have duplicate institutions, and communicate ethnic socialization; findings did not support this, but reasons for joining did. They were more superstitious in their beliefs than nonmembers, likely related to pledgeship and initiation rituals. Validity data on the new measure were provided. Why participants join fraternities, why they like/dislike them, and what purposes they serve was also examined.
Effects of Experimental Psychological Stress on Human Physiological Functioning: Mediation by Affiliation
This investigation sought to identify differences in the human psychophysiological stress response when mediated by affiliation, by assessing heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrodermal activity (EDA), serum Cortisol (SC) concentration, interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentration, and state anxiety among subjects who underwent an anagram solution task. Thirty male subjects from the University of North Texas were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and asked to solve a series of difficult anagrams either alone or with a companion. Subjects assigned to the control condition were asked to copy permutations of the anagrams. Before, and immediately after the anagram/copying tasks HR, SBP, DBP were measured, blood samples drawn, and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) administered to all subjects. EDA was measured throughout all trials. Changes from baseline through the experimental period for all dependent variables were analyzed by employing difference scores derived from contrasting baseline and experimental measures. These scores were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) resulting in one significant between group effect among all dependent variables examined. Contrary to stated hypotheses, the alone condition significantly differed from the companion and control conditions by demonstrating a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period. It was concluded that the decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period for the alone group was a result of chance sampling of individuals possessing unique psychophysiological response patterns. Appraisals of inter-group differences in response patterns across all dependent variables suggest that an insufficient stressor, and limitations in design, statistical analysis, and measurement may have contributed to this investigation's results. Implications of findings were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Characterization of Tolerance and Cross-tolerance between Noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Antagonists in Rats Trained to Self-administer Ketamine
Ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) are noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of ligand-gated glutamate receptors. Both agents have high abuse liability, and may produce dependence. Tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is widely regarded as a key component of the dependence process. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether tolerance develops to the reinforcing effects of ketamine, and whether PCP and dizocilpine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with negligible abuse liability, produce cross-tolerance to the reinforcing effects of ketamine. Further, identification of the neural mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs may yield information regarding drug dependence.
Children's Perceived Contingency of Teacher Reinforcements Measured with a Specific Scale, Helplessness and Academic Performance
A specifically oriented instrument was used to partially replicate a study by Dietz (1988) in an effort to compare the utility of the phi coefficient and Rescorla index measures of perceived contingency of reinforcement in children and examine the relationship of these measures to locus of control, teacher ratings of helplessness and academic performance.
Relationship of Team Design and Maintenance on Performance and Satisfaction for Self-Directed Work Teams
Five models for designing work teams from the Work Group Design Measure (Campion & Medsker, 1992b) and the models7 relationships to effectiveness criteria were compared using 30 self-directed work teams (SDWTs) in a manufacturing/production setting of a large defense contractor. The models which are from social psychology, socio-technical systems theory, industrial engineering, and organizational psychology include Job Design, Composition, Context/Resources, Potency/Interdependence, and Process. The study also examined distinguishing demographics, team characteristics, and interpersonal processes within the teams that differentiate higher performing teams and/or teams with higher job satisfaction. Effectiveness criteria were performance and job satisfaction. Among the findings, four of the five team design models (i.e., excluding the Composition Model), and the team-oriented interpersonal group processes correlated with performance and SDWT member job satisfaction.
The Relationship Between Abilities and Perceived Everyday Intelligence in Older Adults
This study examined the relationship between perceptions of intellectual functioning and measures of cognitive abilities, personality variables and sociodemographic information. One hundred and fifty-two older community residing adults were asked to define their perception of intelligence by completing a questionnaire that asked the extent to which a variety of tasks are: functionally important, contribute to feelings of intellectual vitality and are the object of worry or concern. They also estimated their skill at performing each task. The hypothesis that cognitive abilities would best predict perceptions of cognitive functioning was moderately supported. Personality variables, specifically anxiety, were more predictive of the meaning variables than abilities.