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Using Steepest Descent to Find Energy-Minimizing Maps Satisfying Nonlinear Constraints
The method of steepest descent is applied to a nonlinearly constrained optimization problem which arises in the study of liquid crystals. Let Ω denote the region bounded by two coaxial cylinders of height 1 with the outer cylinder having radius 1 and the inner having radius ρ. The problem is to find a mapping, u, from Ω into R^3 which agrees with a given function v on the surfaces of the cylinders and minimizes the energy function over the set of functions in the Sobolev space H^(1,2)(Ω; R^3) having norm 1 almost everywhere. In the variational formulation, the norm 1 condition is emulated by a constraint function B. The direction of descent studied here is given by a projected gradient, called a B-gradient, which involves the projection of a Sobolev gradient onto the tangent space for B. A numerical implementation of the algorithm, the results of which agree with the theoretical results and which is independent of any strong properties of the domain, is described. In chapter 2, the Sobolev space setting and a significant projection in the theory of Sobolev gradients are discussed. The variational formulation is introduced in Chapter 3, where the issues of differentiability and existence of gradients are explored. A theorem relating the B-gradient to the theory of Lagrange multipliers is stated as well. Basic theorems regarding the continuous steepest descent given by the Sobolev and B-gradients are stated in Chapter 4, and conditions for convergence in the application to the liquid crystal problem are given as well. Finally, in Chapter 5, the algorithm is described and numerical results are examined.
Semi-continuity and Related Properties
The elementary notion of a function originated in the work of mathematicians of the seventeenth century, and was somewhat closely connected with investigations in the field of algebra. This paper will be concerned with an investigation of a generalized type of continuity known as semi-continuity.
The Riemann Definite Integral of a Bounded Real Function
The object of this paper is to define, to establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of, and to consider the elementary properties of the Riemann definite integral of a bounded function.
Some Properties of Derivatives
This paper is concerned with certain properties of derivatives and some characterizations of linear point sets with derivatives. In 1946, Zygmunt Zahorski published a letter on this topic listing a number of theorems without proof, and no proof of these assertions has been published. Some of the theorems presented here are paraphrases of Zahorski's statements, developed in a slightly different order.
On Uniform Convergence
In this paper, we will be concerned primarily with series of functions and a particular type of convergence which will be described. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with the concept of uniform convergence. In the main it is a compilation of material found in various references and revised to conform to standard notation.
L'Hospital's Rule
The purpose of this paper is to present proofs for six cases of L'Hospital's Rule for the evaluation of indeterminate forms. It is also a purpose to reduce to one of these six cases some other indeterminate forms to which L'Hospital's Rule is applicable. In the course of presenting these proofs several theorems and definitions will be used without proof.
Topics in Fractal Geometry
In this dissertation, we study fractal sets and their properties, especially the open set condition, Hausdorff dimensions and Hausdorff measures for certain fractal constructions.
Multifractal Measures
The purpose of this dissertation is to introduce a natural and unifying multifractal formalism which contains the above mentioned multifractal parameters, and gives interesting results for a large class of natural measures. In Part 2 we introduce the proposed multifractal formalism and study it properties. We also show that this multifractal formalism gives natural and interesting results when applied to (nonrandom) graph directed self-similar measures in Rd and "cookie-cutter" measures in R. In Part 3 we use the multifractal formalism introduced in Part 2 to give a detailed discussion of the multifractal structure of random (and hence, as a special case, non-random) graph directed self-similar measures in R^d.
Plane Curves, Convex Curves, and Their Deformation Via the Heat Equation
We study the effects of a deformation via the heat equation on closed, plane curves. We begin with an overview of the theory of curves in R3. In particular, we develop the Frenet-Serret equations for any curve parametrized by arc length. This chapter is followed by an examination of curves in R2, and the resultant adjustment of the Frenet-Serret equations. We then prove the rotation index for closed, plane curves is an integer and for simple, closed, plane curves is ±1. We show that a curve is convex if and only if the curvature does not change sign, and we prove the Isoperimetric Inequality, which gives a bound on the area of a closed curve with fixed length. Finally, we study the deformation of plane curves developed by M. Gage and R. S. Hamilton. We observe that convex curves under deformation remain convex, and simple curves remain simple.
Cycles and Cliques in Steinhaus Graphs
In this dissertation several results in Steinhaus graphs are investigated. First under some further conditions imposed on the induced cycles in steinhaus graphs, the order of induced cycles in Steinhaus graphs is at most [(n+3)/2]. Next the results of maximum clique size in Steinhaus graphs are used to enumerate the Steinhaus graphs having maximal cliques. Finally the concept of jumbled graphs and Posa's Lemma are used to show that almost all Steinhaus graphs are Hamiltonian.
The Cantor Ternary Set and Certain of its Generalizations and Applications
This thesis covers the Cantor Ternary Set and generalizations of the Cantor Set, and gives a complete existential theory for three set properties: denumerability, exhaustibility, and zero measure.
Property (H*) and Differentiability in Banach Spaces
A continuous convex function on an open interval of the real line is differentiable everywhere except on a countable subset of its domain. There has been interest in the problem of characterizing those Banach spaces where the continuous functions exhibit similar differentiability properties. In this paper we show that if a Banach space E has property (H*) and B_E• is weak* sequentially compact, then E is an Asplund space. In the case where the space is weakly compactly generated, it is shown that property (H*) is equivalent for the space to admit an equivalent Frechet differentiable norm. Moreover, we define the SH* spaces, show that every SH* space is an Asplund space, and show that every weakly sequentially complete SH* space is reflexive. Also, we study the relation between property (H*) and the asymptotic norming property (ANP). By a slight modification of the ANP we define the ANP*, and show that if the dual of a Banach spaces has the ANP*-I then the space admits an equivalent Fréchet differentiability norm, and that the ANP*-II is equivalent to the space having property (H*) and the closed unit ball of the dual is weak* sequentially compact. Also, we show that in the dual of a weakly countably determined Banach space all the ANP-K'S are equivalent, and they are equivalent for the predual to have property (H*).
Applications of Rapidly Mixing Markov Chains to Problems in Graph Theory
In this dissertation the results of Jerrum and Sinclair on the conductance of Markov chains are used to prove that almost all generalized Steinhaus graphs are rapidly mixing and an algorithm for the uniform generation of 2 - (4k + 1,4,1) cyclic Mendelsohn designs is developed.
The Development of the Natural Numbers by Means of the Peano Postulates
This thesis covers the development of the natural numbers by means of the peano postulates.
Means and Mean Value Theorems
This study covers means, mean value theorems of the differential calculus, and mean value theorems of integral calculus.
Aspects of Universality in Function Iteration
This work deals with some aspects of universal topological and metric dynamic behavior of iterated maps of the interval.
Primitive Substitutive Numbers are Closed under Rational Multiplication
Lehr (1991) proved that, if M(q, r) denotes the set of real numbers whose expansion in base-r is q-automatic i.e., is recognized by an automaton A = (Aq, Ar, ao, δ, φ) (or is the image under a letter to letter morphism of a fixed point of a substitution of constant length q) then M(q, r) is closed under addition and rational multiplication. Similarly if we let M(r) denote the set of real numbers α whose base-r digit expansion is ultimately primitive substitutive, i.e., contains a tail which is the image (under a letter to letter morphism) of a fixed point of a primitive substitution then in an attempt to generalize Lehr's result we show that the set M(r) is closed under multiplication by rational numbers. We also show that M(r) is not closed under addition.
Countable Additivity, Exhaustivity, and the Structure of Certain Banach Lattices
The notion of uniform countable additivity or uniform absolute continuity is present implicitly in the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem and explicitly in the Vitali-Hahn-Saks and Nikodym Theorems, respectively. V. M. Dubrovsky studied the connection between uniform countable additivity and uniform absolute continuity in a series of papers, and Bartle, Dunford, and Schwartz established a close relationship between uniform countable additivity in ca(Σ) and operator theory for the classical continuous function spaces C(K). Numerous authors have worked extensively on extending and generalizing the theorems of the preceding authors. Specifically, we mention Bilyeu and Lewis as well as Brooks and Drewnowski, whose efforts molded the direction and focus of this paper. This paper is a study of the techniques used by Bell, Bilyeu, and Lewis in their paper on uniform exhaustivity and Banach lattices to present a Banach lattice version of two important and powerful results in measure theory by Brooks and Drewnowski. In showing that the notions of exhaustivity and continuity take on familiar forms in certain Banach lattices of measures they show that these important measure theory results follow as corollaries of the generalized Banach lattice versions. This work uses their template to generalize results established by Bator, Bilyeu, and Lewis.
The Continuous Wavelet Transform and the Wave Front Set
In this paper I formulate an explicit wavelet transform that, applied to any distribution in S^1(R^2), yields a function on phase space whose high-frequency singularities coincide precisely with the wave front set of the distribution. This characterizes the wave front set of a distribution in terms of the singularities of its wavelet transform with respect to a suitably chosen basic wavelet.
π-regular Rings
The dissertation focuses on the structure of π-regular (regular) rings.
Abstract Measure
This study of abstract measure covers classes of sets, measures and outer measures, extension of measures, and planer measure.
A Comparison of Velocities Computed by Two-Dimensional Potential Theory and Velocities Measured in the Vicinity of an Airfoil
In treating the motion of a fluid mathematically, it is convenient to make some simplifying assumptions. The assumptions which are made will be justifiable if they save long and laborious computations in practical problems, and if the predicted results agree closely enough with experimental results for practical use. In dealing with the flow of air about an airfoil, at subsonic speeds, the fluid will be considered as a homogeneous, incompressible, inviscid fluid.
A Numerical Method for the Calculation of the Inertial Loads on an Airplane
This paper is an extension of various projects that the writer has been associated with at Chance Vought Aircraft, Incorporated.
Invertible Ideals and the Strong Two-Generator Property in Some Polynomial Subrings
Let K be any field and Q be the rationals. Define K^1[X] = {f(X) e K[X]| the coefficient of X in f(X) is zero} and Q^1β[X] = {f(X) e Q[X]| the coefficent of β1(X) in the binomial expansion of f(X) is zero}, where {β1(X)}^∞ i=0 are the well-known binomial polynomials. In this work, I establish the following results: K^1[X] and Q^1β[X] are one-dimensional, Noetherian, non-Prüfer domains with the two-generator property on ideals. Using the unique factorization structure of the overrings K[X] and Q[X], the nonprincipal ideal structures of both rings are characterized, and from this characterization, necessary and sufficient conditions are found for a nonprincipal ideal to be invertible. The nonprincipal invertible ideals are then characterized in terms of the coefficients of the generators, and an explicit formula for the inverse of any proper invertible ideal is found. Finally, the class groups of both rings are shown to be torsion free abelian groups. Let n be any nonnegative integer. Results similar to the above are found in the generalizations of these two rings, K^n[X] and q^nβ[X], where the coefficients on the first n nonconstant basis elements are zero. For the domains K^1[X] and Q^1β[X], the property of strong two-generation is explored in detail and the following results are established: 1. K^1[X] and Q^1β[X] are not strongly two-generated, 2. In either ring, any polynomial with a constant term, or of degree two or three is a strong two-generator. 3. In K^1[X] any polynomial divisible by X^4 is not a strong two-generator, 4. An ideal I in K^1[X] or Q^1β[X] is strongly two-generated if and only if it is invertible.
Containment Relations Between Classes of Regular Ideals in a Ring with Few Zero Divisors
This dissertation focuses on the significance of containment relations between the above mentioned classes of ideals. The main problem considered in Chapter II is determining conditions which lead a ring to be a P-ring, D-ring, or AM-ring when every regular ideal is a P-ideal, D-ideal, or AM-ideal, respectively. We also consider containment relations between classes of regular ideals which guarantee that the ring is a quasi-valuation ring. We continue this study into the third chapter; in particular, we look at the conditions in a quasi-valuation ring which lead to a = Jr, sr - f, and a = v. Furthermore we give necessary and sufficient conditions that a ring be a discrete rank one quasi-valuation ring. For example, if R is Noetherian, then ft = J if and only if R is a discrete rank one quasi-valuation ring.
Improper Integrals
In this paper a definitions shall be given for different types of improper integrals and several theorems concerning them shall be proved.
Infinite Matrices
This paper will be mostly concerned with matrices of infinite order with elements which lie in Hilbert Space. All the properties of real and complex numbers and all the properties of infinite series and infinite sequences that are not listed will be assumed.
Some Effects of the War Upon the Mathematics Curriculum and the Motivating Forces at Work as Reflected in the Dallas City Schools
"To discuss the effect all this war activity has had upon the Dallas Schools and to voice a protest against those who seek to discredit mathematics and at the same time to contribute a readable thesis upon the subject is largely the purpose of this study." --leaf 2
Linear and Planar Jordan Content
This paper considers the concept of inner and outer content, which was introduced by Camille Jordan and Giuseppe Peano near the end of the nineteenth century.
An Investigation of Points About the Circle of Convergence
This paper will be concerned with the convergence of complex power series.
Steepest Sescent on a Uniformly Convex Space
This paper contains four main ideas. First, it shows global existence for the steepest descent in the uniformly convex setting. Secondly, it shows existence of critical points for convex functions defined on uniformly convex spaces. Thirdly, it shows an isomorphism between the dual space of H^{1,p}[0,1] and the space H^{1,q}[0,1] where p > 2 and {1/p} + {1/q} = 1. Fourthly, it shows how the Beurling-Denny theorem can be extended to find a useful function from H^{1,p}[0,1] to L_{p}[1,0] where p > 2 and addresses the problem of using that function to establish a relationship between the ordinary and the Sobolev gradients. The paper contains some numerical experiments and two computer codes.
Existence of a Sign-Changing Solution to a Superlinear Dirichlet Problem
We study the existence, multiplicity, and nodal structure of solutions to a superlinear elliptic boundary value problem. Under specific hypotheses on the superlinearity, we show that there exist at least three nontrivial solutions. A pair of solutions are of one sign (positive and negative respectively), and the third solution changes sign exactly once. Our technique is variational, i.e., we study the critical points of the associated action functional to find solutions. First, we define a codimension 1 submanifold of a Sobolev space . This submanifold contains all weak solutions to our problem, and in our case, weak solutions are also classical solutions. We find nontrivial solutions which are local minimizers of our action functional restricted to various subsets of this submanifold. Additionally, if nondegenerate, the one-sign solutions are of Morse index 1 and the sign-changing solution has Morse index 2. We also establish that the action level of the sign-changing solution is bounded below by the sum of the two lesser levels of the one-sign solutions. Our results extend and complement the findings of Z. Q. Wang ([W]). We include a small sample of earlier works in the general area of superlinear elliptic boundary value problems.
Characterizations of Some Combinatorial Geometries
We give several characterizations of partition lattices and projective geometries. Most of these characterizations use characteristic polynomials. A geometry is non—splitting if it cannot be expressed as the union of two of its proper flats. A geometry G is upper homogeneous if for all k, k = 1, 2, ... , r(G), and for every pair x, y of flats of rank k, the contraction G/x is isomorphic to the contraction G/y. Given a signed graph, we define a corresponding signed—graphic geometry. We give a characterization of supersolvable signed graphs. Finally, we give the following characterization of non—splitting supersolvable signed-graphic geometries : If a non-splitting supersolvable ternary geometry does not contain the Reid geometry as a subgeometry, then it is signed—graphic.
Intuition versus Formalization: Some Implications of Incompleteness on Mathematical Thought
This paper describes the tension between intuition about number theory and attempts to formalize it. I will first examine the root of the dilemma, Godel's First Incompleteness Theorem, which demonstrates that in any reasonable formalization of number theory, there will be independent statements. After proving the theorem, I consider some of its consequences on intuition, focusing on Freiling's "Dart Experiment" which is based on our usual notion of the real numbers as a line. This experiment gives an apparent refutation of the Axiom of Choice and the Continuum Hypothesis; however, it also leads to an equally apparent paradox. I conclude that such paradoxes are inevitable as the formalization of mathematics takes us further from our initial intuitions.
Uniqueness Results for the Infinite Unitary, Orthogonal and Associated Groups
Let H be a separable infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space, let U(H) be the Polish topological group of unitary operators on H, let G be a Polish topological group and φ:G→U(H) an algebraic isomorphism. Then φ is a topological isomorphism. The same theorem holds for the projective unitary group, for the group of *-automorphisms of L(H) and for the complex isometry group. If H is a separable real Hilbert space with dim(H)≥3, the theorem is also true for the orthogonal group O(H), for the projective orthogonal group and for the real isometry group. The theorem fails for U(H) if H is finite dimensional complex Hilbert space.
The Analytical Development of the Trigonometric Functions
This thesis is a study of the analytical development of the trigonometric functions.
A Numerical Method for Solving Singular Differential Equations Utilizing Steepest Descent in Weighted Sobolev Spaces
We develop a numerical method for solving singular differential equations and demonstrate the method on a variety of singular problems including first order ordinary differential equations, second order ordinary differential equations which have variational principles, and one partial differential equation.
Continuous, Nowhere-Differentiable Functions with no Finite or Infinite One-Sided Derivative Anywhere
In this paper, we study continuous functions with no finite or infinite one-sided derivative anywhere. In 1925, A. S. Beskovitch published an example of such a function. Since then we call them Beskovitch functions. This construction is presented in chapter 2, The example was simple enough to clear the doubts about the existence of Besicovitch functions. In 1932, S. Saks showed that the set of Besicovitch functions is only a meager set in C[0,1]. Thus the Baire category method for showing the existence of Besicovitch functions cannot be directly applied. A. P. Morse in 1938 constructed Besicovitch functions. In 1984, Maly revived the Baire category method by finding a non-empty compact subspace of (C[0,1], || • ||) with respect to which the set of Morse-Besicovitch functions is comeager.
Certain Properties of Functions Related to Exhaustibility
In this thesis, we shall attempt to present a study of certain properties of real functions related to the set property exhaustible.
The Moore-Smith Limit
It is the purpose of this thesis to indicate in more detail how various limits defined in analysis, as well as other concepts not ordinarily defined as limits, may be obtained as special cases of the Moore-Smith limit.
A Generalization of Sturmian Sequences: Combinatorial Structure and Transcendence
We investigate a class of minimal sequences on a finite alphabet Ak = {1,2,...,k} having (k - 1)n + 1 distinct subwords of length n. These sequences, originally defined by P. Arnoux and G. Rauzy, are a natural generalization of binary Sturmian sequences. We describe two simple combinatorial algorithms for constructing characteristic Arnoux-Rauzy sequences (one of which is new even in the Sturmian case). Arnoux-Rauzy sequences arising from fixed points of primitive morphisms are characterized by an underlying periodic structure. We show that every Arnoux-Rauzy sequence contains arbitrarily large subwords of the form V^2+ε and, in the Sturmian case, arbitrarily large subwords of the form V^3+ε. Finally, we prove that an irrational number whose base b-digit expansion is an Arnoux-Rauzy sequence is transcendental.
Some Properties of a Lebesgue-Stieltjes Integral
It is the purpose of this paper to define a Lebesgue integral over a measurable set, the integration being performed with respect to a monotone non-decreasing function as in the Stieltjes integral, and to develop a few of the fundamental properties of such an integral.
Descriptions and Computation of Ultrapowers in L(R)
The results from this dissertation are an exact computation of ultrapowers by measures on cardinals $\aleph\sb{n},\ n\in w$, in $L(\IR$), and a proof that ordinals in $L(\IR$) below $\delta\sbsp{5}{1}$ represented by descriptions and the identity function with respect to sequences of measures are cardinals. An introduction to the subject with the basic definitions and well known facts is presented in chapter I. In chapter II, we define a class of measures on the $\aleph\sb{n},\ n\in\omega$, in $L(\IR$) and derive a formula for an exact computation of the ultrapowers of cardinals by these measures. In chapter III, we give the definitions of descriptions and the lowering operator. Then we prove that ordinals represented by descriptions and the identity function are cardinals. This result combined with the fact that every cardinal $<\delta\sbsp{5}{1}$ in $L(\IR$) is represented by a description (J1), gives a characterization of cardinals in $L(\IR$) below $\delta\sbsp{5}{1}. Concrete examples of formal computations are shown in chapter IV.
Sufficient Conditions for Uniqueness of Positive Solutions and Non Existence of Sign Changing Solutions for Elliptic Dirichlet Problems
In this paper we study the uniqueness of positive solutions as well as the non existence of sign changing solutions for Dirichlet problems of the form $$\eqalign{\Delta u + g(\lambda,\ u) &= 0\quad\rm in\ \Omega,\cr u &= 0\quad\rm on\ \partial\Omega,}$$where $\Delta$ is the Laplace operator, $\Omega$ is a region in $\IR\sp{N}$, and $\lambda>0$ is a real parameter. For the particular function $g(\lambda,\ u)=\vert u\vert\sp{p}u+\lambda$, where $p={4\over N-2}$, and $\Omega$ is the unit ball in $\IR\sp{N}$ for $N\ge3$, we show that there are no sign changing solutions for small $\lambda$ and also we show that there are no large sign changing solutions for $\lambda$ in a compact set. We also prove uniqueness of positive solutions for $\lambda$ large when $g(\lambda,\ u)=\lambda f(u)$, where f is an increasing, sublinear, concave function with f(0) $<$ 0, and the exterior boundary of $\Omega$ is convex. In establishing our results we use a number of methods from non-linear functional analysis such as rescaling arguments, methods of order, estimation near the boundary, and moving plane arguments.
Dimensions in Random Constructions.
We consider random fractals generated by random recursive constructions, prove zero-one laws concerning their dimensions and find their packing and Minkowski dimensions. Also we investigate the packing measure in corresponding dimension. For a class of random distribution functions we prove that their packing and Hausdorff dimensions coincide.
Quadratic Forms
This paper shall be mostly concerned with the development and the properties of three quadratic polynomials. The primary interest will by with n-ary quadratic polynomials, called forms.
Absolute Continuity and the Integration of Bounded Set Functions
The first chapter gives basic definitions and theorems concerning set functions and set function integrals. The lemmas and theorems are presented without proof in this chapter. The second chapter deals with absolute continuity and Lipschitz condition. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of max and min integrals. The third chapter deals with approximating absolutely continuous functions with bounded functions. It also deals with the existence of the integrals composed of various combinations of bounded functions and finitely additive functions. The concluding theorem states if the integral of the product of a bounded function and a non-negative finitely additive function exists, then the integral of the product of the bounded function with an absolutely continuous function exists over any element in a field of subsets of a set U.
A Partial Characterization of Upper Semi-Continuous Decompositions
The goal of this paper is to characterize, at least partially, upper semi-continuous decompositions of topological spaces and the role that upper semi-continuity plays in preserving certain topological properties under decomposition mappings. Attention is also given to establishing what role upper semi-continuity plays in determining conditions under which decomposition spaces possess certain properties. A number of results for non-upper semi-continuous decompositions are included to help clarify the scope of the part upper semi-continuity plays in determining relationships between topological spaces and their decomposition spaces.
Proofs of Some Limit Theorems in Probability
This study gives detailed proofs of some limit theorems in probability which are important in theoretical and applied probability, The general introduction contains definitions and theorems that are basic tools of the later development. Included in this first chapter is material concerning normal distributions and characteristic functions, The second chapter introduces lower and upper bounds of the ratio of the binomial distribution to the normal distribution., Then these bound are used to prove the local Deioivre-Laplace limit theorem. The third chapter includes proofs of the central limit theorems for identically distributed and non-identically distributed random variables,
Valuations and Valuation Rings
This paper is an investigation of several basic properties of ordered Abelian groups, valuations, the relationship between valuation rings, valuations, and their value groups and valuation rings. The proofs to all theorems stated without proof can be found in Zariski and Samuel, Commutative Algebra, Vol. I, 1858. In Chapter I several basic theorems which are used in later proofs are stated without proof, and we prove several theorems on the structure of ordered Abelian groups, and the basic relationships between these groups, valuations, and their valuation rings in a field. In Chapter II we deal with valuation rings, and relate the structure of valuation rings to the structure of their value groups.