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The Effect of Running Speed on VO2 Kinetics in the Severe Exercise Domain
There has been an interest in the kinetics of the V02 response during exercise at various intensities. However, most studies focus on the response of submaximal intensities whereas few studies have examined V02 kinetics at severe intensities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise intensity on V02 kinetics over a range of severe intensities.
The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance
This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?
Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
The Significance of Time to Exhaustion at the Velocity at VO2Max
There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if inter-individual variability in time to exhaustion at the velocity associated with V02max (Tlim at Vmax) was explained by anaerobic capacity (AC), Vmax, anaerobic threshold (AT), and/or a combination variable in the form [AC • (Vmax - vAT)^-1]. The second goal was to determine if AC could be predicted from Tlim at Vmax, AT, and/or a combination variable in the form [Tlim • (Vmax - vAT)].
Coaching Behavior Preferences of Interscholastic Athletes
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of interscholastic athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 372 interscholastic athletes. The mean scores of the participants' responses to each subscale on the CBQ were the dependent variables and gender and type of sport were the independent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that female and male interscholastic athletes who perform on coactive, mixed, and interactive sport teams preferred coaches who engage in supportive and instructional behaviors, as opposed to non-responses or negative responses. A 2 (Gender) X 3 (Type of Sport) MANOVA and discriminant function analyses indicated that gender and the degree of interdependency between group members affects preferred coaching behavior. Thus, coaches should consider situational factors and personal characteristics when working with interscholastic athletes.
Critical Power as a Predictor of Performance in a Bicycle Time Trial
Certain measures of aerobic power have been shown to have a high relationship with endurance performance. Critical power (CP) has also been shown to be well correlated to endurance performance, but few studies have evaluated its use in a competitive scenario. In this study, cardiorespiratory-metabolic measures were evaluated in 13 highly trained cyclists to determine their relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Critical power, determined from the nonlinear power-time model, was also evaluated to determine its relationship to performance in a 17 km time trial. Results indicate that the traditional indicators of V02max and ventilatory anaerobic threshold were well correlated to TT performance (r=-0.86, r=-0.79, respectively). The principal finding from this study was that performance in a bicycle time trial is related to CP at least as well as to cardiorespirator-ymetabolic measures. In fact, the results fromthis study suggest that the relationship between performance and CP is stronger (r=-0.89). Use of the critical power concept is attractive because testing requires only a cycle ergometer and a stopwatch to estimate a parameter of aerobic fitness.
Students' and Teachers' Perspective of Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity
Purposes for engaging in physical activities were examined from the perspective of university students enrolled in physical activity classes and kinesiology faculty. Data was collected from 473 students and 20 faculty members. Both groups completed the Personal Purposes and Meanings in Movement Inventory (PPMMI). Independent t-tests were conducted for each of the twenty-two purpose statements to determine differences between faculty and students in the rating of purposes. Students attending individual sport activity classes rated self-knowledge, transcendence, object projection/reception, awareness, competition, neuromuscular efficiency, movement appreciation, and muscular strength significantly lower (p<.01) than the faculty. Students attending team sport activities rated self-knowledge, transcendence, participation, object projection/reception, teamwork, awareness, competition, leadership, and expression significantly (pc.01) lower than the faculty. Students attending fitness activity classes rated self-knowledge, competition, leadership, transcendence, participation, teamwork, circulo-respiratory efficiency, and personal integration significantly (p<.01) lower than faculty.
Ecological Analysis of Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life in Female College Students.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), over 40% of female college students do not meet recommended PA guidelines to improve their health. This study investigated the influences of individual, social, and physical environmental factors on students’ PA and HRQOL. Participants were 235 female university students who completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of PA, HRQOL, and social ecological factors. Three hierarchical regressions revealed individual and physical environmental factors as predictors of PA and HRQOL. These findings indicated health professionals need to consider students’ individual factors and physical environmental factors to promote female students’ PA and HRQOL.
Evaluating the Pulse Sensor as a Low-Cost and Portable Measurement of Blood Pulse Waveform
This study was aimed at determining whether the digital volume pulse waveform using the Pulse Sensor can be used to extract features related to arterial compliance. The Pulse Sensor, a low-cost photoplethysmograph, measures green light reflection in the finger and generates output, which is indicative of blood flow and can be read by the low-cost Arduino UNO™. The Pulse Sensor code was modified to increase the sampling frequency and to capture the data in a file, which is subsequently used for waveform analysis using programs written in the R system. Waveforms were obtained using the Pulse Sensor during two 30-s periods of seated rest, in each of 44 participants, who were between the ages of 20 and 80 years. For each cardiac cycle, the first four derivatives of the waveform were calculated and low-pass filtered by convolution before every differentiation step. The program was written to extract 19 features from the pulse waveform and its derivatives. These features were selected from those that have been reported to relate to the physiopathology of hemodynamics. Results indicate that subtle features of the pulse waveform can be calculated from the fourth derivative. Feature misidentification occurred in cases of saturation or low voltage and resulted in outliers; therefore, trimmed means of the features were calculated by automatically discarding the outliers. There was a high efficiency of extraction for most features. Significant relationships were found between several of the features and age, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, suggesting that these features might be employed to predict arterial compliance. Further improvements in experimental design could lead to a more detailed evaluation of the Pulse Sensor with respect to its capability to predict factors related to arterial compliance.
Coaching Efficacy Beliefs and Transformational Leadership Behaviors: Their Ability to Predict Motivational Climate
This study investigated the relationship between belief in coaching abilities (coaching efficacy beliefs, CEB), transformational leadership behaviors (TLB), and motivational climate development of current strength and conditioning coaches working with high school level athletes. The measures used were the coaching efficacy scale for high school teams (CES II-HST, Myers et al.,2000), the differentiated transformational leadership inventory (DTLI, Callow et al., 2009), and the patterns of adaptive learning scales (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000). It was hypothesized that CEB and TLB would influence motivational climate development, while coaches' background characteristics would correlate with CEB, TLB, and motivational climate development. The 60 coaches who participated reported an average of thirteen (SD=8) years of experience and 51 were Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialists. Coaches reported high efficacy, frequent use of TLB, and development of a moderately high task- and somewhat ego-involving motivational climate. Correlations between demographic variables and CEB, TLB, and motivational climate development revealed three significant relationships: years of experience with CEB, and professional development activities and athlete to coach ratio with ego-involving climate development. CEB and TLB had a strong positive correlation. Two regression analyses were conducted to determine if the outcomes of the CEB and TLB measures predicted motivational climate development. The only significant predictor was TLB positively predicting development of a task-involving motivational climate. Strength coaches can utilize the findings of this study help shape their leadership behaviors and develop a task-involving motivational climate that emphasizes effort, improvement, and cooperative learning and is optimal for athlete development and performance.
The Effects of Mental Imagery Training on a Baseball Throwing Task
This study was designed to determine if long term training of mental imagery skills is more beneficial to an athlete than immediate imagery rehearsal practiced only prior to an event. Subjects were thirty male high school baseball athletes who were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) long term imagery training and practice; (2) immediate imagery practice only; and (3) control. An accuracy relay-throwing test was performed with pre-test, mid-test, and post-test performance trials. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences over the three test periods for any of the treatment conditions. Thus, long term imagery combined with immediate imagery practice, immediate imagery practice and control groups performed equally well on the baseball throwing task.
The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
NCAA Division I Athletes Preferences for Coaching Behaviors
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coaching behavior preferences of NCAA Division I athletes differ as a function of gender and type of sport. The Coaching Behavior Questionnare (CBQ; Martin & Barnes, 1999) was administered to 195 NCAA Division I athletes. Gender and sport type were the independent variables and the participant's mean scores for the subscales on the CBQ were the dependent variables. Descriptive statistics revealed that, overall, NCAA Division I athletes prefer positive and instructional behaviors more than non-responses or negative behaviors. A 2 (gender) x 3 (type of sport) MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analysis indicated that coaching behavior preferences differed as a function of gender and type of sport played. Thus, NCAA Division I coaches should consider both individual and situational characteristics when working with their athletes to achieve the desired outcome.
Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers
The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
The Influence of Psychological Momentum on Basketball Shooting Performance
The purpose of this research was to examine the influence of fictitious scoring updates on psychological momentum (PM) and athletic performance in a competitive basketball setting. The participants included in this study were 50 male undergraduate students who reported having played basketball previously and qualified by being able to make more than 24% (12 out of 50) of their 3-point shots in a pre-trial session. Participants were told that they were competing in a 50 shot, 3-point shooting competition against another individual, equal in ability. After every 10 shots, participants were given a fabricated score update and answered four questions used to measure PM. Results showed that the fictitious score updates significantly (p < .01) influenced participants’ PM scores, where those who were told they led had higher PM scores than those who were told they trailed. As for shooting performance, no significant differences (p = .76) were found between positive and negative PM states for participants who reported experiencing both during the competition. Together, these findings suggest that manufactured score updates can influence PM, but resultant performance differences may not exist. Results of this study lend support to the notion that PM is experienced by athletes. However, when examining basketball shooting performance, the momentum-performance relationship is statistically unsupported. Thus, although PM is thought of by many as a game-changing factor, this study would suggest that PM plays a negligible role in changes to individual performance.
The Effects of a Psychosocial Environment on College Women’s Exercise Regulations and Social Physique Anxiety
A positive psychosocial intervention comprised of high autonomy support, task-involvement, and caring was implemented in physical activity classes to examine its effects on college women’s basic psychological needs (i.e. autonomy, competence, relatedness), exercise regulations (i.e. external, introjected, identified, integrated, intrinsic) and social physique anxiety (SPA). We hypothesized that at the end of the semester, participants in the intervention group (N = 73) would report greater need satisfaction, more self-determined regulations and less SPA than participants in the non-intervention group (N = 60). At T1 and T2, both the intervention and non-intervention participants reported “agreeing” with experiencing an autonomy supportive, task-involving, and caring environment. Furthermore, both groups at T1 and T2 reported moderate SPA. No significant group differences were found at T1. At T2, significant group differences were observed in the intervention and non-intervention groups’ report of external regulation and intrinsic regulation. The results suggests that group exercise instructors are capable of creating a positive psychosocial environment to enhance students’ intrinsic motivation.
The Effect of Post-resistance Exercise Alcohol Ingestion on LPS-stimulated Cytokines
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of post-resistance exercise alcohol ingestion on LPS-stimulated production of IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Recreationally resistance-trained men (n = 10, 25 ± 3 yr, 177 ± 7 cm, 83.8 ± 15.7 kg, 14.8 ± 8.5% body fat) and women (n = 8, 23 ± 2 yr, 161 ± 3 cm, 59.5 ± 6.0 kg, 26.5 ± 3.0% body fat) completed the study. Participants visited the laboratory for an initial visit at which time they were screened, familiarized with procedures, and had their 1-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat tested. Subsequently, participants visited the laboratory 2 more times and completed 2 identical heavy resistance exercise bouts (6 sets of 10 repetitions of 80% 1RM back squat) after which a beverage, either containing alcohol (alcohol condition, ALC; 1.09 g EtOH per kg fat free mass) or water (placebo condition, PLA), was administered. Blood samples were collected before exercise (PRE), and at 3 hours (3h) and 5 hours (5h) after exercise. Samples were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cultured overnight. Supernatant was collected and analyzed for IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. A significant (p < 0.05) main effect for time was found for IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-1β (5h greater than PRE) and for IL-10 (5h less than PRE and 3h, 3h less than PRE). An interaction effect was found for IL-8 (ALC less than PLA at 5h) and for IL-6 (ALC greater than PLA at PRE and ALC less than PLA at 3h). For IL-6, ALC was less at 3h than at PRE, and PLA was greater at 3h than at PRE. Overall, the LPS-stimulated cytokine response was pro-inflammatory by 5h. Alcohol consumed after heavy resistance exercise reduced LPS-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 but not of IFNγ, TNF-α, IL-1β, ...
Reliability of a Graded Exercise Test During Deep Water Running and Comparison of Peak Metabolic Responses to Treadmill Running
Populations that utilize deep water running (DWR) are described in Chapter I. A review of the literature concerning maximal and submaximal responses during DWR, shallow water running and swimming is presented in Chapter II. The protocols to elicit maximal responses during DWR and treadmill running (TMR), subject characteristics, and statistical methods employed are described in Chapter III. The results, presented in Chapter IV, indicate that the DWR protocol is a reliable test for eliciting peak oxygen consumption and heart rate. Furthermore, the metabolic responses during DWR are lower than TMR. Chapter V discusses factors which might limit maximal responses during DWR. Chapter VI contains suggestions for further research. Raw data are presented in Appendix A.
Effects of Strength on Selected Psychomotor Performances of Healthy and Frail Elderly Females
The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and psychomotor performance measures in healthy (n = 18) and frail (n = 21) groups of elderly women utilizing movements requiring various amounts of strength and ballistic action. Subjects were community-dwelling females ranging in age from 66-92 years. Evaluations of functional assessment of motor skills and grip strength occurred. Psychomotor performance was measured through production of aiming movements on a Digitizing Tablet. RT, MT, and movement kinematics (e.g., peak velocity, deceleration, movement adjustments) were evaluated. Differences between groups were apparent in quantity and quality of movement. Healthy subjects were stronger and faster than frail subjects, producing smoother movements with fewer adjustments. Strength appears to differentially affect healthy and frail samples and merits further exploration.
Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Four Underlying Factors in Intrinsic Motivation
The study examined the effects of positive verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation by determining differential effects over four multidimensions of Ryan's Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Subjects (N=60) were 30 male and 30 female college students. The subjects were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to a positive verbal reinforcement group or a control group. The subjects received 10 trials on the stabilometer. The results of the study indicated that there were significant group differences for composite intrinsic motivation and for perceived competence; however, there were no significant gender differences found. Furthermore, no group differences were reported for the underlying factors of interest/enjoyment, effort, or pressure/tension.
Effects of Music on Vividness of Movement Imagery
The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of music on self reported vividness of movement imagery. Eighty-four undergraduate kinesiology majors (42 males; 42 females) were subjects. Based on identical perceptions of precategorized music (classical and jazz), selected subjects were randomly assigned to one of three music treatment conditions (sedative, stimulative, and control) and administered the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire. A 3 x 2 x 2 (Treatment x Gender x Perspective) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor was employed. The results revealed that the two music conditions significantly enhanced the vividness of internal and external imagery perspectives when compared to the no music condition, and that music facilitated the vividness of males and females equally.
Muscular Differences Between Female Power and Endurance Athletes
The purpose of this study was to compare the torque generating capabilities and fatigue responses of female power athletes, female endurance athletes, and age-matched female non-athletic controls.
Self-Efficacy and Fears of Pain and Injury in Gymnastics and Tumbling: Does a Previous Injury Matter?
The purpose of this study was to explore whether a previous gymnastic or tumbling injury influences gymnasts' and tumblers' self-efficacy, motivation, competition anxiety, and fears of pain and injury. Participants (N = 105) completed survey packets during practice which contained demographic questions and questionnaires that measure self-efficacy for physical abilities and exercise, self-motivation, risk of injury, pain catastrophizing, and sport anxiety. Results of a one-way ANOVA indicated that gymnasts and tumblers who experienced a previous injury were significantly different than those who had not experienced an injury on their self-efficacy for physical abilities (p = .007), self-motivation (p = .007), and perceived risk of reinjury (p = .018). Specifically, these findings indicate that gymnasts and tumblers with previous injuries experience higher levels of self-efficacy for physical abilities, self-motivation, and perceived risk of reinjury. Implications for coaches, gymnasts, and tumblers include: creating an open and comfortable environment to discuss pain and injury, developing strategies to break the negative cycle of fear of injury, and fostering a positive rehabilitation process. In the future, researchers should examine the influence that gender and type of competition has on self-efficacy, self-motivation, perceived risk of reinjury, pain perceptions, and competition anxiety of those who have experienced sport-related injuries, as compared to those who have not experienced these types of injuries. Researchers should also examine how the type of injury, whether it is a first time injury versus a reinjury, influences perceptions of pain and fears directly following the injury.
Identifying Changes in Resilience during Rehabilitation from a Spinal Cord Injury
The study purposes were to identify changes in resilience, satisfaction with life (SWL), depression, spirituality, and functional independence (FI) and to examine the relationship between these variables, during the inpatient rehabilitation for a spinal cord injury (SCI). The sample included 42 individuals with a SCI, 33 males and 9 females, who were inpatients with a mean stay of 52 days (SD = 15.78). A repeated measures design was employed with questionnaires completed at three times during rehabilitation. Results indicated that there were significant changes in depression, satisfaction with life, spirituality, and FI during inpatient rehabilitation. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, SWL, spirituality, and depression. Future studies developing interventions, and examining factors that predict resilience could help build resilience and may improve rehabilitation outcomes.
Factors related to cycling performance
There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
Temporal Specificity in Exercise Training
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of training at a particular time of day on anaerobic capacity in the morning and in the afternoon.
Measurement of Mood State Changes Throughout a Competitive Volleyball Season
Mood state changes have been assessed in endurance sport athletes such as swimmers, distance runners and rowers. However, much less is known about the psychological changes that occur in team sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess mood state changes of intercollegiate female volleyball players across a competitive season.
Factors that Influence Men to Coach Women's NCAA Division II Basketball
This study identified factors that influenced men to coach women's basketball. The CCFQ, designed to determine relative importance of each of nine factors in career selection, was completed by 78 male head coaches of women's NCAA II basketball. Data was analyzed using univariate analysis with repeated measures, t-tests, and ANOVA. These coaches indicated fulfill need for competition, help female athletes reach full potential, and serve as role model as significant influences. Moderate influences included personal attributes of athletes, job attributes, and career advancement. Job availability, belief in own success, and income were not considered influential in career selection. Few differences were indicated between demographic sub-groups on any factor. Factors associated with well being of athletes had the greatest influence.
Effects of Maternal Aerobic Exercise on Selected Pregnancy Outcomes in Nulliparas
This study evaluated the effects of participation in aerobic exercise on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included type of delivery, length of labor, gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and maternal weight gain. The 137 nulliparas were categorized as active (N=44) or sedentary (N=93) based on self-reported aerobic exercise. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant women who were active during pregnancy were more likely to have vaginal deliveries than sedentary women. No significant differences between active and sedentary women were found in neonatal birth weight, maternal weight gain, length of labor, or gestational age.
The Effect of Steroid Dose Regimen on the Relationship Between Lower Extremity Muscle Function and Cardiac Function in Post Heart Transplant Patients
Differences in cardiovascular/aerobic function in heart transplant patients might be attributed to the rate of corticosteroid withdrawal and/or to skeletal muscle function. This hypothesis was tested among nine male, cardiac transplant recipients. Prednisone dosage was monitored, and isokinetic strength testing was performed at 4 different time periods throughout the first year post-transplantation. Cardiovascular/aerobic measurements were obtained at the fourth time period. Pre-surgery characteristics were obtained from the patient's medical record. Significant Pearson-product moment correlations were only found between muscle function and aerobic function and between pre-surgery characteristics and cardiovascular/aerobic performance. The results of this study show no evidence that rapid reduction of prednisone dosage enhances aerobic function by benefiting skeletal muscle function.
Responses During Exercise at 90% and 100% of the Running Velocity Associated with VO2max (vVO2max)
Six male long-distance runners participated in this study to evaluate the responses to exercise at 90% and 100% vV02max. Subjects participated in five maximal exercise tests: one incremental, three tests at 90% vV02max, and one test at 100% vV02max. The results of this study demonstrate that V02max can be elicited in a constant-velocity test at 90% vV02max.
Effects of Endurance Intensity and Rest Interval on Subsequent Strength Performance
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of cycling exercise at different intensities and rest intervals on strength performance. Ten males, engaged in concurrent training for at least one month prior to testing, comprised the subject group for this study. Results show only leg press torque and leg press work to be decreased after cardiorespiratory exercise of moderate intensity. Leg extension average power, chest press torque, chest press power, and chest press work after cycling were not decreased from pre-exercise values. No significant effects were found for exercise intensity, testing times, or intensity by testing times. These results indicate that lower body strength is decreased by cycling and that one hour is not sufficient to restore leg strength.
Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Severe Intensity Exercise
The purpose of this study was to describe mathematically the oxygen uptake kinetics during cycle ergometry, and to examine the effect of intensity on the kinetic responses within the severe domain. Sixteen volunteers performed a series of exercise tests at a range of intensities selected to elicit fatigue in ~3 to 10 min. A simple mono-exponential model effectively described the response across all intensities. There was a positive correlation between the response time and the time to fatigue, demonstrating that the maximal oxygen uptake was achieved faster at higher intensities within the severe domain. Models incorporating two components effectively described the responses only in tests lasting 8 min or more. It was concluded that there is a second, slow component in the oxygen uptake response only at the lower intensities within the severe domain.
Exploring flow among Division I and intramural athletes.
This study explores the flow experiences of collegiate athletes. NCAA Division I athletes and intramural athletes (N = 180) completed a series of measures on their flow experiences. Comparisons were made regarding the characteristics of flow, the perceived facilitators of flow, the frequency of flow experiences, and explored the role of perceived ability. Using a person by situation interaction framework, this study singles out perceived ability as a person factor and competitive level as a situational factor to more clearly examine flow experiences. Results indicated distinctions between the two groups. Mainly, the intramural athletes reported experiencing the merging of action and awareness, autotelic experience, transformation of time and having clear goals more frequently than the NCAA Division I athletes. No group differences were found for flow frequency or flow facilitators. Perceived ability was found to have a weak, but significant relationship with specific flow facilitators and characteristics.
Limiting Disability Post-Brain Injury Through a Physical Activity Centered Education Program
Brain injury (i.e., traumatic brain injury, stroke) is a considerable public health issue due to complicated outcomes of the injury, increasing incidence, and high costs linked with medical treatment. Rehabilitation centers are challenged to help individuals manage the resultant associated conditions and prevent secondary and chronic conditions. Research has shown that health promotion programs (HPP) that incorporate education about physical activity (PA) are one mode of rehabilitation that can improve the health of individuals with disabilities. However, PA is not included in the rehabilitation program for individuals with a brain injury, indicating a gap in the services provided. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to create and implement a physical activity centered education (PACE) program within an outpatient rehabilitation program. PACE consisted of an 8-week (16 session) program which aimed to (1) increase PA self-efficacy, (2) increase intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increase amount of PA completed regularly, and (4) promote positive rehabilitation outcomes. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that participation in PACE would result in (1) increased PA self-efficacy, (2) forward progression in intention to change PA behaviors, (3) increased amount of PA completed, and (4) improved rehabilitation outcomes (i.e., abilities, adjustment, participation). The PACE program resulted in an average increase of 16.1% in participants’ PA self-efficacy (effect size [ES] = 0.41), an increase from three of nine participants at pre-test to six of nine participants at post-test reporting to be in a stage of change in which they are most likely to be successful in regular PA participation (i.e., action or maintenance), and a comparable improvement in MPAI-4 scores (rehabilitation outcomes) after discharge to a rehabilitation program without a PA education component. In conclusion, the PACE program can improve PA self-efficacy, intention to change PA behaviors, and short-term rehabilitation outcomes.
Mechanisms Affecting Bench Press Throw Performance while Using a Counter-Balanced Smith Machine
The use of a counter-balance weight system of a Smith machine affects measures of bench press throw performance. Twenty-four men performed bench press throws at 30% of their one-repetition maximum under four different conditions: 1) counter-balance and rebound movement (RC), 2) no counter-balance and rebound movement (RNC), 3) counter-balance and concentric only movement (CC), and 4) no counter-balance and concentric only movement (CNC). Peak power, force, and concentric and eccentric velocities were measured using a linear accelerometer; and peak ground reaction force (GRF) was measured using a forceplate. Peak measures for concentric and eccentric velocities showed that NCB> CB and RBT > CBT. Peak GRF measures showed CB > NCB and RBT > CBT. The lower performance measures for CB were likely due to an increase in the net external load when the barbell accelerates faster than the gravitational constant causing the counter-balance weight becomes ineffective.
The Influence of Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction on Muscle Dysmorphia and Exercise Dependence
Using the psycho-behavioral model as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, muscle dysmorphia, and exercise dependence among college men. Participants (n = 110) completed surveys including a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Part Satisfaction Scale, Drive for Muscularity Scale, and Exercise Dependence Scale-21. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. A significant correlation was found between body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia, as well as between muscle dysmorphia and exercise dependence. These results partially support the psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia.
Use of repeated tests and rolling breath averages affects the precision of quantifying the VO2 response profile in moderate intensity cycling.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether working in the field of deaf education, as opposed to general education, results in a higher level of technology integration. A secondary goal was to determine if deaf educators who are deaf integrate technology at a higher level than their hearing counterparts. The instrument chosen for this study was the LoTi Technology Use Profile, a tool used to explore the role of technology in the classroom. A total of 92 participates were included in the study of which 48 were regular educators and 44 were deaf educators. The participants were selected from a population pool whereby teachers were presumably pre-disposed to using technology based upon their attendance at a technology training session in the form of a conference or a class. Deaf educators as a whole did not perform as well as general educators on the LoTi scales. Given the fact that the technology-minded general educators who comprised the sample population of this study scored exceptionally high on the LoTi scales, further research is needed to ensure comparability between the two groups. The findings of the current study do suggest, though, that deaf educators who are deaf have the potential to integrate technology to a greater degree than deaf educators who are hearing. Thus, a primary recommendation is to conduct a national LoTi survey of typical, rather than technology-minded, deaf educators as a comparison to the 2004 national survey of typical general educators.
Resilience and Health Outcomes in Patients with Traumatic Injury
Due to the increasing healthcare costs and reduced length of hospital stay it is becoming increasingly important to identify individuals who are ‘at risk’ of experiencing long-term health issues. The purpose of the study was to: (1) determine if resilience, self efficacy and depression changed from inpatient to 3-month follow up; (2) examine the relationship between resilience, self efficacy, depression, and quality of life (social roles/activity limitations) at inpatient and 3-month follow up; and (3) identify if resilience at inpatient is related to change scores in selfefficacy and depression at 3-month follow up. Results from the paired sample t-test indicated that participants did not experience a significant change from inpatient to 3-month follow up in resilience or self-efficacy, but a significant decrease in depression was observed. Findings also indicated significant correlations between resilience, self-efficacy, and depression during inpatient stay and resilience, self-efficacy, depression, and quality of life at 3-month follow up. However, there was no relationship found between resilience and change scores in self-efficacy and depression. Future resilience research should continue to identify the variables that are most strongly related to resilience so effective interventions can be developed that improve rehabilitation outcomes, decrease secondary and chronic conditions as well as aid in the successful reintegration of individuals into their lives after a traumatic injury.
Relation Between the FITNESSGRAM® Ftness Assessment and Self-Reported Physical Activity Questions
The FITNESSGRAM® is regularly used to assess physical fitness (PF) of adolescents. In addition to the PF assessment, the FITNESSGRAM also includes self-report physical activity (PA) items. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the self-report aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA behavior items indicated adolescents’ cardiorespiratory, muscular strength, and flexibility fitness and their body composition. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between the amount of PA and PF status. Adolescents not meeting the recommended PA amount had significantly higher odds of not achieving a healthy fitness status. Meeting the recommended PA amount was associated with achieving healthy PF status. Thus, adolescents’ amounts of aerobic, muscular strengthening, and flexibility PA were an indication of their corresponding health-related PF standard.
Identifying the Physical Activity Needs of Outpatients with a Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health issue due to the incidence, complexity, and cost associated with treatment – emphasizing the need for effective rehabilitation programs. One mode of rehabilitation that has been demonstrated to improve health and reduce healthcare costs is health promotion programs (HPPs) that incorporate physical activity (PA). However, PA is not currently incorporated into the standard of care post-TBI. The purpose of this study was to conduct group interviews among individuals with a TBI undergoing outpatient rehabilitation to determine PA knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and barriers. Results will be used to develop a HPP that focuses on facilitating PA participation as part of the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants completed a series of group interviews (2-3 people/group) regarding their PA needs. A qualitative research design was adopted and trustworthiness was established through triangulation of data (i.e., theoretical underpinning; multiple researchers and data-coders). A cross-case analysis was completed to identify themes and conceptual patterns. The main themes identified were (1) an inability to differentiate between PA and physical therapy, (2) a limited knowledge of PA health benefits and the relationship to rehabilitation, and (3) an interest in participating in a PA HPP as part of their rehabilitation. HPPs for outpatients with a TBI should educate individuals about PA, the associated health benefits, and the role PA plays in the rehabilitation process. A well designed HPP may increase the likelihood that individuals adopt and maintain PA as part of the rehabilitation process, thus reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality.
Reliability and Validity of the FITNESSGRAM® Physical Activity Items
Large-scale assessments of children and youth physical activity (PA) behaviors are regularly conducted in school settings. In addition to assessing actual fitness, the FITNESSGRAM® assesses self-reported PA behaviors for aerobic, strengthening, and flexibility activity within the past 7 days. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the three PA items. Participants included 1010 students in grades three through twelve and were either tested under a teacher – teacher condition, an expert - expert condition, a teacher – expert condition, or a trained teacher – expert condition. Comparisons of the responses to the PA items indicated adequate reliability for teachers, but the reliability improved with training. Likewise, the validities for teachers are moderate to fair; however, they improved when teachers received additional training.
Effect of Chronic Alcohol Abuse and Resistance Training on the Skeletal Muscle Androgen Receptor Concentration of Rats
The purpose was to examine the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on the androgen receptor content (AR) in skeletal muscle, and to determine if this effect was influenced by resistance training. Thirty-four male rats (456 ± 1 g; mean ± SE) were divided into 4 groups: Sham exercise-Ethanol, Sham exercise-Normal diet, Exercise-Ethanol, and Exercise-Normal diet. Both Exercise groups underwent a 6-week "squat" resistance training protocol and both Ethanol groups received an alcohol-rich diet throughout the 6-week period. Western blot analysis showed no effect of alcohol or resistance training on the AR of the extensor digitorum longus. For the rectus femoris, alcohol caused a decline in the AR (p=0.01). This reduction was not attenuated by resistance training. The AR of the soleus was not affected by chronic alcohol abuse alone; however, the resistance training induced increase in the AR was prevented by chronic alcohol abuse (p=0.03).
Primary Caregiving Father's Perceptions of Leisure
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact the primary caregiving role had on men's perceptions of leisure. The Assessment of Leisure and Recreation Involvement (Ragheb, 2002) was used to examine men's leisure. Twenty-five stay-at-home dad groups were solicited via e-mail; 81 men submitted usable responses to an online survey. Respondents considered themselves the primary caregiver for children in the household and at least one child was younger than 12. Descriptive data were collected about the experience of being a primary caregiving father, demographics, and how the caregiving role affects the men's perceptions of leisure. Caregiving fathers in the sample resembled the perceptions of many primary caregiving mothers. Perhaps the "caregiving" role, rather than gender, is a more distinct variable explaining perceptions of leisure by parents.
Self-Objectification and Sport Participation: Do the Gendered Makeup and Competitive Level of the Team Matter?
The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate differences in self-objectification, self-surveillance, body shame, and flow among female athletes on all-women's and coed ultimate frisbee teams at different competitive levels, and (b) examine the objectification theory model across groups. Participants (n = 112) completed online surveys including a demographic questionnaire, trait and state versions of the Self-Objectification Questionnaire, Body Surveillance and Body Shame subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, and the Flow State Scale. No differences in self-objectification, self-surveillance, or body shame were found, although highly competitive athletes experienced more flow than lower competitive teams. Relationships were found between self-objectification, self-surveillance, and body shame, but not for flow, partially supporting the objectification theory model.
Perceived Submaximal Leg Extension Forces of Young Adult Males
The purpose was to examine actual force (AF) productions of males for accuracy during leg extensions when given a random desired force (DF) ranging from 10-90% of maximal force (MF). Thirty males ranging from 18 to 30 years of age (M = 21.99 + 3.04), who had no previous experience with the test equipment, went through 9 randomly ordered submaximal efforts followed by a maximal effort. Correlations between AF and DF were high (r > .79) and test-retest was consistent between AF (r = .87) and MF (r = .90). Participants consistently undershot DF on both test and retest from 20-90% and overshot DF only at 10%. Power functions revealed exponents of less than 1, indicating that AF grows slower then DF for both test .70 (.95 CI = .63 - .77) and retest .66 (.95 CI = .60 - .73). The results replicate a prior study by Jackson, Martin, Koziris, Ludtke, and Dishman (2001) that used incremental rather than random increases in DF.
VO2 response profile in heavy intensity cycling after heavy intensity arm or leg exercise.
The elevated CO2 levels, elevated temperature, and lower blood pH that may occur during exercise should enhance O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. It was hypothesized that performance of prior exercise (PE) would result in a faster VO2 response, as well as a reduced slow component contribution, in subsequent exercise bouts. Five women (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 men (23 ± 2 yr) performed nine 6-min bouts of heavy intensity cycle ergometer exercise (i.e., above the ventilatory threshold, individually determined by an incremental test). Three bouts were performed without prior heavy exercise (noPE), three were performed 6 min after a 6-min bout of heavy intensity arm cranking (PEA), and three were performed 6 min after a 6-min bout of heavy intensity cycle ergometer exercise (PEL). Breath-by-breath VO2 data from each of the three sets of three tests were combined and fitted to a two-component model, which ignores the cardiodynamic phase. The primary and slow component amplitudes were truncated to reflect actual increases in VO2 in each phase. The effects of PE on the time constant of the primary component were inconsistent. As hypothesized, the amplitude of the slow component was reduced by PE (noPE vs PEA vs. PEL: 25% > 16% < 14%; p < .05). It is concluded that heavy intensity PE affects characteristics of the VO2 profile in a subsequent bout of heavy intensity leg exercise.
Treadmill validation of the Siconolfi step test.
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the internationally recognized measure of a person's cardiorespiratory fitness. Currently the most accurate way of assessing one's true VO2max involves the use of maximal exercise tests, which require the use of specialized equipment, and are time consuming and costly. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the submaximal Siconolfi step test to estimate VO2max. A second purpose was to determine if body fat percentage improved the validity. Thirty-six individuals underwent a maximal treadmill test, in which VO2max was directly measured, and the step test. Results indicate that, although VO2max estimates generated by the Siconolfi step test are highly correlated to true VO2max (r =.887; p<.01), the values consistently underestimated a person's aerobic fitness. It was also determined that body fat percentage did not contribute to the prediction of VO2max.
Accuracy of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Calculated BMI and Resulting FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone Classification
The determination of adiposity in adolescents is often assessed with calculations of body mass indices (BMI). Researchers often obtain these measurements from self-reported (SR) values. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of SR height, weight, and calculated BMI (from height and weight). SR and actual measured (ME) BMI values were compared with standards from the FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) classifications. SR height and calculated BMI were found to be accurate while SR weight was, on average, underreported by 4.77 lbs. Because of these errors in SR height and weight, accuracy of classification into the FITNESSGRAM® HFZ was compromised. Consequently, it is important that researchers ascertain actual values of height and weight when measuring adolescents rather than use those from self-reports.
The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity
The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of self-reported historical walking, running, and jogging (WRJ) activity. The criterion measure was concurrent performance on a maximal treadmill test. Subjects completed a medical exam and treadmill test between the years 1976 and 1985, and completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1986. Questionnaire included an item that assessed WRJ for each year from 1976 through 1985. Data analysis included Spearman correlations, partial correlations, ANOVA, and ANCOVA. Results indicated self-reported historical WRJ can be assessed with reasonable validity when compared with concurrently measured treadmill performance, and there is no decay in the accuracy of this reporting for up to ten years in the past.