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The Impact of a Telephone Warm Line on Latchkey Children

Description: A prevention-oriented telephone line intended as an intervention program for latchkey children was studied to determine its impact on the self-esteem, anxiety level, and in-school and at-home behavior of these children.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Padilla, Mary Lou

Development of the Trauma Play Scale: Comparison of Children Manifesting a History of Interpersonal Trauma with a Normative Sample.

Description: Experts in traumatology have postulated traumatized children play differently than non-traumatized children. These differences are called posttraumatic play and include the behaviors of intense play, repetitive play, play disruption, avoidant play and negative affect. The purpose of this study is the continued development of the Trauma Play Scale through the addition of a normative sample. The Trauma Play Scale is an observation-based instrument designed to distinguish the play behaviors of children in play therapy with a history of interpersonal trauma when compared to non-traumatized children. The present study compares two samples of children. One group (n=6) currently in play therapy with a history of interpersonal trauma and another group (n=7) considered normally developing (cognitively, emotionally, socially, and physically) by their parents with no known history of interpersonal trauma. Trained raters blind to the trauma history of the children rated a series of eight consecutive video-recorded play therapy sessions for each participant. One-way analysis of variance statistics, including effect sizes were compute to determine the discriminant validity of the Trauma Play Scale. Traumatized children scored significantly higher on the Trauma Play Scale than non-traumatized children on all domains of the scale as well as the overall Average Trauma Play Scale score. Large effect sizes indicated strong relationships between group membership (trauma history versus normally developing) and scores on the Trauma Play Scale.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Myers, Charles Edwin

Effects of Culturally Responsive Child-centered Play Therapy Compared to Curriculum-based Small Group Counseling with Elementary-age Hispanic Children Experiencing Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Study.

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of culturally responsive child-centered play therapy when compared to a curriculum-based small group counseling intervention as a school-based intervention for Hispanic children experiencing behavioral problems that place them at risk for academic failure. Specifically, this study measured the effects of the experimental play therapy treatment, compared to Kids' Connection, on reducing Externalizing and Internalizing behavior problems of elementary school-age Hispanic children. Twenty-nine volunteer Hispanic children were randomized to the experimental group (n=15) or the comparison group (n=14). Subjects participated in a weekly 30 minute intervention for a period of 15 weeks. Pre- and posttest data were collected from parent and teachers using the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC). A two factor mixed repeated measures analysis of variance was computed for each hypothesis, to determine the statistical and practical significance of the difference in the pretest to posttest behavior scores of children in the two groups. According to parents' reports, the children receiving play therapy showed statistically significant decreases in externalizing behaviors problems, specifically conduct problems, and moderate improvements in their internalizing behavior problems, specifically anxiety. Teacher BASC results showed no statistical significance and negligible-to- small practical significance between the two groups at posttest as a result of treatment; however, problems with integrity of data collection of teacher BASCs were noted. This study determined that, according to parents' reports, culturally responsive child-centered play therapy is an effective intervention for school-aged, Hispanic children referred for behavioral problems that have been shown to place them at risk for both academic failure and future, more serious mental health problems. Additionally, culturally responsive considerations regarding counseling Hispanic children and families were explored. This was a progressive research study that, according to a review of the literature, is the first of its kind to focus on the ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Garza, Yvonne

Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback-assisted Stress Management Training on Pregnant Women and Fetal Heart Rate Measures.

Description: This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Keeney, Janice E.

Descriptive Analysis of Counseling Techniques Used by Selected Child Welfare Workers

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is that of a descriptive analysis of counseling techniques being used by selected child welfare workers. The method determining the counseling techniques being used was a questionnaire. Seven counseling techniques were tested on the questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed through the use of various sources. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were not tested. The findings were inconclusive, based upon the data. The workers tended to show eclectic use of techniques. Psychoanalysis and client-centered therapy did poll the greatest number of positive responses. Z-scores and probability between the counseling techniques were determined. The findings supported the responses received by psychoanalysis and client-centered therapy. No recommendations were made.
Date: May 1977
Creator: Brannon, James Larry

Social-Emotional Competencies of African American Children: Impact of Child-Centered Play Therapy

Description: African American children experience risks due to heightened socio-environmental problems and responding to negative racial messages in their environments. Child Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) is one viable intervention for the development of social emotional competence among African American children to help mediate adverse conditions. I sought to explore the effects of CCPT on the social emotional competencies of African American children utilizing Social Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale-Parent & Teacher (SEARS-P; SEARS-T) reports. Thirty-seven African American participants with a mean age of 6.68 years were recruited from four suburban elementary schools in the southwest U.S. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group receiving a mean of 13.3 CCPT sessions over 8 weeks, and 17 participants were assigned to the waitlist control group. Factorial ANOVA results indicated that parents reported statistically and practically significant improvement for children who participated in CCPT in overall social-emotional competencies. Follow-up analysis revealed statistical and practical improvement in children’s empathy, as well as practical improvement in self-regulation/responsibility and social competence. Teacher-reported results indicated practical but non-statistically significant improvement in overall social-emotional competencies for children who participated in CCPT, including statistical and practical improvement in children’s responsibility, as well as practical improvement in self-regulation, social competence, and empathy. Thus, CCPT showed promise as a culturally responsive treatment intervention to improve African American children’s social-emotional competencies
Date: May 2016
Creator: Taylor, LaKaavia

Master Therapists' Decision Making Process Concerning Adolescent Confidentiality: A Grounded Theory Approach

Description: Ethical codes and laws provide counselors with guidance for how to approach confidentiality, but there is a gap in the literature surrounding counselors' process of decision-making when managing confidentiality with a adolescent clients. This study explored the decision-making process of master therapists concerning adolescent clients. I conducted semi-structured interviews with peer identified master therapist (N=10), all of whom were licensed professional counselors with 15 or more years of counseling experience and whose case load contained 25% or more adolescent clients. Participants included seven females and three males; nine participants identified as Caucasian, and one participant identified as Hispanic. Participants ages ranged from 39-61. I analyzed the data, along with two research partner, according to Grounded Theory (GT) methodology. Through constant comparative analysis, a grounded theory emerged from the data in which participants converged understanding of client safety, relationships, clinical intuition in a process of integrated experience and consultation. With the exception of mandated reported and mortal danger, ethical guidelines and laws did not seem to factor into participants' decision making. Implications for counseling practice, preparation, and research are provided.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Michero, Emily

Child Centered Play Therapy with Children Exhibiting Aggressive Behaviors

Description: Aggressive behaviors in childhood currently serve as the leading cause of counselor referrals within the United States. Children exhibiting maladaptive aggressive symptomology are at an increased risk for highly externalized and problematic behaviors across the lifespan. Emotional self-regulation and empathy are two constructs currently believed to be closely related to aggression, but a lack of research exploring these variables currently exists in the counseling literature. In this study I examined the effect of child-centered play therapy (CCPT), is a manualized, developmentally responsive, and nondirective intervention, on these variables. Participants were 71 students from four Title 1 elementary schools in the southwest U.S. referred by teachers for aggressive behavior (12 females, 59 males; age range 5-10 years with mean age 6.28. The sample consisted of 52.1% (n = 37) children identified as African American, 21.1% (n = 15) as Latina/Latino, 19.7% (n = 14) as Caucasian, and 7% as multiracial (n = 5). Participants were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a twice-weekly CCPT experimental group (n = 36) or a waitlist control group (n = 35). Results of descriptive discriminant analyses (DDA) of the Social Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale and the Children’s Aggression Scale scores revealed that parents perceived children’s group membership in CCPT as significant and reasonably predictive of improvement in children’s aggression, self-regulation, and empathy. However, teachers did not perceive a statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to these variables. These results suggest the relevancy of CCPT for parents in providing children with a developmentally responsive intervention to reduce aggressive behaviors and support their healthy development.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Wilson, Brittany Jean

Individual and Group Child-Centered Play Therapy: Impact on Social-Emotional Competencies

Description: A randomized controlled trial study was conducted to test the effectiveness of 16 sessions of the modalities of individual and group child-centered play therapy (CCPT) on improving social-emotional assets, including self-regulation/responsibility, social competence, and empathy. Participants were 56 students in four urban elementary schools in north central Texas, referred by teachers for disruptive or problematic behavior: 10 female and 46 male; ages 5 to 10 years with mean age 7.12; and 21 identifying as Hispanic, 17 as White, 8 as Multiracial, 1 as Asian, and 9 unspecified. Teachers and parents completed the Social and Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale (SEARS; Merrill, 2011) at pre- and post-treatment. With a significance criterion of p< .05, teacher reports provided no statistically significant results. However, parent reports indicated a statistically and practically significant interaction effect with a medium to large effect size, indicating a substantial improvement in children's scores from pre- to post-test attributed to group assignment. Mean differences indicated substantial gains in overall social-emotional assets, according to Total scores, in both individual and group treatment conditions as compared to the waitlist control group. Additionally, both individual and group play therapy was correlated with significant improvement with a large effect for the constructs of self-regulation/responsibility and social competence, with the group condition having a larger effect than the individual condition. Regarding empathy, neither modality resulted in significant improvement, though individual CCPT resulted practically in a large effect. These results indicate CCPT may provide a developmentally appropriate treatment for clinicians working with children in schools and in the community to foster their social and emotional competencies.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Blalock, Sarah M.

Child Parent Relationship Therapy: A Program Evaluation

Description: For the past 40 years, one southwestern US university counseling program has sponsored two mental health training clinics in which master's and doctoral level students have learned to provide child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) services to community parents. In their training, students learn about the positive effects of CPRT, particularly on parental stress. To date, however, no program evaluation has been conducted at these clinics focusing specifically on parental stress outcomes after the completion of CPRT or to determine the demographics and characteristics of parents who pursue CPRT. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an evaluation of archival data spanning 7 years. Participants were 129 parents (70% female, 30% male; 80% Caucasian, 35% Hispanic/ Latino, 6% African American, and 4% Asian; 62% married, 9% separated, 16% divorced). Results from a t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in self-reported parental stress, with a moderate effect size. Multiple regression revealed that women and those who attended with a co-parent reported greater stress reduction. This study confirmed the benefit of CPRT, provided by counselors-in-training, on reducing parental stress and indicated clientele for which and conditions in which those benefits might be optimized.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Ley, Tiffany Andresen

The Impact of Family Resilience Factors and Parent Gender on Stress Among Parents of Children with Autism

Description: Parents of children with autism experience high degrees of stress. Research pertaining to the reduction of parental stress in families with a child with autism is needed. In this study, the relationship between family resilience, parent gender, and parental stress was examined. Seventy-one parents of young children with autism were surveyed. Regression and correlational analyses were performed. Results indicated that the vast majority of respondents reported significantly high levels of stress. Lower degrees of parental stress were correlated with higher degrees of family resilience. Family resiliency factors were significant contributors to the shared variance in parental stress. Mothers of children demonstrated higher levels of stress than fathers. Suggested explanations of these findings are presented and clinical and research implications are provided. The findings of this study provide evidence for the importance of facilitating family resilience for parents of children with autism and affirm differing stress levels between mothers and fathers.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Cheatham, Kelly L.

The Effects of Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT) for Adoptive Families

Description: Adoptive parents often struggle to understand and meet the social-emotional behavioral needs of their adopted child, particularly when the child's pre-adoption experience lacked a secure relationship with an attuned and responsive caregiver. This randomized controlled study, a replication of Carnes-Holt and Bratton's 2014 research, investigated the effects of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) for adoptive families who reported attached-related concerns such as difficulties establishing a mutually satisfying parent-child relationship as well as concerns about the adopted child's behavior and parental stress. Participants were 49 adoptive parents (61% female; 7% couples; 86% European American, 6% Latino, 6% Asian, and 2% Black American) with adoptees between the ages of 2.5 to 9 (50% female; 35% European American, 22% Asian, 12% Latino, 10% Black American, and 21% Biracial or other). Eighty-four percent of children were adopted internationally or from the foster care system. Parents were randomly assigned to CPRT or treatment as usual (TAU). Results from 2 (group) by 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that compared to the TAU control group, parents who participated in CPRT reported statistically significant improvement in child behavior problems, parent-child relationship stress, and parental empathy, with a large treatment effects on all measures. Findings confirmed results from Carnes-Holt and Bratton's study and provided strong support for CPRT as a responsive intervention for adoptive parents and their children.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Opiola, Kristie K

Group Activity Play Therapy for Preadolescents: Effects on Low Self-Esteem

Description: Research shows that preadolescent females are more prone to negative self-perceptions than their male counterparts which places them at greater risk of developing mental health problems stemming from low self-image. The purpose of this randomized, controlled outcome study was to examine the effectiveness of group activity play therapy (GAPT) compared to an evidenced based social skills/self-esteem group. Participants were 29 fourth and fifth grade girls in two Title I schools in the southwest U.S. referred by teachers and school counselors as presenting with low self-esteem. Participants identified as 45% Latina, 38% Caucasian, 14% African American, and 3% Asian. Children were randomly assigned to either 16 sessions of GAPT (experimental group; n = 15) or 13 sessions of an evidenced based social skills/self-esteem group intervention (control group; n = 14). Results from a 2 (Group) by 3 (Times) repeated measures ANOVA indicated that, compared to the control group over time, the GAPT group reported statistically significant improvement in self-esteem with a moderate to large treatment effect. Teachers did not report a statistically significant difference between the two groups over time. However, teachers reported noteworthy improvement for children in both treatment groups, with generally stronger improvement for the GAPT group. Overall, results indicate that GAPT may be a promising school-based intervention for preadolescent females suffering with low self-esteem.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Yousef, Dina K.

A Comparison of Skill Level of Parents Trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model and Graduate Students Trained in Play Therapy

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if parents trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model could demonstrate child-centered play therapy skills as effectively as graduate play therapy students who completed an Introduction to Play Therapy course. The participants in both the parent group and the graduate student group were videotaped in play sessions with children pre- and post-training in order to measure change in adult empathic behavior as defined on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction (MEACI). The specific skills measured in this study were (a) communicating acceptance to the child, (b) allowing the child to direct his or her own play during the play sessions, (c) demonstrating appropriate levels of involvement in the child's play, and (d) demonstrating empathic behavior toward the child. The Landreth Filial Therapy Model is a training system that utilizes both didactic and dynamic means to train parents and other paraprofessionals to be therapeutic agents of change with children. Parents are taught child-centered play therapy skills to use in weekly home play sessions with their children in order to strengthen the emotional bond between parent and child. The Introduction to Play Therapy course is a graduate-level counseling course at the University of North Texas taught by Dr. Garry Landreth. The course focuses on the philosophy, theory, and skills of child-centered play therapy. Students enrolled in this course typically plan to use play therapy in professional settings. The filial-trained parent group (n = 21) consisted of the experimental group of single parents from Bratton and Landreth's (1995) study, Filial Therapy with Single Parents, Effects of Parental Acceptance, Empathy and Stress. The parents met for weekly 2-hour filial therapy sessions over the course of 10 weeks and conducted six or seven 30-minute play sessions at home with their child-of-focus. The graduate student group (n ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Elling, Roseanne Paul

The Impact of Unresolved Loss on Adolescent Anger and Defiant Behavior

Description: This study examines the impact of issues of loss on adolescents. It was hypothesized that adolescents who experienced incidents of loss which were not adequately supported or processed to the point of resolution are much more likely to exhibit more angry and defiant behaviors than those who did not have such life experiences. Three instruments were used to identify loss and related impact. The first is the Interview Process, designed to identify issues of loss and screen for problematic behavior. This tool is used to qualify the participant for the study, and to designate which study group the participant will be assigned. The Family Constellation Exercise is an experiential assessment tool that exemplifies how emotionally close or distant the participant feels in relation to his or her nuclear family members. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Assessment - Adolescent version (MMPI-A) is used to identify behaviors and thought patterns associated with anger and defiance.The study was able to conclude that there is a strong potential for unresolved loss to negatively impact an adolescent. The study also discovered that many teenagers who do not exhibit angry or defiant behaviors have also experienced loss, yet do not act out anger. Suggestions are made as to why this is so, and implications for future research are made.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Myers, Janell

Marital Satisfaction and Stability Following a Near-Death Experience of One of the Marital Partners

Description: The purpose of this quantitative and qualitative study was to determine retrospectively marital satisfaction and stability following the near-death experience (NDE) of one of the marital partners, focusing on the role of Gottman's Sound Marital House (1999) in the couple's relationship before and after the NDE. The researcher used the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (1959), the Weiss-Ceretto Marital Status Inventory (1980), and a modification of Gottman's Shared Meanings Questionnaire (1999). The first group of participants included 26 NDErs. To create as comparable a group as possible, the researcher designed a life-changing event (LCE) group of 26 people who used as their referent the non-NDE-related experience they considered their most life-changing one during their marriage. Sixty-five percent of the marriages in which the NDErs were involved at the time of their NDEs ended in divorce. This number is in contrast to the 19 percent of LCE participants whose marriages ended in divorce. Marital adjustment, marital stability, and meanings in marriage between retrospectively based pre-event and post-event composite scores were statistically significantly different between the NDErs and LCErs. Low effect sizes were identified for each of the instruments except the Weiss-Ceretto Marital Status Inventory, which had a moderate effect size. Strong correlations among the scores were identified. Further analysis of the results indicated strongly that the NDErs were less satisfied in their marriages, their marriages were less stable, and they did not have a strong level of shared meaning in the marriage after the NDE occurred as compared to the LCE participants. This study has serious implications for counselors who may work with NDErs. Findings from this study show that NDErs who were married at the time of their experiences have a strong possibility of experiencing marital problems. Encouraging these couples to seek professional help as soon as possible can provide a ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Christian, Sandra Rozan

Counseling Students' Technological Competence

Description: Technology has a profound influence on how business, education, entertainment, and interpersonal communications are conducted. Mental health professionals have been exploring how technology can support and enhance client care since the 1960s. In the last decade the influence of technology in the practice of counseling has increased dramatically. As the use of technology increased, so did the expectations for counselor preparation programs to include technology instruction. In 1999, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) developed the Technical Competencies for Counselor Education Students: Recommended Guidelines for Program Development. This study examines the technological competence of counseling students at one southwestern university based on the ACES recommendations.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Bullock, Melanie M.

The Effects of an Oral History Interview on Counselor Trainees' Confidence and Couples' Intimacy

Description: A major concern many counselor trainees face when preparing to see their first couple-client is that of confidence because they have had little to no experience in interacting in a professional capacity with couples. Many beginning counselors experience anxiety, which can inhibit their effectiveness with clients (Scanlon & Baille, 1994). Introducing counselor trainees to a relatively non-threatening interaction with couples might reduce the initial anxiety that characterizes the neophyte counselor venturing into new clinical territory. The interaction may also enhance feelings of warmth and closeness of the couples. John Gottman's Oral History Interview (Gottman, 1999) was the protocol used in the interaction between trainee and couple. An instrument developed for this study to measure couple counseling confidence, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (Schaefer & Olson, 1981) were used to assess levels of counselor confidence, counselor anxiety, and couple intimacy, respectively. The confidence instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 37 students who were enrolled in four graduate level introductory couple counseling classes and who interviewed couples, as well as to 34 counselor-trainees who were enrolled in five graduate level counseling courses other than couple counseling and who did not interview couples. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in confidence between trainees who interviewed a couple and trainees who did not interview a couple. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. The Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships was administered to 67 individual couple participants who were interviewed by counselor trainees, and 35 individual couple participants who were not interviewed by counselor-trainees. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in couples who participated in the Oral History Interview and those who did not. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. Regarding ...
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Date: May 2003
Creator: Toler, Jane K.

Human-Animal Relational Theory: A Constructivist-Grounded Theory Investigation

Description: Constructs of human-animal relational theory (HART) were investigated to determine how those constructs manifested in animal-assisted therapy in counseling (AAT-C) from the perspectives of 6 participants (2 counselors, females, ages 28 and 32, both non-Hispanic and White; 2 clients, male and female, ages 55 and 23, respectively, both non-Hispanic and White; and, 2 therapy animals, canines, Labrador retriever and spaniel mix, ages 4 and 5, respectively). Using constructivist-grounded theory, a research team analyzed qualitative data from observations, interviews, and field notes. From the iterative process of multiphasic coding and constant comparison, these findings emerged: (a) consistency between Chandler's (in press) constructs and participants' experiences of AAT-C, (b) more meaningful therapeutic impacts for clients from client-initiated human-animal relational processes (HARPs) than counselor-initiated HARPs, (c) development of rich definitions and descriptions of Chandler's constructs, and (d) descriptions of interactive experiences of AAT-C and client resistance in the context of HART. Clinicians and educators in the field of AAT can apply the processes, practices, and principles from this study in their work to enhance positive therapeutic impacts for clients. As Chandler's constructs were supported in this study, AAT authors and researchers can solve a glaring problem of inconsistent terminology in the AAT literature by using those constructs in future studies and publications as operationalized nomenclature for standardized AAT interventions.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Otting, Tiffany L

Black Males' Treatment Experiences in Mental Health Court: A Phenomenological Analysis

Description: Mental health courts (MHCs) are part of an umbrella of specialty courts in which court officials, law enforcement, and treatment providers work together to seek alternative solutions to failed traditional approaches to justice. Researchers investigating MHCs indicated that the courts may be helpful in reducing recidivism and introducing offenders with mental health disorders to treatment services. I used the qualitative method of phenomenology to understand the experiences of young adult Black male clients' perceptions of mental health treatment in MHCs. Twelve participants ranged in age from 21-40 years. The research team identified three themes -- (a) helpful treatment factors, (b) relational growth, (c) treatment barriers – and five subthemes: (a) internal growth, (b) relational growth, (c) behavioral growth, (d) factors of marginalization, and (e) interpersonal barriers. Meaning pertaining to findings and implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Date: December 2016
Creator: Stare, Bryan

The Impact of Psychotherapeutic Reiki on Anxiety and Mindfulness: A Single-Case Design

Description: Reiki healing is one of several complementary and integrative therapies becoming increasingly prevalent in mental health counseling. It has been identified in the medical field for its usefulness in treating anxiety, depression, distress, and pain but has rarely been studied for its counseling impact on client wellness. I conducted single-case research to explore psychotherapeutic Reiki's (PR's) influence on adult clients' anxiety symptoms and perceived sense of mindfulness and provided analysis of data collected from two assessments administered weekly: the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Adult and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Three of the four participants demonstrated significant improvement in both anxiety and mindfulness over the course of the PR intervention. The study revealed potential therapeutic benefits for integrating PR with conventional talk therapy. Included in discussion of study results are clinical implications and importance, suggestions for future research, and limitations.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Webster, Lindsay

Effects of a Parent Education Program upon Parental Acceptance, Parents' Self-Esteem, and Perceptions of Children's Self-Concept

Description: The problem of this study concerns the effects of a Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and perceived self-concept of children. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the Parent Education Program upon parents' self-esteem, parental acceptance, and children's perceived self-concept; and to investigate the relationships between parental acceptance, parents' self-esteem, children's perceived self-concept, and parents', teachers' and counselors' perception of children's self-concept.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Overman, Janet Williams

The Effect of Intensive Remotivation Techniques on Institutionalized Geriatric Mental Patients in a State Mental Hospital

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is that of ascertaining the effects of intensive Remotivation Techniques on institutionalized geriatric mental patients in terms of their ward behavior, self-concept, and visual-motor perceptions and to compare these with the effects of a similar group experience that does not emphasize patient-staff or patient-patient interactions, and a third group which acts a a control. The investigation is designed to answer or obtain information concerning the following questions: (1) Do institutionalized geriatric mental patients in a state mental hospital manifest measurable changes in terms of their (A) ward behavior as defined as raw scores on the Hospital tment Scale (including interpersonal communication and interpersonal relations; self care and social responsibility; level of participation in ward activities, recreation and work therapy; total score), (B) self-concept as defined as Goodenough raw scores on the Draw-a-Person Test, and (C) awareness of environment as defined as Pascal and Suttell raw scores on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, as a result of experiencing the social and verbal interactions of intensive Remotivation Techniques? (2) Is the Remotivation Technique more effective in producing these changes than a similar group experience that does not emphasize social and verbal interactions?
Date: August 1971
Creator: Bovey, John A.