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Measuring Change in University Counseling Center Students: Using Symptom Reduction and Satisfaction with Services to Propose a Model for Effective Outcome Research

Description: Abstract This study proposes a model for meeting increasingly mandated outcome research objectives in a university counseling center setting. It is proposed that counseling centers utilize their existing intake forms, along with an annual satisfaction survey to determine the effectiveness of counseling services. Effectiveness is defined as improvement and measured by the reduction of the symptoms or presenting concerns with which the client initially presented. It also introduces the Relative-Change Index (R-Chi) as an objective way to quantify intra-individual change occurring as a result of therapy. This new mathematical procedure allows for a more meaningful assessment of the client's degree of improvement, relative to their potential for improvement. By re-administering the problem checklist, routinely included as part of the initial paperwork for each client at intake, again post-therapy, it is possible to quantify improvement by measuring the difference in distressing concerns. Additionally, including a subjective, retrospective survey question asking the client to indicate their perceived rate if improvement at follow-up provides construct validity and allows for correlational comparisons with R-Chi. Results suggest that student/client ratings of the degree to which the services they received satisfactorily addressed their presenting concerns were significantly rated to their R-Chi score. This model suggests that the framework guiding client outcome research should include measures of the client's level of distress, improvement in reducing the distress, and satisfaction with services.
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Date: December 1999
Creator: Quick, Cynthia L.

The Relation of Attachment, Adjustment and Narcissism to Masculine Gender Role Conflict

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between masculine gender role conflict, attachment variables, narcissism, and adjustment. It was expected that men who reported higher masculine gender role conflict would also report unhealthy attachment, have a greater degree of narcissism and poorer adjustment. This study employed a sample of undergraduate males who completed self-report questionnaires measuring masculine gender role conflict, narcissism, adjustment, and attachment. Hypotheses were tested using canonical correlation techniques. Results indicated that healthy attachment was related to low masculine gender role conflict; however, unhealthy attachment was not related to high masculine gender role conflict. In terms of narcissism, higher amounts of narcissism were related to high amounts of gender role conflict, but in a subset of results individuals who reported low masculine gender role conflict also reported higher narcissism in areas that are assumed to relate to positive self regard. Results related to adjustment indicated that high masculine gender role conflict was related to less psychological well-being replicating past studies. Theoretical and methodological issues were discussed in light of these findings.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Selby, Brian W.

Media Effects on the Body Shape Ideal and Bulimic Symptomatology in Males

Description: This study investigates the impact of sociocultural mediators in relation to eating disorders among male undergraduates. Literature on eating disorders has demonstrated that a thin body shape ideal depicted in the media directly contributes to eating pathology among females, but little research has investigated the direct effects of ideal body shape images among men. The focus of the present investigation was to assess the direct effects of exposure to the ideal male body shape on men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction, and endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. In addition, the relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. Modeling a study conducted on women (Stice & Shaw, 1994), male undergraduates between the ages of 18 to 25 participated in premeasure (N = 169) and post measure (N = 95) conditions. Participants in the post measure were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either male models depicting the ideal body shape, an average body or pictures of clothing without models. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated that exposure to the ideal body shape condition did not demonstrate significant negative changes in men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction or endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses which demonstrated that increased body mass, self esteem, stress and anxiety predicted bulimic symptomatology in men. Future research should direct itself toward investigating possible sociocultural influences of eating disorders on certain male subenvironments, such as athletes or homosexual males that place a greater emphasis on maintaining lower body mass and an ideal body shape.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Barta, Jonna Lee

Profile of the Youth Self-Report Among South Texas Adolescents and the Potential Relationship to Pesticide Exposure

Description: The potential for human exposure to pesticides exists particularly for agricultural workers (i.e. migrant workers) and individuals within close proximity to pesticide-sprayed crops (i.e. those living on or near agricultural farms). Children, through biology and behavior, may be more susceptible and vulnerable to exposure to pesticides than adults. The purpose of this study was to examine young populations particularly at-risk for occupational or accidental exposure to pesticides and determine associated behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms. A total of 444 students from two South Texas school districts completed questionnaires assessing level of risk of exposure to pesticides and were categorized into at-risk and low risk categories. Physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms were obtained using the Youth Self-Report. Children who were at-risk demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in the areas of anxious/depressed, attention problems, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, withdrawal, internalizing behaviors, and total problem behaviors than children who were at lower risk of pesticide exposure. Odds ratios were obtained and suggested that children in the at-risk category were more five times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Attention Problems subscale, and three times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Internalizing behavior composite. These findings suggest that children who may be at higher risk for pesticide exposure may also be at higher risk for physical, behavioral, and emotional problems compared to children who are at lower risk. This information is intended to benefit schools and health care professionals who work with rural or migrant populations involved in the agricultural trade. Future research will be needed to assess through biomarkers the degree of measurable pesticide exposure in comparison to parent reports, teacher reports, school achievement, neuropsychological testing, and medical records.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Hagar, Kristy S.

Women Receiving Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Risk: Cancer Worry, Psychological Distress, and Risk Recall Accuracy

Description: This follows an earlier study of the same data set, which, through its findings, presented new questions that are investigated in this study. Both studies used a prospective controlled design, wherein women receiving genetic counseling for breast cancer risk were randomized into two groups. Subjects receiving an audiotaped recording of their genetic consultation (tape group) were compared to subjects who also had a genetic consultation but did not receive an audiotaped recording of it (no-tape group). Participants were drawn from attendees at the genetic clinics of two London hospitals and included 115 women with a family history of breast cancer. Cancer worry and psychological distress were assessed before genetic consultation (baseline), and at one- and six-month follow-ups by post. Objective risk was estimated by the geneticist during the consultation, and subjective risk was assessed at one month follow-up. The goals of the current study were to investigate relationships between cancer worry, psychological distress, and recall of genetic risk for breast cancer in a sample of women receiving genetic counseling for breast cancer risk, and to investigate the role sociodemographic variables on cancer worry, psychological distress, or risk recall for these women. Results for this sample of women with a family history of breast cancer found that there were consistent relationships between cancer worry, psychological distress, objective risk, and subjective risk before and after genetic consultation. This suggests that women=s psychological responses are appropriate to their level of cancer risk. There were no differences found between the tape and no-tape groups for objective or subjective risk, or for nearness of recall accuracy or degree of under-/over-estimation. Provision of an audiotaped recording of the genetic consultation did not appear to enhance recall of risk information. The role of sociodemographic variables on the psychological and risk variables assessed in this study was very ...
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Date: May 1999
Creator: Wade Walsh, Margo

Vicarious Traumatization, Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Burnout in Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Agency Staff and Volunteers

Description: Two constructs, vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS), describe therapists’ reactions to clients’ traumatic material. VT (TSI Belief Scale [BSL]), emphasizes cognitive belief system changes resulting from cumulative exposure to survivors. STS, (Compassion Fatigue Self-test for Psychotherapists [CFST]) combines PTSD and burnout symptomatology explaining sudden adverse reactions to survivors. Burnout (BO; Maslach Burnout Inventory [MBI]), links emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and deficient personal accomplishment to inadequate institutional supports in interpersonally demanding work. This study investigated BSL and CFST validity, counselor trauma history, and client exposure-related VT, STS, and BO in 105 trauma counselors. Results demonstrate concurrent validity between BSL and CFST; other results dispute adequate validity. BO, and client exposure were related. Traumatized counselors scored higher than non-traumatized counselors on CFST, BSL, and SCL-90-R.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Baird, Stephanie

Affective Reactions and Psychosocial Functioning in the Course of Psycho-Educational Assessment

Description: Every day, children throughout the United States are given psychological evaluations for many different clinical and psycho-educational purposes. Very little research has attempted to investigate children's responses to the experience of having intellectual and achievement tests administered. The goal of the current research was to explore the effect a psycho-educational evaluation has on children in areas of self-concept and anxiety. Dependent variables consisted of pre- and post-test measures of anxiety and self-concept. A total of 75 children in the 4th 5th and 6th grades were recruited after referral for evaluation and possible placement in the Talented and Gifted Program or Special Education. This study employed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), t-tests, multiple regression analysis, and correlational analysis. Findings included initial evidence that children endorsed decreased anxiety after psycho-educational assessments rather than increased anxiety, suggesting that fear of unknown situations may be more anxiety provoking than the actual situation itself, potentially beneficial findings for psychology and psychometric professionals who evaluate children daily. Students endorsement of academic self-concept significantly predicted anxiety after a psycho-educational evaluation, indicating that students who feel capable in academic areas may endorse less anxiety after an evaluation than students who do not feel academically capable. Finally, negative verbal interaction with parents significantly predicted lower general self-concept scores, providing evidence that the manner in which parents verbally relate to their children may have significant impact for the mental health of children.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Buenrostro, Martha

Attribution to Deviant and Nondeviant Social Roles

Description: A questionnaire was used to study causal attribution to social roles as influenced by perceived deviance of the role, instructions to identify with the role, and participant gender. The perceived deviance or nondeviance of the roles was determined by a pilot study. The roles were varied randomly through 12 hypothetical events, and identification or nonidentification instructions randomly assigned. The participants were 194 male and female university students. Participants gave the cause of each event and rated the cause on five dimensions: internality, externality, stability, globality, and controllability. Causal attribution to deviant social roles was found to result in a significantly higher across-scales score and to be more internal, less external, and more global than attribution to nondeviant roles. Participant gender showed an interaction with deviance overall and on the dimensions of stability and globality due to significantly higher ratings by women participants than those by men. Identification instructions did not produce a significant effect.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Rohlman, James E.

Ethnically Mixed Individuals: Cultural Homelessness or Multicultural Integration?

Description: Studies addressing racial/ethnic identity development have often overlooked the developmental cultural context. The impact of growing up with contradictory cultures has not been well explored. Immersion in multiple cultures may produce mixed patterns of strengths deficits. This study reviews the literature's currently inconsistent usage of the terms race, ethnicity, and culture; introduces the concept and theoretical framework of Cultural Homelessness; relates CH to multicultural integration; and develops two study-specific measures (included) to examine the construct validity of CH. The sample’s (N = 448, 67% women) racial, ethnic, and cultural mixture was coded back three generations using complex coding criteria. Empirical findings supported the CH-specific pattern of cognitive and social strengths with emotional difficulties: social adaptability and cross-cultural competence but also low self-esteem and shame regarding diff
Date: May 1999
Creator: Navarrete-Vivero, Veronica

Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Therapists from the Oklahoma City Bombing

Description: Little empirical research has been done to examine the effects that working with traumatized individuals has had on their therapists. It is known that mental health professionals often do suffer ill effects, especially symptoms of secondary traumatic stress disorder. The present investigation tested predictors of secondary traumatic stress disorder in the therapists who provided services for the Oklahoma City bombing. Predictors were therapist social network involvement, years of counseling experience, and amount of self-reported empathy experienced from others. Indicators of secondary traumatic stress were the Frederick Reaction Index-A, the Compassion Fatigue Self-test for Helpers, and the SCL-90R. Hypotheses were tested using a series of hierarchical multiple regressions. Results demonstrated no significance for years of experience or social network, but perceived empathy accounted for 11% of the variance on the SCL-90 and the Compassion Fatigue Self-test for Psychotherapists with social network and years of experience controlled.
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Date: May 1999
Creator: Landry, Lisa Pinkenburg

Male Sexual Aggression and Humor Response

Description: The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of sexually aggressive behavior through the examination of humor appreciation among male undergraduates. As compared to nonaggressive males, sexually aggressive males showed a significantly greater appreciation for humor which negatively stereotyped females, portrayed prejudicial views of rape-and rape victims, and contained content related to male sex drive and virility. Differences in humor appreciation were also found for males with high sex drive. Additional findings included correlations between aggressive drive and sexually aggressive status, as well as between sex drive and likelihood to rape.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Phelan-McAuliffe, Debra

An Employee Participation Change Project and Its Impact on the Organization: a Case Study

Description: The purpose of this study was to document and assess the consequences of implementing employee involvement in a manufacturing setting. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study utilized information from various sources of data including archives, interview, and questionnaire data for a three to four year period. Time series comparisons were used. The results indicated that production increased initially, but then dropped back to original level. Quality of products increased and continued to improve gradually. The highest rate of improvement was observed in safety. An attempt was made to measure current level of commitment at the plant but was unsuccessful due to a low return rate of questionnaires. Overall, data collected partially support the hypotheses. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Roustaei, Simin

The Aronson Cognitive Residual Evaluation Scale (ACRES): an Evaluation of Reliability with the Elderly

Description: The Aronson Cognitive Residual Evaluation Scale (ACRES) is a new, relatively short neuropsychological test which attempts to measure residual cognitive skills. This study evaluated the ACRES test-retest reliability over a one to twelve month interval. The Trail Making Test (TMT) was included as a validation measure. Subjects were 58 males and females, aged 68 to 94, living in a retirement center or in the community. The ACRES exhibited moderate to strong reliability correlations and the TMT demonstrated low to moderate correlations with the ACRES. There was no time interval effect. Age had a negative effect on four of five ACRES subtests and gender was significant for one ACRES subtest and the TMT Part B. Percent of subjects classified as brain impaired using traditional cutoffs was higher than when age-corrected norms were used. Clinical utility of the ACRES and the TMT is discussed regarding need for age-corrected norms.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Marcontell, Deborah K. (Deborah Kay)

Seasonality of Birth in Schizophrenia in Taiwan

Description: The phenomenon of seasonality of birth in schizophrenia is important in the study of the etiology of this mental disorder because it helps to give directions for further research. Patients' hospital files from 1981 to 1991 of two of the largest hospitals with psychiatric wards in Taiwan were reviewed, and dates of birth collected on 3346 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. After adjusting for the variations of the total monthly births in the population, an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was applied. Results support a seasonality phenomenon and indicate a disproportional excess of births in schizophrenia in the cold months (Nov. to Feb.) compared to the hot months (May to Aug.). These findings are compatible with many other studies in other countries and climates. Further investigations of season-related environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia are recommended.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

Autostereotypes and Acculturative Stress in Hispanic College Students: Implications on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation

Description: This study evaluated the impact of acculturative stress and negative autostereotypes on the level of self-esteem and achievement motivation among subgroups of Hispanic college students. Subjects were classified by generational level as Second-generation (i.e., foreign-born parents), or Other (i.e., first-generation, foreign-born individuals, and third-generation, foreign-born grandparents;). By country/region of origin, subjects were divided into Central-Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Mexican, Mexican-Americans, and South Americans. Results showed that acculturative stress may facilitate loss of self-esteem particularly in Second-generation individuals, while negative autostereotypic attitudes may actually increase the student's level of motivation for achievement, particularly in Mexican-American individuals. Also, country/region of origin overall influenced negative autostereotypic attitudes.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)

The Relationship of Exercise Duration to Disordered Eating, Physical Self-Esteem, and Beliefs About Attractiveness

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exercise duration and level of disordered eating, physical self-esteem, and endorsement of societal mores about attractiveness. Two hundred twenty-nine female college students completed the Bulimia-Test Revised, the Physical Self Perception Profile, the Beliefs About Attractiveness Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Subjects were classified into one of four levels of exercise duration based on the number of hours they reported engaging in planned exercise per week. Significant differences were identified among the four exercise groups in relation to physical self-esteem. The amount of exercise activity individuals engaged in per week, however, was not indicative of their eating disorder symptomatology or beliefs about attractiveness.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Helmcamp, Annette Marguerite

Training Evaluation: Measuring the Benefits of Training with Levels of Behavioral Change

Description: Employee training is designed to help ensure successful achievement of business goals. Training's expense encourages the investigation of behavioral changes. The present study evaluated behavioral changes that occurred as a result of a Business Process training course. A performance rating measure was designed to assess the behaviors addressed in the course. A group of 52 people took the training. Performance was measured using a pretest, and then posttest three months later. A control group of 52 people also responded to the performance measure twice, without training. A second control group of 52 took a posttest only. MANOVA results showed a significant difference between change scores at the .001 level, indicating that the training did change behavior. The control group posttest scores differed somewhat between the two control groups, indicating a possible pretest effect.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Horner, Melissa A. (Melissa Amy)

The Relationship Between Nightmare Frequency and Hypnotic Susceptibility: Valid Correlation or Context-Mediated Artifact?

Description: The possibility that a positive correlation between nightmare frequency and hypnotic susceptibility reported by Belicki and Belicki (1986) was an artifact of administering a sleep questionnaire in the context of a hypnosis experiment was tested in the present study. Measures of vividness and absorption were also administered. Forty subjects, twenty of whom were told that the measures were related to hypnotic responding, completed the questionnaires immediately prior to hypnosis. Twenty other subjects, who completed the questionnaires in contexts unrelated to hypnosis, were later hypnotized. The hypothesis that context of administration of the questionnaires influenced the relationship between the measures and hypnotic susceptibility was not supported. Replication using a larger sample was recommended.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Callahan, Theresa A. (Theresa Ann)

Caregiver Personality as a Contributing Factor in Caregiver Burden

Description: Personality characteristics of spousal and adult children and active potential caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's Disease were studied in order to better predict caregiver burden and aspects of well-being. Contrary to prediction, no differences were found between spouse and adult children active caregivers on measures of well-being. Additionally, adult children potential caregivers indicated feeling less control over their lives than spouse potential caregivers. When social desirability was controlled, active caregivers reported greater fluctuations in affect than did potential caregivers. As predicted, personality characteristics of individuals were found to have the biggest role in determining which individuals experience stress or burden.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Anderson, Cristina L. (Cristina Lee)

Symptom Based Classification of Environmentally Ill Patients: an Exploratory Study

Description: The purpose of the present study was to discern a symptom pattern for environmentally ill patients and provide evidence of the uniqueness of the resultant pattern to this population. Patients' environmental exposure was confirmed by the presence of toxins in the blood serum. All patients were administered psychological and physical symptom checklists, the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and a standardized intermediate neuropsychological examination. Results indicate a response pattern of symptoms including fatigue, low energy, weakness, poor concentration, poor memory, poor comprehension, headaches, aches and pains, clumsiness, sinus discomfort, mucus, eye problems, restlessness, and present performance inferior to prior level of functioning. Presence of these symptoms, as well as the uniqueness of this symptom pattern was supported by comparisons of the patient and standardization groups on the two standardized tests.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Flanagan, William Joseph, 1963-

Distractibility, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity Measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Personality Inventory for Children

Description: Basic criteria for determination of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) include hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility. Four scales of the Personality Inventory for Children have been found to be useful in the diagnosis of ADHD. Impulsivity and distractibility can affect scores on the Hand Movements, Number Recall, Word Order, Spatial Memory, Arithmetic, Riddles, and Matrix Analogies subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Subjects were 100 children, aged six through 13 who were referred for psychological assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between scores on the four scales of the PIC and the designated subtest scores on the KABC. Four correlations were significant, but of low magnitude.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Alcantara, Helene Deborah-Lynne

Factor Analysis of Health Concerns in the Chronic Back Pain Patient-MMPI2

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factor structure of items pertaining to health on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) for chronic back pain patients in comparison to a control group. The results may be used as groundwork for developing an MMPI2 subscale to describe this population. The groups differed in the sequence of the resulting factors and the percentage of variance accounted for by each factor. The factors extracted when evaluating the control group were titled in order: Poor Physical Health, Digestive Difficulties, Equilibrium, Depression/Malaise, and Multiple Somatic Complaints. Resulting factors for the pain group were: Depression/Malaise, Digestive Difficulties, Multiple Somatic Complaints, Headaches/Dizziness, and Neurological Reaction/Poor Physical Health.
Date: August 1991
Creator: McGee-Hall, Joanne M. (Joanne Moore)

Test Order Effects on Children's Rorschachs

Description: Thirty-three children from a community sample, ages 5 to 13, were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test, along with projective Draw-an-Animal and Draw-a-Person tasks and other psychological measures. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three test order conditions: Draw-an-Animal followed by the Rorschach, Draw-a-Person followed by the Rorschach, and Rorschach before any other projective test. The number of Human and Animal contents in the test records was examined. Analysis showed no significant differences among the three groups for production of the content variables, suggesting that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is relatively robust with respect to test order effects.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Coyle, Edward L. (Edward Louis), 1965-

The Angoff Method and Rater Analysis: Enhancing Cutoff Score Reliability and Accuracy

Description: At times called a philosophy and other times called a process, cutting score methodology is an issue routinely encountered by Industrial/Organizational (I/0) psychologists. Published literature on cutting score methodology appears much more frequently in academic settings than it does in personnel settings where the potential for lawsuits typically occurs more often. With the passage of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, it is no longer legal to use within-group scoring. It has now become necessary for personnel psychologists to develop more acceptable selection methods that fall within established guidelines. Designating cutoff scores with the Angoff method appears to suit many requirements of personnel departments. Several procedures have evolved that suggest enhancing the accuracy and reliability of the Angoff method is possible. The current experiment investigated several such procedures, and found that rater accuracy methods significantly enhance cutoff score reliability and accuracy.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Baker, Charles E., 1957-