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The Impact of Student Thinking Journals and Generic Problem Solving Software on Problem Solving Performance and Transfer of Problem Solving Skills

Description: This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using a software package called Moptown Hotel. Students completed separate posttests that measured (1) performance on problems of the same kind as those used in instruction, and (2) transfer of skills to other kinds of problems. Scores of students who wrote thinking journals prior to testing were compared with scores of students who did not. Results indicate that students who wrote thinking journals performed the same as students who did not when tested on problems similar to those practiced in class. Tests in which students transferred their skills to word problems, however, produced significant differences. There was no significant difference between scores when averaged over all four weekly occasions. However, for the final session alone, students who wrote thinking journals scored higher on tests of problem solving transfer than students who did not (p < .01). The study also examined the relationship between the degree of metacognitive thought displayed in students' journal entries, and their measured problem solving ability. Results indicate that students who had higher average reflectivity scores also had higher average problem solving performance and transfer scores (p < .05). It was also noted that the significant relationship between reflectivity and scores of problem solving ability was only observed in male students. It was concluded that under the right conditions, and for the right kinds of problems, thinking journal writing can help students understand their own thinking processes, resulting in improved problem solving behavior. The study also raises the question of whether there are differences between the ways that male and female students apply metacognitive awareness gained through journal writing experiences.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Sullivan, Gary E. (Gary Eugene)

A Content Analysis of School Reading Textbooks in Taiwan and in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the values, beliefs, and ideas in school reading textbooks (Readers) in Taiwan and in Texas. It intended to examine the social control function of school Readers, with which a culture deliberately molds its young generation. This study employed primarily qualitative methods. The collection of data used the technique of content analysis, student surveys, and teacher expert panel discussions. The analysis of data followed a constant comparative approach. The themes shared by the two sets of Readers included family, friends, humans and living creatures, political ideals, reading/writing, appreciation of nature, science, indomitable spirit, turning danger into safety, setting goals, education, desirable and undesirable qualities or behaviors. Despite the similarities of these themes, the substance or focus of them may vary. The themes unique to the Texas Readers were content knowledge, cultural diversity, dilemma and choice, observations about people, words, tomorrow's technology, winning, and general truth. The themes unique to the Taiwan Readers included life philosophy, learning, necessary difficulties, sensitivity, and military strategies. The theme occurring most frequently in both sets of Readers was the desirable qualities or behaviors. The values advocated in the Taiwan Readers were idealistic and had a society-centered focus (for example, patriotism, appreciation of others, serving others, and honesty). Absolute moral principles were taught. A group orientation and altruism were evident. In contrast, the Texas Readers did not have such an emphasis on the concept of group. Personal feelings, individual accomplishments, and self-centered values (for instance, effort, courage, determination, talent, and independence) received more attention. The values were perceived to be relative to the situation. The Taiwan Readers, produced by a national education system, transmitted traditional Chinese beliefs and values. The Texas Readers, with the publishers' intent to avoid controversies, presented more general or universal values. Although the ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Wang, Sheue-shya

Teacher Study Groups: A Case Study

Description: The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the operation and impact of teacher study groups at one school site throughout a school year. The study was exploratory in nature. The research questions focused on the major factors in the school's external and internal context that impacted the study groups, the typical behaviors and interactions of the study group participants, and the impact of the study groups on the participants, the curriculum, and instruction.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Rowland, Elizabeth Fraser

The Effects of a Strategic Thinking Program on the Cognitive Ability of Seventh Grade Students

Description: This study used a posttest only design to determine the effects of a strategic thinking program on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT, Form 4) scores of seventh graders who received direct instruction in Strategic Thinking Skills (STS) with the scores of seventh graders who did not receive direct instruction in STS. The study was conducted in a large suburban middle school in north Texas.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Houchins, Joyce S. (Joyce Ann S.)

The Use of Technology in the Delivery of Instruction in Algebra II in Texas Public Secondary Schools

Description: The purpose of this study was to survey Algebra II teachers in the State of Texas to determine the extent to which they use technology for the delivery of instruction. Additionally, the study attempted to determine reasons why teachers do or do not use technology when they have a choice.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Clay, James H. (James Hamilton)

An Analysis of the Peer Relationships of Gifted and Gifted-Creative Primary Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the peer relationships of highly gifted and highly gifted-highly creative primary students in a gifted classroom of a public school. The study was conducted using thirty-one highly gifted first, second, and third graders who had scores of 140 or better on the WISC-R, WPPSI, or Otis-Lennon. At the beginning of the school year, the Creativity Assessment Packet was administered to the class. The top 20 percent scorers in the class (termed gifted-creative) and those who scored in the bottom 20 percent of the class (termed gifted) on the CAP were targeted for observation. In addition, a sociogram was administered to each student individually for the purpose of determining each child's social status. A bivariate correlation coefficient was employed to express the degree of any relationship between creativity scores and rankings on the class sociogram. Observational anecdotes were used in the discussion of the sociometric results. The following findings resulted from the study. The gifted-creative students, as a group, ranked higher on a class sociogram on measures of friendship and choice of academic work partners than did the gifted group. On sociometric measures of choice of creative work partners, there was no significant difference. During observations, the gifted students displayed approximately the same amount of positive verbal behaviors as the gifted-creative students. The gifted students did exhibit more isolated behavior, especially during academic tasks, than.did their gifted creative counterparts. The gifted-creative group displayed much more verbal and physical aggression than the gifted group. This report concludes that in the gifted classroom under investigation, gifted-creative and gifted pupils differ in their peer relationships thus supporting findings documented in past research. However, information from the sociogram seemed to suggest that the gifted-creative students, as a group, achieved higher social status within this gifted classroom than ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Greene, Debra Blatt

The Departing Experience: a Qualitative Study of Personal Accounts by Women Who Are Former Athletic Directors of Intercollegiate Athletic Programs for Women

Description: What happened to women who are former athletic directors of intercollegiate athletic programs during each of the four stages of the departing experience was the problem of this study. A qualitative design using personal interviews for data collection and ethnoscientific explanation for analysis of the data were used to study thirty-one women who were athletic directors between 1975 and 1986. Analytical tasks performed for each of the four levels of analysis helped answer research questions directed toward finding patterns among women in the following areas: what happened to them within and throughout the four stages of the departing experience, reasons they left the position of athletic director, and satisfaction in their subsequent job. Analysis of the data established that the departing experience occurred in four stages. How the subjects responded to the way that opportunities for female student-athletes were offered during each st3ge of the departing experience determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances. Sixteen subjects either were in positive circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in positive circumstances. Fifteen subjects were either in negative circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in negative circumstances. The ability to reevaluate their beliefs and values, adapt to changes in their programs, make rational decisions, and influence others to support their decisions determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances in each stage of the departing experience. In general, the findings of this study support literature on women in administrative positions and literature on the effects of job loss and job change.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Disselkoen, Jackie M.

Research Productivity of Doctorally Prepared Nurses

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the possible relationship between post-doctoral research productivity of doctorally prepared nurses and instructional experiences of doctoral study, conditions of employment and other factors that may be related to research productivity. The design of the study is causal comparative.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Farren, Elizabeth Anne

Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types

Description: This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Barlow, Karen Haun

The Relationship of Locus of Control Orientation to the Academic Achievement of Doctoral Students

Description: This study sought to determine the extent a relationship exists between locus of control and the rate of completion for proposal and dissertation defense among doctoral students. Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales were utilized to identify locus of control orientation. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority, 102, scored highest on the Internal scale; (2) Internal scale scores above the median related to increased probability of a proposal and dissertation defense and to reduced time in reaching those points; (3) no significant difference was found between male and female defensive externals in completing the proposal or dissertation defense; and (4) females tended to score higher than males on the Internal scale. Among conclusions drawn are: (1) Internal scale scores above the median relate to a reduced length of time to complete the proposal and dissertation defense; and (2) few doctoral candidates scoring higher on the Powerful Others or Chance scales were identified in this doctoral program after the point of qualifying examinations.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Wentzel, Marcela Luise

A Study of the Educational Background and Subject Areas Taught by Industrial Arts Teachers in Oklahoma

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is that of determining the relationship between curriculum offerings in industrial arts and the academic preparation of industrial arts and the academic preparation of industrial arts teachers in the public secondary schools of Oklahoma.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Stuteville, Claude Edgar

Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Attributes of Never-Married Singles

Description: The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare various attributes of never-married single men and women to married men and women. The Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale, and the Personal Skills Map were completed by 138 never-married singles and 139 married volunteers, both male and female. Volunteers were predominantly Caucasian, Protestant, active in their churches, and college educated. Ages ranged from 30 to 39 years. Married volunteers were married only once for five years or more. A step-wise discriminant analysis was run on each of the three instruments to determine which variables were significant across groupings. Summary conclusions were made showing that never-married men and women were more socially energetic but less expressive and responsive than were married men and women. Single men, as compared to married men, were also more passive and saw themselves in a less favorable light. Single women, when compared to married women, were also more dominant. Single women, when compared to single men, were more relaxed and more assertive, but more critical and punitive. An implication for counselors is that never-married single people may need help with relating at a deeper level of vulnerability and personableness. Single men may need help in interpersonal assertiveness as well as in personal openness and transparency. Single women may need help in resolving some of their hostilities. Further research is needed to explore the possible factors contributing to the guardedness of singles, the passivity of men, and the hostility of women. More work needs to be done in the area of causality.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Jagers, J. Lee

Teaching Design in the Year 2000: A Modified Delphi Study of the Perceptions of Design Educators

Description: The problem of this study is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 in the United States of America according to the perceptions of design educators who were polled using a Delphi exercise. Basic design is an introductory course in design disciplines covering fundamental principles, components, and applications of design. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 to allow design educators to better prepare for the future. The second is to provide a basis for further research that might address specific areas in the future of teaching design.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Watson, James Robert, 1950-

A Comparison of Recall by University Bible Students After Discussion and After Self-Study

Description: Recall of expository prose after one of two learning techniques was determined. Pearson correlation did not discover a significant difference between the recall writings of the examinees who studied by discussion and those who studied by underlining. The significance of the difference between two proportions found that the group which underlined recalled significantly better than the group which discussed what they had read. This highly significant difference was almost identical when all synonyms from the Turbo Lightning computer program were considered correct recall and analyzed by the significance of the difference between two proportions.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Stovall, Johnny Harold

The Effect of Transcranial Stimulation on the Mechanical Efficiency of Persons with Cerebral Palsy

Description: The problem of this study concerns the reduction of spasticity in physically handicapped persons with CP. The hypotheses tested were: that there would be no significant difference between the mechanical efficiency (ME) of persons with spastic CP following application of the TENS Unit and following application of the placebo unit; that there would be no significant difference between the ME of males with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit, and the ME of females with spastic CP, following application of the TENS Unit or the placebo unit; and that there would be no significant interaction between the treatment factor and the gender category.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Logan, Michael P. (Michael Paul)

An Educational Design for Consciousness-Raising in Social Justice Education for the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word: Paulo Freire's Philosophy and Methodology Applied to the Congregational Ministry for/with the Economically Poor

Description: The purpose of the investigation was two-fold: (1) to develop an educational design for consciousness-raising in social justice education using Paulo Freire's literacy method, and (2) to investigate its effect on the Incarnate Word sisters' attitude toward the economically poor, Workshop sessions examined social justice concepts of the economically poor as stated in the Acts of the Congregation's General Chapter and applied Freire's method of consciousness-raising outlined in his Pedagogy of the Oppressed and his Education for Critical Consciousness.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Palmer, Margaret Rose

The Effects of Visits by Authors of Children's Books in Selected Elementary Schools

Description: Guest author visits are popular events in schools across the United States. Little has been written, however, on a single author doing a single presentation in a school. This study addressed that situation. The study utilized two authors visiting four schools in a large North Central Texas school district.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Staas, Gretchen L. (Gretchen Lee)

A Study of the Kodaly Approach to Music Teaching and an Investigation of Four Approaches to the Teaching of Selected Skills in First Grade Music Classes

Description: This study examined the Kodaly approach to music teaching and investigated four different approaches to teaching first graders in elementary school to sing on pitch, echo (clap) rhythms, audiate tonal patterns, and audiate rhythm patterns. The approaches were the Kodaly approach, the traditional approach, and two eclectic approaches. One emphasized some of the techniques of the Kodaly approach, and the other emphasized some of the techniques of the Orff approach. The sample for this study consisted of one hundred twenty-one students in five classes from four different elementary schools. Two instruments were utilized: the standardized Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) by Gordon and the Individual Performance Test (IPT) designed by the investigator. The PMMA had two sections of forty examples each and measured the child's ability to audiate tonal and rhythmic patterns. This test was administered to the children as a group and they recorded their answers on an answer sheet. The IPT was tape recorded and administered individually by the investigator and assistants. It had two sections, rhythm and tonal. The children matched pitches and clapped the rhythms they heard. Responses were tape recorded and evaluated. Pretests were given shortly after the school year began and post-test were given eight weeks later. A completely randomized analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in the achievement of the children in the different classes to perform the selected skills. Findings revealed that the approach to music teaching does make a difference in the musical achievement of first-graders and their abilities to echo rhythms, match pitches, and to audiate rhythm patterns. The approach to music teaching does not make a difference in the musical achievement of the subjects and their abilities to audiate tonal patterns.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Hudgens, Cecilia Kay Knox

Jazz Improvisation: A Recommended Sequential Format of Instruction

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is that of developing a recommended sequential format for jazz improvisation instruction. The method of content analysis is used. Seventeen subject matter categories (instructional areas) are established upon which the data is analyzed. Coding instructions are constructed with adjustments for additional emphasis placed on the instruction areas by the respective authors. By selecting instructional areas recorded above the median per cent of emphasis, and co-ordinating these areas with the mean sequential introduction of each instructional area, a recommended format of instruction is developed.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Zwick, Robert A. (Robert Alan)

Perceived Importance of the Characteristics and Functions of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner

Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: to identify role functions and characteristics perceived as important to Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs) in Texas, and to identify differences in perceived importance of role functions and characteristics of ANPs according to gender, educational preparation, practice setting, and whether the practitioner entered practice before or after the current rules and regulations for ANP practice were adopted. Two questionnaires and a demographic data form were mailed to 300 ANPs in primary health care in Texas, with 152 responding. Data from the questionnaire, "Characteristics of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner," were analyzed using independent group t-tests. The findings indicated that the characteristics "person-oriented," "perceptive," and "skilled in problem-solving" were the most valued by the practitioners, while aggressive" was the least valued. Independent group t-tests were used to analyze data from the instrument, "Advanced Nurse Practitioner Functions." The results of this analysis were not significant. The Chi square test was used to further examine data from this questionnaire to determine if the responses differed from chance. With the exception of four items, all of the responses differed significantly from chance. The responses "extremely important or important" were selected significantly more frequently that any of the other options. Not appropriate," was selected significantly more often than could be expected by chance for two functions: suturing minor lacerations and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Fourteen functions were examined further using frequency, percentage of responses, and the Chi square test to determine if there were differences in responses between groups. There were significant differences in responses between ANPs in nurse-managed settings and those in physician-managed settings on four functions: ordering diagnostic tests, prescribing medications in consultation with a physician, suturing minor lacerations, and performing incision and drainage of wounds. Practice setting and educational preparation were the variables which had ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Barnes, Ellen Sue M.