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United States Lend-Lease Policy in Latin America

Description: President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Undersecretary of State Sumner Welles began trying to make military matériel available to Latin America during the latter 1930s. Little progress was made until passage of the Lend-Lease Act in 1941 enabled Washington to furnish eighteen Latin American nations with about $493,000,000 worth of military assistance during World War II. This study, based primarily on State Department lend-lease decimal files in the National Archives and documents published in Foreign Relations volumes, views the policy's background, development, and implementation in each recipient nation. The conclusion is that the policy produced mixed results for the United States and Latin America.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Yeilding, Thomas D. (Thomas David)

The Zale Corporation: A Texas Success Story

Description: The study begins by examining economic, political, and social conditions in Tsarist Russia that prompted the Zale family to immigrate to the United States. They eventually settled in Texas where, as a boy, Morris Zale was introduced to the jewelry business. In his first store in Wichita Falls Zale developed the idea of mass marketing his merchandise, and in order to do so he offered credit to his customers. He also made extensive use of advertising. Both of those approaches were revolutionary in the retail jewelry industry. This study examines various methods used by Zale's to expand its holdings. In addition, attention is given to Zale's diversification in the late 1960's and early 1970's. Emphasis is given in the study to Zale's development of a vertically integrated structure. By purchasing diamonds directly from the Diamond Trading Company, Zale's has been able to process the stones at each stage—cutting, polishing, mounting, and marketing. Such an arrangement eliminated middlemen at each step, permitting Zale's to reduce markups and margins and still maintain necessary profit levels. This study examines several serious adversities that have confronted the company—racial and religious prejudice, the Depression, shortages brought on by World War II, potential competition from a synthetic diamond, and an internal scandal involving Zale's chief financial officer. In each case Zale's managed to emerge from the adversity stronger than it had been previously. From the outset Zale's objective has been to sell the greatest amount of jewelry to the greatest number of people at the lowest possible price, and this study indicates how successful the company has been in reaching that goal.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Stringer, Tommy W. (Tommy Wayne)

Hannah Arendt: The Philosopher in History

Description: This paper explores the major historical interpretations of Hannah Arendt and analyzes her philosophy of history. Chapter One includes an introduction and a brief survey of the life of Hannah Arendt. Chapters Two and Three examine The Origins of Totalitarianism. The discussion concludes that Arendt's loose use of terms and some of her evidence can be called into question. Nevertheless, her work contains original insights about modern European political history. Chapter Four, a discussion of Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, emphasizes her portrait of Adolph Eichmann as a shallow, Nazi bureaucrat. Although the work is flawed with inaccuracies, her portrait of Eichmann as a prototypical bureaucratic killer is thought provoking. Chapter Five, an analysis of Arendt's philosophy of history, concludes that Arendt understood the pitfalls of theories of historical causality.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Cruz, Richard A. (Richard Alan)

Muenster, Texas: A Centennial History

Description: Muenster, Texas, in Cooke County, began in 1889 through efforts of German-American colonizing entrepreneurs who attracted settlers from other German-American colonies in the United States. The community, founded on the premise of maintaining cultural purity, survived and prospered for a century by its reliance on crops, cattle, and oil. In its political conservatism and economic ties to the land, Muenster resembled its neighboring Anglo-American communities. Its Germanic heritage, however, became pronounced in the community's refusal to accommodate to the prohibitionism of North Texas regarding alcoholic beverages and in the parishioners' fidelity to the Roman Catholic faith. These characteristics are verified in unpublished manuscripts, governmental documents, local records, and interviews with Muenster residents.
Date: August 1988
Creator: McDaniel, Robert Wayne

Girolamo Savonarola and the Problem of Humanist Reform in Florence

Description: Girolamo Savonarola lived at the apex of the Renaissance, but most of his biographers regard him as an anachronism or a precursor of the Reformation. Savonarola, however, was influenced by the entire milieu of Renaissance Florence, including its humanism. Savonarola's major work, Triumph of the Cross, is a synthesis of humanism, neo-Thomism and mysticism. His political reforms were routed in both the millennialist dreams of Florence and the goals of civic humanism. Hoping to translate the abstract humanist life of virtue into the concrete, he ultimately failed, not because the Renaissance was rejecting the Middle Ages, but because the former was reacting against itself. Florence, for all its claims of being the center of the Renaissance, was not willing to make humanist reform a reality.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Norred, Patricia A.

The Heloise of History

Description: This thesis seeks to determine the historical role of the twelfth-century abbess Heloise, apart from the frequently cited and disputed letters exchanged between her and Peter Abelard. Independent information exists in the testimony of Heloise's contemporaries, in the rule written for her abbey the Paraclete, and in the liturgy of the Paraclete. This evidence not only substantiates an erudite Heloise in concert with the Heloise of the letters, but serves as testimony to a woman of ability and accomplishment who participated in monastic reform and who sought to bring a positive direction to women's lives in the cloister. From this, it becomes clear that although Heloise may not have written the letters ascribed to her she was certainly capable of writing them.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Kelso, Carl J. (Carl Joseph)

Texas and the CCC: A Case Study in the Successful Administration of a Confederated State and Federal Program

Description: Reacting to the Great Depression, Texans abandoned the philosophy of rugged individualism and turned to their state and federal governments for leadership. Texas's Governor Miriam Ferguson resultantly created the state's first relief agency, which administered all programs including those federally funded. Because the Roosevelt administration ordered state participation in and immediate implementation of the CCC, a multi-governmental, multi-departmental administrative alliance involving state and federal efforts resulted, which, because of scholars' preferences for research at the federal level, often is mistakenly described as a decentralized administration riddled with bureaucratic shortcomings. CCC operations within Texas, however, revealed that this complicated administrative structure embodied the reasons for the CCC's well-documented success.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Wellborn, Mark Alan

Lord Acton and the Liberal Catholic Movement, 1858-1875

Description: John Dalberg Acton, a German-educated historian, rose to prominence in late Victorian England is an editor of The Rambler and a leader of the Liberal Catholic Movement. His struggle against Ultramontanism reached its climax at the Vatican Council, 1869-1870, which endorsed the dogma of Papal Infallibility and effectively ended the Liberal Catholic Movement. Acton's position on the Vatican Decrees remained equivocal until the Gladstone controversy of 1874 forced him to take a stand, but even his statement of submission failed to satisfy some Ultramontanists. This study, based largely on Acton's published letters and essays, concludes that obedience to Rome did not contradict his advocacy of freedom of conscience, which also placed limits on Papal Infallibility.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Shuttlesworth, William T. (William Theron)

Czechoslovakia's Fortifications: Their Development and Impact on Czech and German Confrontation

Description: During the 1930s, the Republic of Czechoslovakia endeavored to construct a system of modern fortifications along its frontiers to protect the Republic from German and Hungarian aggression and from external Versailles revisionism. Czechoslovakia's fortifications have been greatly misrepresented through comparison with the Maginot Line. By utilizing extant German military reports, this thesis demonstrates that Czechoslovakia's fortifications were incomplete and were much weaker than the Maginot Line at the time of the Munich Crisis in 1938. The German threat of war against Czechoslovakia was very real in 1938 and Germany would have penetrated most of the fortifications and defeated Czechoslovakia quickly had a German-Czech war occurred in 1938.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Walvoord, Kreg A. (Kreg Anthony)

The Public Health Movement in Victorian England, 1831-1875

Description: In early Victorian England, a coalition of men of Government and the local community established a centralized and uniform policy toward public health. The long and arduous campaign (1831-1875) for public health impelled the need to solve the serious social, political and economic problems spawned by the Industrial Revolution. This study concludes that Britain's leaders came to believe that Government indeed had an obligation to redress grievances created by injustice, a decision which meant the rejection of laissez-faire. Through legislation based on long study, Parliament consolidated the work of sanitation authorities, trained medical officers, and essential environmental improvements. The public sanitation program soon decreased the mortality rate by breaking the frequent cycle of cholera, typhoid, typhus, and dysentery plagues, all this notwithstanding that no doctor of that age knew that bacteria and viruses caused disease.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hopkins, Renee Anderson

Great Britain, the Council of Foreign Ministers, and the Origins of the Cold War, 1947

Description: Scholars assert that the Cold War began at one of several different points. Material recently available at the National Archives yields a view different from those already presented. From these records, and material from the Foreign Relations Series, Parliamentary Debates, and United States Government documents, a new picture emerges. This study focuses on the British occupation of Germany and on the Council of Foreign Ministers' Moscow Conference of 1947. The failure of this conference preceded the adoption of the Marshall Plan and a stronger Western policy toward the Soviet Union. Thus, the Moscow Conference emphasized the disintegrating relations between East and West which resulted in the Cold War.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Kronwall, Mary Elizabeth

David Hume and the Enlightenment Legacy

Description: Generally acclaimed as the greatest philosopher of the Enlightenment, David Hume has been, nevertheless, a problem for Enlightenment historians. In terms of the Enlightenment's own standards of empiricism and demonstrable philosophical tenets, Hume's is by far the most "legitimate" philosophy of the age, yet it is almost diametrically opposed to the traditional historical characterization of the Enlightenment. Consequently, historians must re-assess the empirical character of the Enlightenment, acknowledging it as yet another Age of Faith rather than science (as Becker contends), or acknowledge Hume's as the most valid Enlightenment philosophy. Such a re-assessment and study of Hume's conclusions would dramatically alter Enlightenment histories and provide meaningful insights into the actual Enlightenment legacy regarding modern man and his society.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Perez, Joan Jenkins

John Calvin: Cultural Revolutionary

Description: The theology of John Calvin, while not differing primarily in substance from traditional Reformation thought, was revolutionary in its impact on the cultural life of the believer. For Calvin, Christ was the Cosmic Redeemer through whom all of life was effected. Nothing in the life of the believer therefore was secular. Society, as a whole, was but a reflection of the grace of God and hence was an arena of concern for all people. Consequently, Calvin, the man, and Calvinists, later took an active role in the temporal life of man, concerning themselves with the governing of the state as well as the church, and the propagation of the arts and sciences.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Urie, Dale Marie

Joseph Wood Krutch's Intellectual Quest

Description: Joseph Wood Krutch, literary critic, biographer, and naturalist, played an important role in twentieth-century American intellectual thought. As a drama critic at The Nation in the 1920's, he was disturbed by his fellow intellectuals' wholehearted acceptance of the verdict of science on modern man. Krutch believed that science lessened the stature of man when it refused to see men as anything but animals. Thus, the modern intellectuals subjected themselves to an attempt by communists and common men to overthrow western culture. The 1930's saw a concerted effort to defend communism by intellectuals, ironically, Krutch believed, at their own peril. Krutch's bitter argument with Marxists eventually forced him to nurture Thoreauvian individualism which culminated in a move to Arizona and a new career as a naturalist. He embraced a pantheistic philosophy. His search for order in a chaotic world made Krutch an interesting figure in American intellectual life.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Forst, Eugene R.

The Jay Treaty: Ratification and Response

Description: This study focuses on the reaction in the United States to Jay's Treaty, 1794-96. Though crucial in the development of American diplomacy, the treaty's greatest impact was on the domestic politics of the young nation. The most important sources were the correspondence of the participants. Other materials include newspapers, diaries, government documents, and secondary sources. The thesis argues that the treaty was in the best interests of the United States, and the nation was fortunate to be led at this time by the Federalist party.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Wilkin, Mark

From the Hague to Nuremberg: International Law and War, 1898-1945

Description: This thesis examines the body of international law drawn upon during the Nuremberg trials after World War II. The work analyzes the Hague Conventions, the Paris Peace Conference, and League of Nations decisions to support its conclusions. Contrary to the commonly held belief that the laws violated during World War II by the major war criminals were newly developed ideas, this thesis shows that the laws evolved over an extended period prior to the war. The work uses conference minutes, published government sources, the official journal of the League of Nations, and many memoirs to support the conclusions.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Wright, Crystal Renee Murray

Anglo-American Relations and the Problems of a Jewish State, 1945- 1948

Description: This thesis is concerned with determining the effect of the establishment of a Jewish state on Anglo-American relations and the policies of their governments. This work covers the period from the awarding of the Palestine Mandate to Great Britain, through World War II, and concentrates on the post-war events up to the foundation of the state of Israel. It uses major governmental documents, as well as those of the United Nations, the archival materials at the Harry S. Truman Library, and the memoirs of the major participants in the Palestine drama. This study concludes that, while the Palestine problem presented ample opportunities for disunity, the Anglo-American relationship suffered no permanently damaging effects.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Peterson, Jody L.

Amerikanuak eta Asmoak: New World Basques and Immigration Theories

Description: The focus of this thesis is the relationship between immigration historiography and the history of Basque migration to the United States. The depictions of immigration presented by historians Oscar Handlin, Marcus Lee Hansen, and John Higham have been influential in immigration historiography and are presented in the first chapter. The second chapter contains a description of Old World Basque culture and the third chapter presents a brief history of Basque migration to the United States. The fourth chapter discusses to what extent the immigration theories presented in chapter one match the Basque experience in the New World. The concluding chapter contains some observations on the nature of immigration historiography, on the Basques, and on new directions for research.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Echeverría, Jerónima, 1946-

The Slave Trade Question in Anglo-French Diplomacy, 1830-1845

Description: This thesis concludes that (1) Immediately following the July Revolution, the Paris government refused to concede the right of search to British commanders. (2) Due to France's isolation in 1831-1833, she sought British support by negotiating the conventions of 1831 and 1833. (3) In response to Palmerston's insistence and to preserve France's influence Sdbastiani signed the protocol of a five-power accord to suppress the slave trade. Guizot accepted the Quintuple Treaty to facilitate an Anglo-French rapprochement. (4) Opposition encouraged by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, however, forced Guizot to repudiate this new agreement. (5) As a concession to Guizot,Aberdeen dropped the demand for a mutual right of search and negotiated the Convention of 1845, establishing a system of joint-cruising.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Wood, Ronnie P.

Wawrzyniec Goslicki: The Counsellor

Description: Wawrzyniec Goslicki's De optimo Senatore was published in Venice in 1568. Subsequent translations of the work had an impact on political thought in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Goslicki's work has received little attention since, and this paper is an effort to restore to Goslicki his place of importance in Polish history and western political thought. The paper provides a brief biography of Goslicki; an account of the English translations and historiography surrounding De optimo Senatore; an analysis of Goslicki' s political thought; and, an explanation of his influence on William Shakespeare.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Sharp, Betty C.

The Enlightenment and the Englishwoman

Description: The present study investigates the failure of the Enlightenment to liberate Englishwomen from the prejudices society and law imposed upon them. Classifying social classes by lifestyle, the roles of noble, middleclass, and criminal women, as well as the attitudes of contemporary writers of both sexes, are analyzed. This investigation concludes that social mores limited noblewomen to ornamental roles and condemned them to exist in luxurious boredom; forced middle-class women to emulate shining domestic images which contrasted sharply with the reality of their lives; subjected women of desperate circumstances to a criminal code rendered erratic and inconsistent by contemporary attitudes, and impelled the Enlightenment to invent new defenses for old attitudes toward women.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Morris, Jan Jenkins

Mathematical Messiah: Robert Recorde and the Popularization of Mathematics in the Sixteenth Century

Description: Robert Recorde (c. 1510-1557) was a pioneer in the teaching of mathematics in the English language. His attempt to popularize mathematics, in fact, was without precedent in any language. Mathematics in the 1500s was still exclusively reserved for mathematicians, and people in general had no interest in the subject. Within a hundred years after Recorde had popularized mathematics, however, this situation had changed. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth centuty occurred and mathematics became an indispensible aspect of man's knowledge. This thesis examines the background and development of Recorde's attempt to popularize mathematics and evaluates that attempt in terms of its relation to the position of science in the modern world.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Thavit Sukhabanij

Authorship, Content and Intention in the West Saxon Consolation of Philosophy

Description: Boethius, a late Roman philosopher, composed his last work, De Consolatione Philosophiae, while in prison. His final effort crowned a lifetime of philosophical achievement, and the work was influential throughout the Middle Ages. Frequently translated, the Consolation was one of the books which was chosen by Alfred, a ninth century Anglo-Saxon king, for use in the rebuilding of his kingdom after the Danish invasions. Although intended for an audience which was heavily influenced by a lively pagan tradition, the book was re-interpreted during the Carolingian period to conform to a strict Christian standard. Alfred's own interpretation is indicative of this amalgamation of ancient learning in the milieu of an emerging European culture, as well as his own pragmatic personality.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Painter, William Ernest

The Texas Press and the Filibusters of the 1850s: Lopez, Carvajal, and Walker

Description: The decade of the 1850s saw the Texas press separate into two opposing groups on the issue of filibustering. The basis for this division was the personal beliefs of the editors regarding the role filibustering should have in society. Although a lust for wealth drove most filibusters, the press justified territorial expansion along altruistic lines. By 1858, however, a few newspapers discarded this argument and condemned filibusters as lawless bands of ruffians plundering peaceful neighbors. Throughout the decade, the papers gradually drifted from a consensus in 1850 to discord by the date of William Walker's third attempt on Nicaragua in 1858.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Zemler, Jeffrey A. (Jeffrey Allen)