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Individual Behavior Change in the Context of Organization Change: Towards Validation of the Transtheoretical Model of Change in an Organizational Environment

Description: A review of literature indicates limited effort to understand and explain employees' acclimation to, and adoption of, new behaviors required by organization change initiatives. Psychological theories of individual behavior change have, in restricted instances, been applied into organizational environments. The transtheoretical model of change (TTM) offers a comprehensive explanation of behavior change uniting multiple theories of individual change. TTM describes change as a series of stages that individual progress through before arriving at the decision to implement a change in behavior. Movement through the stages is facilitated by processes which increase the probability of a behavior change effort's success. The present research investigated the potential applicability of TTM for explaining individual level change within a new context, specifically, an organizational environment. To examine if individual change in the context of an organization occurs in the fashion described by TTM, measures of core TTM constructs were delivered to employees in a water department of a city in the American southwest. The water department was immersed in an organization change initiative necessitating individual behavior change by its employees. Results of TTM core construct measures and their relationships with each other and the stages of change were examined. Initial findings are indicative of TTM's potential applicability as a description of behavior change within an organizational context. Implications of these findings, potential applications, imitations of the current research, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Phillips, Tobe M.

The Influence of Perceived Career Barriers on College Women's Career Planning

Description: Research has indicated that balancing work and family is on the minds of college-age women long before they are married. At the same time, women continue to choose occupations that do not fully utilize their abilities and often fail to follow their original career goals. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived career barriers and supports on young women's career planning. Utilizing Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) and recent literature as a basis, this study conceptualized career goals using the two constructs career salience and career aspirations. Based on information garnered in this student's thesis and on studies examining pathways in the SCCT model, the current study used a hierarchical regression model and hypothesized that barriers related to work and family conflict and sex discrimination would have the most impact on the career aspirations and career salience of young women. Career supports were hypothesized to add significantly to the prediction of these variables, and coping self-efficacy for these types of barriers were hypothesized to depend on the level of these types of barriers perceived and the interaction effect was in turn expected to add significantly to the prediction of career aspirations and career salience. None of the hypotheses were supported in predicting career salience. Career aspirations were found to be predicted by barriers other than those hypothesized, career supports were found to add significant variance, and coping self-efficacy for work and family conflict was found to have a unique, unpredicted relationship with career aspirations. Implications of the findings are discussed as are suggestions for directions of new research utilizing SCCT.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Raiff, Gretchen Wade

Influence of Physically Active Leisure Participation on Obesity in Youth with Spina Bifida

Description: Childhood obesity and resulting secondary complications in youth with disabilities are occurring in epidemic proportions, due in part to a trend of physical inactivity. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of overweight, the leisure time activity patterns, and the association between frequency of physically active leisure participation and body mass index for age, in a sample of 50 youth with spina bifida, ages 4.5 to 17.9 years. Results indicate that 52% of the sample are classified as at risk of overweight or overweight; 36% were male and 16% were female. The top five leisure time activities and team sport participation are identified. Subjects who did not use a wheelchair for ambulation participated significantly more in physically active leisure than subjects who used a wheelchair. Future research and rationale for physically active leisure as an intervention for youth with spina bifida are discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: McCabe, Erin

Information Needs of Art Museum Visitors: Real and Virtual

Description: Museums and libraries are considered large repositories of human knowledge and human culture. They have similar missions and goals in distributing accumulated knowledge to society. Current digitization projects allow both, museums and libraries to reach a broader audience, share their resources with a variety of users. While studies of information seeking behavior, retrieval systems and metadata in library science have a long history; such research studies in museum environments are at their early experimental stage. There are few studies concerning information seeking behavior and needs of virtual museum visitors, especially with the use of images in the museums' collections available on the Web. The current study identifies preferences of a variety of user groups about the information specifics on current exhibits, museum collections metadata information, and the use of multimedia. The study of information seeking behavior of users groups of museum digital collections or cultural collections allows examination and analysis of users' information needs, and the organization of cultural information, including descriptive metadata and the quantity of information that may be required. In addition, the study delineates information needs that different categories of users may have in common: teachers in high schools, students in colleges and universities, museum professionals, art historians and researchers, and the general public. This research also compares informational and educational needs of real visitors with the needs of virtual visitors. Educational needs of real visitors are based on various studies conducted and summarized by Falk and Dierking (2000), and an evaluation of the art museum websites previously conducted to support the current study.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Kravchyna, Victoria

Interpreting Prehistoric Patterns: Site Catchment Analysis in the Upper Trinity River Basin of North Central Texas

Description: Archaeologically site catchment analysis produces valuable information regarding prehistoric subsistence strategies and social organization. Incorporating archaeological data into catchment analyses is an effective strategy to develop regional models of prehistoric site selection and settlement patterns. Digital access to data permits the incorporation of multiple layers of information into the process of synthesizing regional archaeology and interpreting corresponding spatial patterning. GIS software provides a means to integrate digital environmental and archaeological data into an effective tool. Resultant environmental archaeology maps facilitate interpretive analysis. To fulfill the objectives of this thesis, GIS software is employed to construct site catchment areas for archaeological sites and to implement multivariate statistical analyses of physical and biological attributes of catchments in correlation with assemblage data from sites. Guided by ecological, anthropological and geographical theories hypotheses testing evaluates patterns of prehistoric socio-economic behavior. Analytical results are summarized in a model of prehistoric settlement patterns in North Central Texas.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Williams, Marikka Lin

An Investigation into how CACREP Accredited Institutions meet the CACREP Practicum Standards

Description: This study was designed to determine how institutions accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) meet the practicum requirements set forth in CACREP's 2001 standards. Practicum is a vital part of the matriculation process of counselors in training. This clinical based course allows students to practice the skills they have learned in previous, more didactic based courses. Trainees can stretch skills, all under the watch of a counselor supervisor with greater experience. Although CACREP instructs all accredited counseling programs to have such a course in place, the standards are not specific. Schools are often interpreting the standards in a multitude of ways, presumably to successfully meet the standards while still serving the student as well as the clientele who seek out mental health assistance (Pitts, 1992a). The purpose of this study was to determine what measures CACREP accredited institutions enact to meet the clinical practicum standards. The difference between this study and prior research that has addressed the practicum requirement is that the instrument used in this study specifically addressed every CACREP practicum standard, including technology, diversity, and concerns with supervision and meeting the direct client contact hour requirement. The results of the study showed that most programs do indeed meet the standards that have been set by CACREP. However, the way that these are met varies greatly from school to school. In addition, some schools have incorporated innovative practices that could be beneficial to both schools looking to gain accreditation and ones that are attempting to modify existing practices.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Muro, Joel Hart

Isolation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Mutant and the Investigation of Its Growth Characteristics, Pyrimidine Biosynthetic Enzyme Activities, and Virulence Factor Production

Description: The pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway is an essential pathway for most organisms. Previous research on the pyrimidine pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) has shown that a block in the third step of the pathway resulted in both a requirement for exogenous pyrimidines and decreased ability to produce virulence factors. In this work an organism with a mutation in the second step of the pathway, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), was created. Assays for pyrimidine intermediates, and virulence factors were performed. Results showed that the production of pigments, haemolysin, and rhamnolipids were significantly decreased from PAO1. Elastase and casein protease production were also moderately decreased. In the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model the nematodes fed the ATCase mutant had increased mortality, as compared to nematodes fed wild type bacteria. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that changes in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway contribute to the organism's ability to effect pathogenicity.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Hammerstein, Heidi Carol

The MetaCombine Project

Description: This poster presentation discusses the MetaCombine project, a Mellon-funded effort based at Emory University, with the goal of discovering and developing systems and methods to more meaningfully combine digital libraries, digital library resources, and digital library services.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Krowne, Aaron; Ingram, Stephen; Pathak, Saurabh & Halbert, Martin

Neuropsychological Predictors of Incompetency to Stand Trial

Description: This study investigated the effect of cognitive factors on competency to stand trial. Previous researchers have investigated how psychological variables --such as psychosis and intelligence--contribute to incompetency. Although several researchers have established that intelligence contributes to incompetency, very few have investigated the role of specific cognitive abilities within the realm of intelligence. This study investigated the performance of 55 defendants referred for competency restoration on neuropsychological measures. Specifically, competent defendants and incompetent defendants were compared on several measures assessing functioning in seven cognitive domains. Competent defendants performed significantly better than incompetent defendants on measures of verbal comprehension, social judgment, verbal memory, and executive functioning. Competent and incompetent defendants did not differ on attention, visual spatial skills, or nonverbal memory.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Grandjean, Nicole Rae

An NMR Study of Trimethylsilylmethyllithium Aggregates and Mixed Trimethylsilylmethyllithium/Lithium trimethylsilylmethoxide Aggregates

Description: An NMR spectroscopy study of trimethylsilylmethyllilthium, TMSM-Li, indicates that TMSM-Li exists as two different aggregates in cyclopentane solution. Using previously reported colligative properties of TMSM-Li in different solutions in connection with new 13C and 6Li NMR data collected in this study, aggregation states were assigned as octamer and hexamer. Low temperature 13C and 6Li NMR peak intensities indicated an equilibrium exists between the two aggregates that shifts toward the octamer as the temperature decreases. ΔH was calculated to be 5.23 + 0.15 kcal/mol and ΔS was calculated to be 17.9 + 0.6 eu for the hexamer/octamer equilibrium system. Samples of TMSM-Li were mixed with TMSM-OH in attempts to form mixed alkyllithium/lithium alkoxide aggregates. 13C NMR data for these mixtures gave inconclusive results whether or not these compounds formed, which is different from other primary alkyllithium compounds studied in the past. A study of neopentyllithium, NpLi, indicates only one aggregate in solution with the aggregation state unknown using low temperature 13C NMR spectroscopy.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Medley, Marilyn S.

De novo prediction of the ground state structure of transition metal complexes.

Description: One of the main goals of computational methods is to identify reasonable geometries for target materials. Organometallic complexes have been investigated in this dissertation research, entailing a significant challenge based on transition metal diversity and the associated complexity of the ligands. A large variety of theoretical methods have been employed to determine ground state geometries of organometallic species. An impressive number of transition metals entailing diverse isomers (e.g., geometric, spin, structural and coordination), different coordination numbers, oxidation states and various numbers of electrons in d orbitals have been studied. Moreover, ligands that are single, double or triple bonded to the transition metal, exhibiting diverse electronic and steric effects, have been investigated. In this research, a novel de novo scheme for structural prediction of transition metal complexes was developed, tested and shown to be successful.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Buda, Corneliu

Optimal Access Point Selection and Channel Assignment in IEEE 802.11 Networks

Description: Designing 802.11 wireless networks includes two major components: selection of access points (APs) in the demand areas and assignment of radio frequencies to each AP. Coverage and capacity are some key issues when placing APs in a demand area. APs need to cover all users. A user is considered covered if the power received from its corresponding AP is greater than a given threshold. Moreover, from a capacity standpoint, APs need to provide certain minimum bandwidth to users located in the coverage area. A major challenge in designing wireless networks is the frequency assignment problem. The 802.11 wireless LANs operate in the unlicensed ISM frequency, and all APs share the same frequency. As a result, as 802.11 APs become widely deployed, they start to interfere with each other and degrade network throughput. In consequence, efficient assignment of channels becomes necessary to avoid and minimize interference. In this work, an optimal AP selection was developed by balancing traffic load. An optimization problem was formulated that minimizes heavy congestion. As a result, APs in wireless LANs will have well distributed traffic loads, which maximize the throughput of the network. The channel assignment algorithm was designed by minimizing channel interference between APs. The optimization algorithm assigns channels in such a way that minimizes co-channel and adjacent channel interference resulting in higher throughput.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Park, Sangtae

Passionate transformation in vernicle images.

Description: This thesis will examine the iconography of late-thirteenth- through fifteenth-century images of St. Veronica's veil, also known as vernicles. In the late Middle Ages, vernicle iconography changed from iconic representations of Christ's face toward graphic imagery of Christ's suffering during his Passion. These passionate transformations, as I have called them, were affected by the Roman Sudarium relic, popular devotion to Christ's suffering and humanity during his Passion, and the Catholic ritual of Mass. This thesis will consider how the function of vernicle images during Mass was reflected in their iconography throughout Europe between 1250 and 1500.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Hoffman, J. Starr

Past tense marking in Chinese-English interlanguage.

Description: This data study concentrates on the past tense marking in the interlanguage (IL) of Chinese speakers of English. Following the assumptions of Hawkins & Lizska, (2003), it is assumed that unlike native speakers of English, Chinese speakers of English have a higher level of optionality within the past tense marking of their grammars. It is claimed that the primary reason for this occurrence is the lack of the functional feature T(ense) [+/-past] in Mandarin Chinese. If a particular functional feature is missing in a learner's L1 grammar, it is thought that it will be absent in one's L2 grammar as well. Three advanced Chinese speakers of English were tested on the past tense marking in their IL production. Both spontaneous oral and reading speech were used for this data analysis.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Flahive, Patrick J.

Peptide-based hidden Markov model for peptide fingerprint mapping.

Description: Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) was the first automated method for protein identification in proteomics, and it remains in common usage today because of its simplicity and the low equipment costs for generating fingerprints. However, one of the problems with PMF is its limited specificity and sensitivity in protein identification. Here I present a method that shows potential to significantly enhance the accuracy of peptide mass fingerprinting, using a machine learning approach based on a hidden Markov model (HMM). This method is applied to improve differentiation of real protein matches from those that occur by chance. The system was trained using 300 examples of combined real and false-positive protein identification results, and 10-fold cross-validation applied to assess model discrimination. The model can achieve 93% accuracy in distinguishing correct and real protein identification results versus false-positive matches. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area for the best model was 0.833.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Yang, Dongmei

Perceptions of parents of students with autism towards the IEP meeting.

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate how parents of students with autism perceived individualized education program (IEP) meetings. I determined factors that contributed to the belief held by parents that their children were or were not being properly served by IEP meetings. Parental relationships with educators, IEP meeting experiences, IEP outcomes, and treatment by educators were revealed through participant input. Parents were asked to share their experiences of previous IEP meetings. Additionally, parents provided input regarding practices that school districts could take to improve IEP meetings, and actions that parents could take to serve as better advocates for their children. Research findings indicated that parents did not perceive themselves as being treated as equals during IEP meetings. Parents believed that their input was not valued or welcomed by educators. Not having an equal voice toward their child's education prevented parents from positively influencing outcomes in their child's IEP meetings in terms of obtaining quality services and building positive relations with educators. Parents further revealed that educators failed to implement proper IEP protocol. According to parents, student objectives agreed upon in IEP meetings were often not always fully implemented for students receiving special education services. Research findings concluded that parents new to the IEP process often experienced difficulty understanding special education law, and were unaware of services that school districts should provide for their children.Suggestions for improving IEP meetings include: educators valuing parents as equal partners during IEP meetings, educators properly adhering to IEP objectives set forth in IEP meetings, and both educators and parents taking measures to becoming more knowledgeable of special education law and the IEP process.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Fish, Wade W.

The Perceptions of Psychotherapists-in-Training regarding People who Stutter versus Normally Fluent Speakers

Description: It has been shown repeatedly that many people hold personality stereotypes of stutterers. The attitudes of psychotherapists regarding stutterers have never been investigated. The present investigation assessed the degree to which psychotherapists-in-training hold stereotypes of stutterers as compared to normally fluent speakers. Two groups viewed a videotaped vignette of a male. In one, the male interviewee displayed stuttering behaviors. In the other, the same male spoke fluently. Participants then rated the male interviewee on several personality dimensions. Contrary to previous findings, the group viewing the stuttering interviewee rated him no differently than did the group viewing the fluent interviewee. Greater knowledge of stuttering was associated with more positive ratings of the person who stuttered. The clinical and research implications of these findings are then discussed.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Tomczyk, Daniel A.

Placement in the prekindergarten bilingual and English as a second language programs as a predictor of reading achievement of 3rd grade students.

Description: At the beginning of the 21st century, few challenges for educators compared to that of meeting the academic needs of the growing number of limited English proficient (LEP) students. Divergent views on whether those needs were best met through instruction in the student's first language and English, known as bilingual education, or instruction solely in English, compounded the challenge and led to varied language support programs. The present study looked at the prekindergarten (preK) language support program as a predictor of 3rd grade reading achievement of students with the intention of helping educators understand how best to serve LEP students. The study included an analysis of 3rd grade reading achievement for four groups of students with a primary home language of Spanish who attended bilingual or ESL prekindergarten. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) was used to analyze scores from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) reading test and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) reading test. No statistically significant difference in 3rd grade reading achievement was found among the four groups at the .05 level. There was, however, a small-to-medium effect size. The MANOVA indicated that the group to which the students belonged accounted for 5.5% of the variance in their scores. The DDA revealed the ITBS explained most of the difference in the group performance. The findings suggest that ESL instruction is a viable option to bilingual instruction for LEP preK students.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Vannoy, Martha

Police Officer Burnout: An Examination of Officer Stress, the Policing Subculture and the Advantages of Family Counseling

Description: The work of a police officer is stressful and could potentially lead to burnout. As a result, a variety of reactions may occur which include, cynicism, abuse of authority, and in extreme cases suicide. One method which has been proven to be effective in treating officer stress is counseling; however, because of the policing subculture the opportunity to seek counseling has been ignored. In order to successfully manage officer stress, the subculture must be dealt with. Additionally, the officers' family must also be acknowledged as being affected by officer burnout. Counseling services must be made available to the officer's family and through training they can become a source of support instead of an added source of stress to the officer.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Yanez, Luiz

Purification and Characterization of Proteolytic Aspartate Transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Burkholderia cepacia 25416 and Construction of a pyrB1 Knock-out Mutant

Description: Burkholderia cepacia is a common soil bacterium of significance in agriculture and bioremediation. B. cepacia is also an opportunistic pathogen of humans causing highly communicable pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromized patients. The pyrB gene encoding ATCase was cloned and ATCase was purified by the glutathione S-transferase gene fusion system. The ATCase in B. cepacia has been previously classified as a class A enzyme by Bethell and Jones. ATCase activity gels showed that B. cepacia contained a holoenzyme pyrBC complex of 550 kDa comprised of 47 kDa pyrB and 45 kDa pyrC subunits. In the course of purifying the enzyme, trimeric subunits of 140 kDa and 120 kDa were observed as well as a unique proteolysis of the enzyme. The 47 kDa ATCase subunits were cleaved to 40 kDa proteins, which still demonstrated high activity as trimers. The proteolysis site is between Ser74 and Val75 residues. To confirm this, we converted the Ser74 residue to an Ala and to an Arg by site-directed mutagenesis. After this primary sequence changed, the proteolysis of ATCase was not observed. To further investigate the characteristics of B. cepacia pyrB gene, a pyrB knock-out (pyrB-) was constructed by in vitro mutagenesis. In the assay, the 550 kDa holoenzyme and 140 kDa and 120 kDa trimers disappeared and were replaced with a previously unseen 480 kDa holoenzyme pyrB- strain. The results suggest that B. cepacia has two genes that encode ATCase. ATC1 is constitutive and ATC2 is expressed only in the absence of ATC1 activity. To check for the virulence of these two strains, a eukaryotic model virulence test was performed using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The pyrB1+pyrB2+ (wild type) B cepacia killed the nematode but pyrB1-pyrB2+ B. cepacia had lost its virulence against C. elegans. This suggests that ATC1 (pyrB1) is involved in virulence ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Kim, Seongcheol

The Reading Together™ cross-age tutoring program and its effects on the English language proficiency and reading achievement of English language learners.

Description: This dissertation provides research and data based on a study of cross-age tutoring and its effects on English language proficiency and English reading achievement of English language learners. The subjects for the study included native Spanish-speakers enrolled in third-grade bilingual classrooms in four elementary schools. The research study focused on the implementation of Reading Together™, a cross-age tutoring program published by The Learning Together Company. The 30-session tutoring program is designed to help English-speaking students progress from decoding words to reading with fluency and comprehension through older students tutoring younger students in a one-to-one setting. This highly structured program is used to provide supplemental instruction to second and/or third-grade students. This study utilized a quantitative approach to compare the results of English language learners who participated in the Reading Together cross-age tutoring program and English language learners who did not participate in the program. A quasi-experimental design was used in the research study. In this design, the treatment group and the control group were selected using specific criteria. Both groups took a pretest and posttest, but only the treatment group received the intervention. The study also determined if there was a relationship between initial language levels and reading gains. The study concluded the following: 1. Cross-age tutoring might possibly be an effective instructional strategy to assist English language learners in improving their oral language proficiency in English. 2. Even though third-grade participants in the cross-age tutoring program did not demonstrate significantly different reading levels from students not participating in the program, cross-age tutoring may still be an instructional strategy to be used with English language learners to assist them in second language reading. 3. Students' initial English oral language proficiency level does correlate to the students' English reading level.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Jennings, Cheryl

Reconsidering the Lament: Form, Content, and Genre in Italian Chamber Recitative Laments: 1600-1640

Description: Scholars have considered Italian chamber recitative laments only a transitional phenomenon between madrigal laments and laments organized on the descending tetrachord bass. However, the recitative lament is distinguished from them by its characteristic attitude toward the relationship between music and text. Composer of Italian chamber recitative laments attempted to express more subtle, refined and sometimes complicated emotion in their music. For that purpose, they intentionally created discrepancies between text and music. Sometimes they even destroy the original structure of text in order to clearly deliver the composer's own voice. The basic syntactic structure is deconstructed and reconstructed along with their reading and according to their intention. The discrepancy between text and music is, however, expectable and natural phenomena since text cannot be completely translated or transformed to music and vice versa. The composers of Italian chamber recitative laments utilized their innate heterogeneity between two materials (music and text) as a metaphor that represents the semantic essence of the genre, the conflict. In this context, Italian chamber recitative laments were a real embodiment of the so-called seconda prattica and through the study of them, finally, we more fully able to understand how the spirit of late Renaissance flourished in Italy in the first four decade of the seventeenth century.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Chung, Kyung-Young

Reconstructing Convention: Ensemble Forms in the Operas of Jules Massenet

Description: Over the last quarter-century, scholars have taken a unified approach in discussing form in Italian and French opera of the nineteenth century. This approach centers around the four-part aria and duet form begun by Bellini, codified by Rossini, modified by Verdi, and dissolved by Puccini. A similar trajectory can be seen in French opera in the works of Meyerbeer, Gounod, and Massenet; however, only Meyerbeer and Gounod have received significant critical attention. This is in part due to Massenet's reception as a "composer for the people," a title ill fitting and ripe for reconsideration. This dissertation will examine duet forms in Massenet's oeuvre and will focus on the gradual change in style manifest in his twenty-five operas. Massenet's output can be divided into three distinct periods delineated by his approach to form. Representative works from each period will show how he inherited, interpreted, thwarted, and ultimately rewrote the standard formal conventions of his time and in doing so, created a dramaturgical approach to opera that unified the formerly separate number-based elements. Massenet's longevity and popular appeal make him the quintessential French opera composer of the fin de siècle and the natural choice for examining reconstructed conventions.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Straughn, Gregory