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Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool and Primary Self-concept Screening Test and the Child Behavior Checklist. Mothers who received Intensive Filial Therapy training conducted pretest and posttest play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analyses of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly increased in self-concept, and significantly reduced overall behavior problems. A comparison of t-test scores of the pretests and posttests revealed mothers in the experimental group significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Smith, Nancy Renfer

Comparison of 2-Year and 4-Year Telecommunications Technicians' Training Programs Against the Industry Standards

Description: The study focused on the academic programs offered for telecommunications technicians provided by 16 two-year and four-year higher education institutions and the ways in which the programs compared to the established telecommunications technicians' skill standards. Six specific research questions concerned the training programs for telecommunications technicians. The first verified the validity of the information in Peterson's 2000: 2 Year Colleges and Peterson's 2000: 4 Year Colleges identifying the institutions offering a communication equipment technology major. The second question focused on the institutions that included telecommunications as part of the curriculum. The third identified the importance of the skill standards to the 2-year and 4-year training programs, and the fourth identified the job functions that were included in or excluded from the training. The fifth question identified the job tasks that were included in or excluded from the training. The final question determined whether the 2-year or the 4-year telecommunications technicians' training program was more closely aligned with the skill standards. In order to accomplish the objectives of this research, a survey methodology was selected. The survey instrument was developed to compare the importance of the telecommunications technicians' skill standards to the 2-year and the 4-year training programs. The skill standards identified in the 1997 collaborative effort facilitated by the South King County Tech Prep Consortium (SKCTPC) was used as the basis for the survey instrument and reference tool. The reference tool provided additional information regarding SCANS skills and personal qualities that were identified in the skill standards for the telecommunications network technician. The survey included five job functions and 16 tasks. The evolution the telecommunications industry has created a demand for a highly skilled, flexible workforce. Higher education institutions have an opportunity to make a contribution to telecommunications industry by expanding existing training programs or initiating telecommunications technicians' training programs. ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Houdashell-Riegel, Karen Marie

A Comparison of the Leadership Styles Of Occupational Therapy Education Program Directors and Clinic Administrators

Description: Are there differences in leadership styles among occupational therapy clinic administrators and program directors in professional and technical education programs? This study investigated transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and effectiveness as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5x-Short behaviors and demographic characteristics of leaders and their organizations using a questionnaire designed by the researcher. MLQ Leader Forms were received from 50 clinic administrators randomly selected from the membership list of the Administration and Management Special Interest Section (AMSIS) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), 56 professional program directors, and 41 technical program directors from accredited occupational therapy education programs in the United States, for a total of 147 leader respondents. Rater forms were received from 2 to 5 occupational therapy staff or faculty per leader and average scores calculated. More than 86% of leader respondents were female and white. Major findings indicate that administrative positions indifferent institutional contexts relate to leadership behaviors and effectiveness. Technical education program directors and clinic administrators scored higher on transformational behaviors and effectiveness than professional education program directors. Consistent with other research on leadership, the self-ratings of leaders were higher than ratings of subordinates. The data indicated statistically significant positive correlations between transformational leadership behaviors and perceived effectiveness, a frequent finding in the literature. With the exception of Contingent Reward (CR), all transactional behaviors had a negative correlation with effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between transformational behaviors and leader’s gender or ethnicity, but males scored higher than females on the transactional behavior Management by Exception-Passive (MEP) and Laissez-Faire (LF). Some transformational behaviors were related to the leader’s age and years of experience in academia, but relationships were not linear. Highest level of education was related to leadership effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between leadership behaviors and demographic characteristics of the ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Reiss, Rhona G.

Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population

Description: The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is a relatively new instrument used in the assessment of memory in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the WRAML by comparing the performance of children on both the WRAML and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJTCA-R). Subjects for the study were children in treatment for a brain tumor at a regional children's medical center. Fifty children participated in the study ranging from ages 6 to 17. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which of four selected clusters from the WJTCA-R would have the highest correlation with the Verbal Memory Index (VERI) from the WRAML. The Short-Term Memory (GSM) cluster had the highest correlation ( r = .82) as predicted. A Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was conducted between the Visual Processing (GV) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Visual Memory Index (VISI) from the WRAML. GV was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .63) with VISI. A similar analysis was conducted between the Long-Term Retrieval (GLR) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Learning Index (LRNI) from the WRAML. GLR was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .81) with LRNI. Finally, a correlational analysis was conducted between the Broad Cognitive Ability (BCA) scale from the WJTCA-R and the General Memory Index (GENI) from the WRAML. A high positive correlation ( r = .87) was found between these most global measures from the two batteries. The observed correlation between BCA and GENI was much higher than anticipated. The author concluded that neurological impairment had affected subject memory and intellectual functioning in similar ways. The results do not generalize to children who have not had similar decrements in cognitive functioning. Future research should establish a baseline ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Rochelle, Gary B.

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of WRAML Scores in a Group of Academically Talented Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to confirm the original factor structure of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) utilizing a non-clinical adolescent population. Additional analysis examined the relationship between SAT-M scores and spatial relations ability. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine ethnic and gender differences on the WRAML and subtests from the DAT. Sixty-four academically talented adolescents completed the WRAML and the mechanical reasoning and spatial relations subtests from the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). The confirmatory factor analysis found the data obtained to not be a good fit for the factor structure of the WRAML (Sheslow & Adams, 1990). Additional confirmatory analyses were conducted which examined data fit of a three factor model found by reanalyzing the standardization data (Burton et al., 1996; Wasserman & Cambias, 1991) as well as two null models. The data failed to fit any of these three models. No support was found for the second hypothesis that predicted a positive relationship between SAT-M scores and spatial relations ability. Ethnic and gender differences on the WRAML and two DAT subtests were examined and discussed. Limitations of this study were reviewed which may have accounted for the overall lack of results.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Johnson, Patricia R.

Dark Houses: Navigating Space and Negotiating Silence in the Novels of Faulkner, Warren and Morrison

Description: Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher," as early as 1839, reveals an uneasiness about the space of the house. Most literary scholars accept that this anxiety exists and causes some tension, since it seems antithetical to another dominant motif, that of the power of place and the home as sanctuary. My critical persona, like Poe's narrator in "The House of Usher," looks into a dark, silent tarn and shudders to see in it not only the reflection of the House of Usher, but perhaps the whole of what is "Southern" in Southern Literature. Many characters who inhabit the worlds of Southern stories also inhabit houses that, like the House of Usher, are built on the faulty foundation of an ideological system that divides the world into inside(r)/outside(r) and along numerous other binary lines. The task of constructing the self in spaces that house such ideologies poses a challenge to the characters in the works under consideration in this study, and their success in doing so is dependant on their ability to speak authentically in the language of silence and to dwell instead of to just inhabit interior spaces. In my reading of Faulkner and Warren, this ideology of division is clearly to be at fault in the collapse of houses, just as it is seen to be in the House of Usher. This emphasis is especially conspicuous in several works, beginning with Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! and its (pre)text, "Evangeline." Warren carries the motif forward in his late novels, Flood and Meet Me in the Green Glen. I examine these works relative to spatial analysis and an aesthetic of absence, including an interpretation of silence as a mode of authentic saying. I then discuss these motifs as they are operating in Toni Morrison's Beloved, and finally take Song of ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Berger, Aimee E.

Differentiation of Central Auditory Processing Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) can be distinguished from one another on the basis of both objective and subjective assessment of attention and behavior. First, children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, CAPD, and concomitant ADHD/CAPD were compared to participants with emotional problems on measures of attention/concentration, depression, anxiety, and parental reports of internalzing and externalizing behaviors. Overall, statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences between performances of children diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed with CAPD. However, clinical comparisons across groups of children diagnosed with ADHD, CAPD, comorbid ADHD/CAPD and Affective Disorders revealed condition-specific clinical profiles, thus providing some support for CAPD as a distinct clinical entity. Second, exploratory cluster analysis was performed to further investigate the relationship between ADHD and CAPD. This procedure lead to the identification of four distinct clusters. However, analyses of these clusters revealed no distinct pattern of performance for children diagnosed with either ADHD or CAPD. Rather, participants with these diagnoses were evenly distributed throughout the clusters. Additionally, no cluster clearly represented the expected clinical profile for a diagnosis of CAPD- namely, significant auditory attentional/processing problems in the absence of other attentional difficulties. Implications for the assessment and treatment of childhood attentional disorders are discussed and recommendations for future research provided.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Austin, Laura J.

Diphosphine Ligand Activation Studies with Organotransition-Metal Compounds

Description: Thermolysis of CoRu(CO)7(m -PPh2) (1) in refluxing 1,2-dichloroethane in the presence of the diphosphine ligands 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic anhydride (bma) and 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (bpcd) furnishes the new mixed-metal complexes CoRu(CO)4(μ -P-P)(μ -PPh2) [where P-P = bma (3); bpcd (6)], along with trace amounts of the known complex CoRu(CO)6(PPh3)(μ -PPh2) (4). The requisite pentacarbonyl intermediates CoRu(CO)5(μ -P-P)(μ -PPh2) [where P-P = bma (2); bpcd (5)] have been prepared by separate routes and studied for their conversion to CoRu(CO)4(μ -P-P)(μ -PPh2). The complexes 2/3 and 5/6 have been isolated and fully characterized in solution by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The kinetics for the conversion of 2→3 and of 5→6 were measured by IR spectroscopy in chlorobenzene solvent. On the basis of the first-order rate constants, CO inhibition, and the activation parameters, a mechanism involving dissociative CO loss as the rate-limiting step is proposed. The solid-state structure of CoRu(CO)4(μ -bma)(μ -PPh2) (3) reveals that the two PPh2 groups are bound to the ruthenium center while the maleic anhydride π bond is coordinated to the cobalt atom. Thermolysis of the cluster Ru3(CO)12 with the bis(phosphine)hydrazine ligand (MeO)2PN(Me)N(Me)P(OMe)2 (dmpdmh) in toluene at 75°C furnishes the known clusters Ru4(CO)12[μ -N(Me)N(Me)] (9) and Ru3(CO)11[P(OMe)3] (10), in addition to the new cluster Ru3(CO)10(dmpdmh) (8) and the phosphite-tethered cluster Ru3(CO)9[μ -P(OMe)3] (11). The simple substitution product Ru3(CO)10(dmpdmh), a logical intermediate to clusters 9-11, was synthesized by treating Ru3(CO)12 and dmpdmh with Me3NO in CH2Cl2 at room temperature, and independent thermolysis reactions using cluster 8 were shown to yield clusters 9-11. The tetrahedrane cluster FeCo2(CO)9(μ3-S) reacts with the redox-active ligand 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-4-cyclopenten-1,3-dione (bpcd) to give the disubstituted cluster FeCo2(CO)7(bpcd)(μ3-S) as the sole product. This diphosphine-substituted cluster contains a cobalt-bound, chelating bpcd ligand. The solid-state structure has been unequivocally established by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cyclic voltammetric studies on FeCo2(CO)7(bpcd)(μ3-S) reveal the presence of two quasireversible ...
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Date: December 2000
Creator: Wang, Jiancheng

Dynamic Grid-Based Data Distribution Management in Large Scale Distributed Simulations

Description: Distributed simulation is an enabling concept to support the networked interaction of models and real world elements that are geographically distributed. This technology has brought a new set of challenging problems to solve, such as Data Distribution Management (DDM). The aim of DDM is to limit and control the volume of the data exchanged during a distributed simulation, and reduce the processing requirements of the simulation hosts by relaying events and state information only to those applications that require them. In this thesis, we propose a new DDM scheme, which we refer to as dynamic grid-based DDM. A lightweight UNT-RTI has been developed and implemented to investigate the performance of our DDM scheme. Our results clearly indicate that our scheme is scalable and it significantly reduces both the number of multicast groups used, and the message overhead, when compared to previous grid-based allocation schemes using large-scale and real-world scenarios.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Roy, Amber Joyce

Economic Development, Social Dislocation and Political Turmoil in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis and a Test of Causality

Description: This study focuses on economic development and political turmoil in post-independence Sub-Saharan Africa. There has been a resurgence of interest in the region following the end of the Cold War. In 1997 U.S. president Bill Clinton took a 12-day tour of the region. In 1999 the U.S. Congress (106th Congress) passed the Growth and Opportunity Act and the Hope for Africa Act, designed to encourage political stability and economic development in the region. Although most Sub-Saharan African countries attained independence from colonial rule in the 1960s, more than 30 years of self-government have brought little economic development and political stability to the region. This study attempts to analyze, theoretically and empirically, the relationship among economic development, social dislocation and political turmoil. Social dislocation, as defined in this study, means "urbanization," and it is used as an exogenous variable to model and test the hypothesized causal relationship between economic development and political turmoil. This study employs pooled cross-sectional time-series and seemingly unrelated regression analyses, as well as Granger-causality, to examine the hypothesized relationships and causality in 24 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1971 to 1995. The results confirm the classical economic development theory's argument that an increase in economic development leads to a decrease in political turmoil. The result of the pooled analysis is confirmed by a SUR analysis on the strength of the relationship at the individual country level in 21 of the 24 countries. However, an indirect positive relationship exist between economic development and political turmoil through social dislocation. At lag periods 1 and 2, I found a causal ordering leading from economic development to political turmoil, indicating a causal relationship from economic development to social dislocation and from social dislocation to political turmoil.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Obi, Zion Ikechukwu

The Effect of Attachment on Preschooler's Emotion Understanding

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between attachment and emotion understanding in preschoolers. Data was collected from 16 preschool children and their mothers recruited from a private learning center in a downtown metropolitan area. Attachment was measured by use of the Attachment Q-sort, 3.0 (Waters, 1995), while emotion understanding was assessed through use of Denham's (1986) affective perspective-taking task and interviews of children concerning naturally occurring emotions and emotion causes (Fabes et al., 1991). Results included a significant correlation (p < .05) between secure attachment and preschooler's ability to decipher the cause of another's emotion; however, a significant correlation was not found between secure attachment and preschooler's perspective-taking ability or ability to name other's emotions. Thus, conclusions about the impact of attachment upon emotion understanding were mixed, and more research on the subject was implicated.
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Date: December 2000
Creator: Hernandez, Jennie R.

Effect of Engineered Surfaces on Valve Performance

Description: Performance of air operated valves is a major maintenance concern in process industries. Anecdotal information indicates that reliability of some high maintenance valves has been improved by using an ion deposition process to achieve engineered surfaces on selected components. This project compared friction for various surface treatments of selected valve components. Results indicate valve performance may be slightly more consistent when an engineered surface is applied in the valve packing area; however surface treatment in this area does not appear to have a dominant affect on reducing valve friction. Results indicate a linear relation between stem friction and torque applied to packing flange nuts, and even after a valve is in service, controlled packing adjustments can be made without significantly changing valve stroke time.
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Date: December 2000
Creator: Pope, Larry G.

The Effect of Leadership Training on Manufacturing Productivity of Informal Leaders

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if leadership training, given to informal leaders, had a positive effect on manufacturing productivity. The leadership attributes of informal leaders were assessed using the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI). Furthermore, the performance of informal leaders was measured using the Leader Effectiveness Index (LEI). Non-management employees from various departments in a manufacturing facility were placed in one of four experimental groups. A Solomon four-group experimental design was employed. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to control threats to internal validity. The one-way analysis of variance procedure (ANOVA) was used to determine if there were statistically significant increases in manufacturing productivity of informal leaders. Findings suggested that training increased the manufacturing productivity of informal leaders. The increased productivity indicated that leadership training could help manufacturing facilities increase their productivity without capital expenditures. Findings did not indicate a statistically significant difference in leadership attributes. Findings also suggested there were no significant differences in the manufacturing productivity between employees with high leader attributes and low leader attributes. Based on this study, leadership training, given to non-management employees, may yield gains in manufacturing productivity.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Knox, Donald W.

The Effects of a Play Therapy Intervention Conducted by Trained High School Students on the Behavior of Maladjusted Young Children: Implications for School Counselors

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of a child-centered play therapy intervention conducted by trained high school students on the behavior of preschool and kindergarten children with adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this research determined if play sessions conducted by high school students trained in child-centered play therapy skills and procedures facilitated change in the children's behaviors. The experimental group children (N=14) each received 20 weekly individual play sessions from a high school student enrolled in a Peer Assistance and Leadership class. The high school students were randomly paired with a referred child. The high school students completed 7 one-hour training sessions in child-centered play therapy procedures and skills prior to beginning the weekly, supervised play sessions. The control group (N=12) received no treatment during the study. Pre and post data were collected from parents who completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and teachers who completed the Early Childhood Behavior Scale (ECBS). Multivariate analyses of variance of gained scored revealed statistical significance in 2 of the 4 hypotheses. Specifically, the children in the experimental group showed significant decreases in internalizing behaviors (p = .025) and total behaviors (p = .025) on the CBCL. Although not in the statistically significant range, positive trends were noted in externalizing behaviors on the CBCL (p = .07) and total behaviors on the ECBS (p = .056). All play sessions were conducted in the primary school that the children attended. The high school student facilitated play sessions helped to maximize the school counselor's time by meeting the needs of more students. Implications for school counselors are noted with suggestions for how to begin and maintain a similar program in schools. This study supports the use of child-centered play therapy by trained high school students as an effective intervention for helping young children with a variety of adjustment ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Rhine, Tammy J.

Effects of a Surface Engineered Metallic Coating on Elastomeric Valve Stem Seal Leakage

Description: Valve stem seal leakage is a major source of fugitive emissions, and controlling these emissions can result in added expense in leak detection and repair programs. Elastomeric O-rings can be used as valve stem seals, and O-ring manufacturers recommend lubrication of elastomeric seals to prevent damage and to assure proper sealing. In this research, a metallic coating was applied as a lubricant using a vacuum vapor deposition process to the surface of elastomeric valve stem seals. Valve stem leak measurements were taken to determine if the coated O-rings, alone or with the recommended lubrication, reduced valve stem seal leakage. This research determined that the metallic coating did not reduce valve stem leakage.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Taylor, John Abner

The Effects of a Therapeutic Play Intervention on Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement, Self-Concept, and Behavior

Description: This study employed a pretest/posttest control group design to investigate the achievement of second grade Hispanic students from a predominantly low socio-economic school in a large metropolitan city. The thirty Hispanic students with the lowest scores on the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n =15) or the control group (n=15). The treatment consisted of 16, 30-minute sessions of play intervention--2 times per week for 8 weeks. The providers of play therapy were school personnel trained in the principles of child-centered play therapy including tracking, reflecting feelings, and setting limits. Instruments were administered to all subjects prior to the 8 week treatment period and in the two-week period following treatment and included the GMRT, the Joseph Pre-School Primary Self-Concept Test (JPPSCST) and the Child Behavior Checklist Teacher Report Form (CBCTRF). Statistical analyses included a (t-test; 2 tail; p > .05), discriminant analysis, and cross validation. The results indicated that children who received play therapy did not achieve notably higher mean scores in reading. However, play therapy did improve the experimental group's self-concept scores and their internal behavior scores, though not significantly. All differences between the experimental and the control groups were within 1 point except the JPPSCST self-concept mean scores were 1.53 in favor of the experimental group. The CBCTRF Internal behavior mean scores were 1.20 in favor of the experimental group indicating a positive trend. The CBCTRF External behavior scores were 2.74 in favor of the control group. None of the differences was statistically significant and the 4 null hypotheses were accepted. The sample size (N =30) suggests the need to exercise caution in interpreting these findings.Further research utilizing a longer time period between pretesting and posttesting is recommended and may provide more definite information regarding the impact of play therapy on children's reading, ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Lopez, Helen Trevino

The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

Description: This experiment attempted to study the effectiveness of biofeedback training on an individual's peak performance while performing a stress-provoking task. In a between subjects design 30 individual college students were divided into 2 groups. One group received auditory biofeedback and relaxation training, and the other group received no training. Both groups met the researcher for 1 hour a week for seven weeks. During each session the participant completed a ten-minute Competition and Coaction (C & C) computer software program (Shea, 1992). The biofeedback equipment recorded the physiological state of each of the participants while he/she performed the C & C task. Both groups' physiological values and C & C scores were compared using the SPSS software. The biofeedback group had statistically lower stress values than the non-biofeedback group (Schwartz, 1995). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups' C & C scores. The STAI Y-1 and Y-2 anxiety inventories were given to each of the participants at the 1st and 7th session to examine the anxiety differences between the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups' STAI scores. This study's findings show that individuals can be taught to lower their stress response while performing a computer task.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Bruce, Kurt

The Effects of Electrochemical Therapy on Colon-25 Tumors in Balb-C Mice

Description: The purpose of the research was to treat immunodeficient mice, implanted with colon-25 tumors, with continuous and interrupted electrochemical therapy (ECT). ECT involves the placement of two electrodes, an anode near the center of the tumor and a cathode into the tumor periphery. A constant voltage is applied across the electrodes for a given period of time. The data showed that the interrupted and continuous ECT resulted in a decrease in mean tumor growth as compared to that of the sham controls. The histology of both ECT groups showed an increase presence of large vacuoles, randomly distributed tumor cells as well as the presence of "crevicing" in the medullary tissue. The differential leukocyte counts showed a distinct neutrophilia and lymphopenia in all groups at day 20 post tumor implantation. The results from the experimental groups appeared to support the findings of previous investigators.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Gillen, Aric

The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

Description: To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Burger, Tammie L.

The Effects of Media Exposure on Body Satisfaction, Beliefs About Attractiveness, Mood and Bulimic Symptomatology Among College Women

Description: The research of Stice et al. (1994) and Stice and Shaw (1994) proposed several mechanisms that may mediate the adverse effects of media exposure to the thin ideal including internalization of the thin-ideal, negative affect, and body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study was to extend initial research of Stice and Shaw (1994) by incorporating two forms of media (e.g., TV and Magazines) to assess the effects of exposure to the media portrayal of ideal body shape on women's mood, body satisfaction, and internalization of societal values concerning attractiveness. The relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. The current study improved upon Stice and Shaw's study (1994) by matching participants' scores on BMI, level of negative affect, and level of body satisfaction before random assignment to the experimental conditions. Female undergraduates aged 18 to 25 years participated in premeasure (N = 198) and post measure (N = 164) conditions. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated media exposure to ideal-body images demonstrated no significant changes in women's affect, body satisfaction or endorsement of the thin ideal. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses that demonstrated lower levels of satisfaction with size and shape of body and higher levels of negative affect predicted bulimic symptomatology in women. Future research should determine which females are at greater risk than others for the development of body dissatisfaction, negative mood, and internalization of U.S. values of attractiveness in response to media related messages communicating a thin ideal.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Varnado, Jessica Lea

Effects of Reinforcement History on Stimulus Control Relations

Description: Ray (1969) conducted an experiment on multiple stimulus-response relations and selective attention. Ray's (1969) results suggested that stimulus-response relations function as behavioral units. McIlvane and Dube (1996) indicated that if stimulus-response relations are behavioral units the effects of environmental variables on stimulus-response relations should be similar to the effects of environmental variables on single response topographies. This experiment analyzed the effects of reinforcement history on the probability of stimulus-response relations with differing reinforcement histories. In separate conditions random-ratio schedules of reinforcement were contingent on each of four discriminated responses. To assess the effects of reinforcement, during test conditions stimuli controlling different topographies were present concurrently in composite form. Results show that reinforcement history affects the probability of each response topography and that the association between response topographies and their controlling stimuli tends to remain constant throughout variations in reinforcement probability.
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Date: December 2000
Creator: Reyes, Fredy

Effects of Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reward on Fluid Adherence among Adult Hemodialysis Patients

Description: The effects of a monetary reward and self-monitoring on reducing interdialytic weight gain (IWG) were compared for 6 hemodialysis patients in an outpatient setting. A single-subject experimental design (A-B-BC-B-BC) was used to examine each variable individually and in combination, with alternating phases to control for possible sequencing effects. Monetary reward (50 cents - $3) was administered in a titrated manner according to standardized criteria, ranging from 3 % and 4% of patients' dry weight on weekdays and weekends, respectively, to 3.5% and 4.5% for weekdays and weekends. Self-monitoring involved recording daily fluid and diet intake. Results indicated that by the end of the treatment program, the 6 participants averaged a 14% reduction in weekday IWG and a 15.45% reduction in weekend IWG; however, due to significant variability, it cannot be concluded that the reductions are treatment effects. Four out of 6 participants reduced their average IWG for both weekends and weekdays by .75 kg (1.65 lb.). The average weekend reduction for these 4 participants was .85 kg (1.87 lbs.) while the average weekday reduction was .65 kg (1.43 lb.). All 6 participants showed reductions in weekday IWG that averaged .53 kg (1.17 lb.). However, only 2 participants demonstrated IWG reductions that could be attributable to either of the 2 treatment variables. The standardized dry weight criterion for assessing fluid adherence may have posed excessively stringent demands on participants, as only 1 of the 6 participants actually met the criterion. Future research should address the role of nonspecific treatment factors, as well as patient characteristics and responsivity to particular treatment components in an effort to identify those factors responsible for behavior change in this population.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Sonnier, Bridget L.

The Effects of the Density of Reinforcement on the Maladaptive Behaviors of a Child With Autism

Description: The present study consists of two experiments that analyze the effects of high and low densities of reinforcemnt on the maladaptive behaviors of a 9 year old girl with autism. The first experiment investigates the isolated effects of density of reinforcement on the frequency of maladaptive behaviors during a motor imitation teaching task. High densities of reinforcement produced fewer occurrences of maladaptive behavior than low densities of reinforcement. Experiment 2 analyzes the effects of density of reinforcement during the same teaching tasks as in experiment 1 on maladaptive behavior, task accuracy, prompt resistance, and language. Maladaptive behavior did not recur during experiment 2. High density of reinforcement conditions during the second experiment showed a positive effect on the accuracy of responding and compliance with prompts.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Motiejunas, Kristina M.

Epoxy + Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Coreacted Networks

Description: Molecular reinforcement through in-situ polymerization of liquid crystalline epoxies (LCEs) and a non-liquid crystalline epoxy has been investigated. Three LCEs: diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenol (DGE-DHBP) and digylcidyl ether of 4-hydroxyphenyl-4"-hydroxybiphenyl-4'-carboxylate (DGE-HHC), were synthesized and blended with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBP-F) and subsequently cured with anhydride and amine curing agents. Curing kinetics were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Parameters for autocatalytic curing kinetics of both pure monomers and blended systems were determined. The extent of cure for both monomers was monitored by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The glass transitions were evaluated as a function of composition using DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results show that the LC constituent affects the curing kinetics of the epoxy resin and that the systems are highly miscible. The effects of molecular reinforcement of DGEBP-F by DGE-DHBP and DGE-HHC were investigated. The concentration of the liquid crystalline moiety affects mechanical properties. Tensile, impact and fracture toughness tests results are evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces shows changes in failure mechanisms compared to the pure components. Results indicate that mechanical properties of the blended samples are improved already at low concentration by weight of the LCE added into epoxy resin. The improvement in mechanical properties was found to occur irrespective of the absence of liquid crystallinity in the blended networks. The mechanism of crack study indicates that crack deflection and crack bridging are the mechanisms in case of LC epoxy. In case of LC modified epoxy, the crack deflection is the main mechanism. Moreover, the effect of coreacting an epoxy with a reactive monomer liquid crystalline epoxy as a matrix for glass fiber composites was investigated. Mechanical properties of the modified matrix were determined by tensile, flexural and impact testing. The improvement in toughness of the bulk matrix ...
Date: December 2000
Creator: Punchaipetch, Prakaipetch