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The quality of the doctoral experience in education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

Description: This study describes the experiences of doctoral students in education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The study focused only on the 14 HBCUs that offer doctoral degrees in education. Twelve of the 14 eligible institutions agreed to participate in the study. A total of 47 doctoral students who were in their third year of study or close to completion participated in the study. These doctoral students completed a survey that was utilized in a national study of doctoral students at predominately white institutions and Ivy League institutions conducted by Golde and Dore in 2001. The purpose of this study was to determine if doctoral students in education at HBCUs are receiving a quality education and if they are being adequately prepared for their careers. This study offers 368 findings from which the doctoral experience in education at HBCUs can be comprehensively evaluated. It was determined that doctoral students in education at HBCUs do receive a quality education and are being effectively prepared for their careers.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Garrett, Rodney Ulysses

A Quantitative Study of Revenue and Expenditures at U.S. Community Colleges, 1980-2001

Description: This study provides a detailed description of revenue and expenditure patterns of the United States community college by state and by institutional type (rural-, suburban-serving, and urban-serving) for each five-year period from 1980-81 to 2000-01. The Katsinas, Lacey, and Hardy classification schema for community colleges is used to analyze data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS) and Higher Education General Information Surveys (HEGIS). Further analysis clusters states into the following groupings: states with/without substantial local funding, large "mega-states" versus all other states (employing the methodology developed by Grapevine at Illinois State University), and the structure of state coordination (as developed by Tollefson and others in their studies of state community college systems). The analysis showed wide differences in the various funding patterns for community colleges as related to revenue streams. As late as 1980-91, 16 states contributed 60% or more of the total budgets for their community colleges; by 2000-01, no state did so. By college type, rural-serving community colleges saw the greatest net negative change in their operating budget margins, from 3.2% to 0.4%, although it should be noted that every one of the community college types also experienced a significant decline in this margin. By type of governance, the statewide coordinating board type experienced the sharpest decrease in the percent of total revenue from state appropriations; revenue fell 18.6%. Yet this governance type, which includes California's community colleges, was the only one to benefit from a positive change in the net margin ratio over the 20-year period covered by this study. States with local funding saw a 2.9% increase in the percent of total revenues from tuition and fees, compared to the 5.9% increase in those states that did not have some form of local funding. State-by-state analyses are included in ...
Date: May 2006
Creator: Roessler, Billy Charles

Relationships between selected sociometric variables and academic performance for counselors in training.

Description: The purpose of this research was to examine what relationships existed between selected sociometric variables and measures of academic performance for students in a counselor training program. The sociometric variables included counseling ability, counseling knowledge, and friendship. Academic performance measures included subject GPAs, group counseling participation and final grades, prepracticum grades, and practicum grades. Data was collected from sociometric questionnaires and academic records from the years 1991 to 2004, for 840 subjects who participated in a group counseling class at the University of North Texas. Counseling knowledge had the highest correlations with all academic measures except group counseling final grades, in which counseling ability had the highest strength. The strongest correlations for all three sociometric variables occurred with group counseling final grades; correlations were r = 0.42 for counseling ability, r = 0.40 for counseling knowledge, and r = 0.30 for friendship. The sociometric variable of friendship had the lowest correlations in all academic measures, but was more significant than expected. The friendship sociometric variable may account for likeability as a factor in making sociometric choices. Combined sociometric scores led to increased correlation strength and explained variances that reached the large level of 30% with group counseling final grades. A statistically significant difference was found between A and B grade students in group counseling, on all three sociometric variables. Effect sizes were generally large. Standard deviations for the A and B grade subjects were also large and could limit predictability of grades, based on sociometric scores alone. Results strongly suggested that all three sociometric variables would be a valuable source of information regarding counselor preparation. Results also validated that individual sociometric perceptions of others tended toward agreement. Significant correlations were found over a variety of academic measures and over a time-span of 14 years, suggesting a degree of consistency and ...
Date: May 2006
Creator: Smith, Michael Robert

Sex-Typed Occupational Aspiration of College Students

Description: This study examines occupational aspiration and choice of traditional first-time college students utilizing longitudinal data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP). Focus is given to beliefs about the importance of family and money in relation to selection of an occupation that is classified as sex-typed. Change from one occupational category to another is also considered. The dissonance between students' beliefs about the importance of family and money as associated with their sex-typed occupational choice is explored. Understanding students' occupational plans that subsequently determine future prestige, wealth, and status is vital to higher educational professionals who facilitate students in their career selection and major. Therefore, environmental factors of satisfaction with career counseling and academic advising are examined. The U.S. Census Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) data is applied in the classification of sex-typed occupations. Race and ethnicity is investigated to determine if the same gender patterns exist among cultural groups with regards to their occupational selection. The results indicate that students' occupational aspirations were influenced by their belief regarding the importance of family or money. In addition, their beliefs regarding family and money changed after four years of college with family increasing in importance. Strong beliefs that were, either concordant or discordant with relation to students' gender and occupational choice predicted change after four years of college. Also, race and ethnicity showed some relation to sex-typed occupational aspirations of students. Being Hispanic predicted female sex-typed occupations, while being Asian predicted male sex-typed occupations. However, the results of this study may have been compromised by the extremely skewed representation of an elitist student sample. Thus, future research that includes a more diverse student sample (race/ethnicity, social class, and geographical location) was recommended for validation of this study's findings.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Hafer, Myra Wyatt

Wellness in student affairs: An exploration of the profession and its practitioners.

Description: This mixed design study surveyed members of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) to determine the baseline for wellness among student affairs administrators and within the profession. In addition to describing the wellness levels of the administrators and comparing them to the wellness of the general population, the study explored how wellness is represented within the student affairs profession, as reflected in the literature and practice. Student affairs administrators' wellness was assessed utilizing the Five Factor Wel Wellness Inventory (Myers & Sweeney, 2004). Collectively, the administrators posted "well" scores on the six factors utilized in the study and scored higher than the norms reported for the 5F-Wel general population. However, there was a broad range of actual scores across individuals indicating that not everyone can be considered to be maintaining a well-balanced lifestyle. The administrators' wellness was not affected by their length of time in the student affairs profession but was negatively associated with the number of hours they worked per week. The administrators possessed a holistic view of wellness and could articulate the behaviors and conditions associated with achieving, and failing to achieve, balance. However, reported engagement in certain wellness behaviors (e.g., physical activity and healthy eating) was not always reflected in the 5F-Wel scores. Additionally, the administrators noted a lack of focus on wellness issues in the student affairs literature, professional organizations, and most pointedly, in graduate preparation programs. The study creates a context for individual exploration of balance given the "norms" of the profession and instigates dialog focused on building healthy workplaces that facilitate positive role modeling experiences for students and staff. Recommendations for practitioners, graduate program faculty, and the profession aim to maximize personal wellness, create balanced professionals, and facilitate congruence between the student affairs profession's espoused values and wellness philosophy and the enculturation ...
Date: May 2006
Creator: Marling, Janet L. Trepka

A Comparison Study of the Experiences of Educators and Non-Educators in Promoting Reading and Reading Related Skills of their Own Preschool Children

Description: The rationale for this study was to evaluate the home literacy environments of educators and non-educators to investigate whether educators provide "richer" home environments than non-educator mothers. This research explores the mothers' perceptions of their children, views of reading, methods of promoting a positive reading environment, dealing with personal demands and emotions, and their expectations related to promoting reading. The participants in the study are 2 elementary school teachers with preschool children and 2 non-educator mothers with preschool children. Results indicated that being an educator is not an isolated characteristic of providing a rich home environment. The educational attainment of the mother was discovered to have greater influence on home literacy environment than the mother's profession. Higher educated mothers provided richer home environments than their less educated counterparts.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Fitzpatrick, Tamecca S.

Shoot the Messenger or Change the Message: What are African American Men Learning About Choosing College?

Description: This study identified and described the experiences of twelve African American men that influenced the choice to participate in postsecondary education. This qualitative study used a phenomenology framework to determine 1) the formation of predisposition in the college choice process, 2) the messages received about college from influential people, and 3) perception and interpretation of the importance of a college degree. The overall theme arising from the data is that the college choice process was complicated and inconsistent; however, ten of the twelve participants completed some type of postsecondary training. Deficient messages about postsecondary education manifested as low parental support for college attendance, low academic expectations, withholding of important information from school officials and little or no exposure to postsecondary institution campuses or students. Influential people for the participants ranged from parents to themselves, and from a combination of characteristics from different people, to peers, to no one. The informants did not consistently identify their role model as the one who influenced them to attend college. The perception of the value of a college degree varied among the participants. Some described the degree as a requirement for success; others felt that strengthening family and achieving financial independence was more important.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Gayden, Kizuwanda Balayo

Southwest Texas Junior College: Organizational transformation along the border.

Description: This study sought to identify components of the institutional transformation of Southwest Texas Junior College from its participation in the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) The RCCI was centered on increasing access to educational opportunities and regional economic development in four historically poor regions of the United States. It was felt that this two-pronged approach to increase access and economic development would ameliorate poverty and provide opportunity. The pilot colleges were chosen from Appalachia, Delta South, Northern Plains (Tribal colleges), and the Southwest. Southwest Texas Junior College in the southwest border region of Texas and Mexico was chosen in 1994 as one of nine pilot college participants in the Ford Foundation project. Documentation of the college's characteristics were conducted during the 1994 and 1995 preliminary visits by Stephen G. Katsinas at the request of the Ford Foundation to find suitable rural community colleges in historically distressed areas of the United States to be invited to participate in RCCI. Follow-up site visits were conducted by Christopher Thomas in 2002, 2004, and 2005. Data was collected during all site visits by open-ended questionnaires, interviews, content analysis of documents, and observation. Extended site visits and living in the college's residence halls increased the researcher's knowledge of the region, the college, its faculty, staff, and students. Results from the study indicated Southwest Texas Junior College has undergone substantial institutional transformation as a result of its participation in RCCI. The College increased access in all eleven counties to students in its state-assigned service delivery area through increased relationships with twenty-two area highs schools, the extensive expansion of curriculum and permanent facilities at its branch campuses in Eagle Pass, Del Rio, and Crystal City, increases in its adult basic education programs, increases in its technical training programs, and by increasing its workforce training programs. The college ...
Date: December 2005
Creator: Thomas, Christopher James

Trends in admission policy criteria for CACREP approved masters and doctoral counselor education programs.

Description: Counselor education program faculties evaluate applicants to masters and doctoral level programs using criteria that the faculties hope will predict the applicant's potential for academic success and then effectiveness as a counselor, counselor educator, or researcher. Choosing admission criteria to assess this level of potential in an applicant is quite a task. Those counselor education programs that are accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) have the benefit of the admission guidelines provided by CACREP standards for accreditation. These guidelines give only basic, general direction to programs regarding their admission criteria but each individual program determines their own criteria for admission. The purpose of this study was to discover any recognizable trends in admission policy criteria, in terms of specific criteria used to evaluate and select students from the applicant pool, for CACREP accredited masters and doctoral programs. This study also sought to discover any recognizable trends in admission policy criteria, in terms of a specific number of criteria used to evaluate and select students for CACREP accredited master and doctoral counselor education programs. This qualitative study investigated 178 masters level CACREP accredited counselor education programs and 45 doctoral CACREP accredited counselor education programs. The CACREP Website provided contact names and Web address for each program. Admission criteria were pulled from the program Websites. If no criteria were present on the Website, the program contact person was contacted by phone or by email. A contact form for the masters level programs, and another for the doctoral level programs, was developed to record program criteria. A rate or return of 96% for the masters level programs and 91% for the doctoral programs was achieved. For the purposes of this study, a trend was defined as 1) any measure being required by 50% or more of ...
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Date: December 2005
Creator: Midgett, Pam

Educationally At-risk College Students From Single-parent and Two-parent Households: an Analysis of Differences Employing Cooperative Institutional Research Program Data.

Description: Using factors of low income, parents' levels of education, and family composition as determinants of educationally at-risk status, study investigated differences between first generation, undergraduate college students from families in lowest quintile of income in the U.S, One group consisted of students from single-parent households and the other of students from two-parent households. Data were from CIRP 2003 College Student Survey (CSS) and its matched data from the Freshman Survey (Student Information Form - SIF). Differences examined included student inputs, involvements, outcomes, and collegiate environments. Included is portrait of low income, first generation college students who successfully navigated U.S. higher education. The number of cases dropped from 15,601 matched SIF/CSS cases to 308 cases of low income, first generation college students (175 from single-parent households and 133 from two-parent households). Most of the 308 attended private, 4-year colleges. Data yielded more similarities than differences between groups. Statistically significant differences (p < .05) existed in 9 of 100 variables including race/ ethnicity, whether or not English was first language, and concern for ability to finance education as freshman. Data were not generalizable to all low income, first generation college students because of lack of public, 4-year and 2-year colleges and universities in dataset. Graduating seniors' average expected debt in June 2003 was $23,824 for students from single-parent households and $19,867 for those from two-parent households. 32% from single-parent households and 22% from two-parent households expected more than $25,000 of debt. Variables used on SIF proved effective tools to develop derived variables to identify low income, first generation college students from single-parent and two-parent households within CIRP database. Methodology to develop derived variables is explained.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Brown, Peggy Brandt

Group sandtray therapy at school with preadolescents identified with behavioral difficulties.

Description: Sandtray therapy, a modality of play therapy, has been used in a variety of ways as the treatment intervention with different theoretical approaches; however, there is a very limited amount of empirical research. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of group sandtray therapy at school with preadolescents identified with behavioral difficulties. This is a pretest-posttest control group design. Participants in the experimental group received sandtray therapy in group for ten weeks, and participants in the wait-list control group received no treatment intervention. The researcher compared two groups to examine the overall effectiveness of sandtray therapy as determined by the scores of the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report Form (CBC-TRF), Parent Report Form (BASC-PRF), and Self Report of Personality (BASC-SRP). Based on teachers' reports, statistically significant difference existed between the two groups in terms of preadolescents' overall behaviors, externalizing behavior problems, and internalizing behavior problems after the ten week treatment intervention. The effect sizes were medium (d= .52-.59). According to parents' reports, a statistically significant difference was found regarding preadolescents' externalizing behavior problems, and the effect size was medium (d=.63). No statistically significant differences were found regarding preadolescents' total behaviors and internalizing behavior problems based on BASC-PRF. The effect sizes arranged from medium to small (d=.55 and .35, respectively). In terms of the total behavior on BASE-SRP, no statistical significant difference was found and the effect was small (d=.18). A case example was included to illustrate the process and effect of group sandtray therapy. Based on the results of this study, it is determined that group sandtray can be an effective treatment intervention for preadolescents identified with behavioral problems. The primary contribution of this study is to present empirical support for the effectiveness of using sandtray therapy.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang

The impact of rising women's salaries on marital and relationship satisfaction.

Description: Using data from a national survey, this study examines income and other key variables (division of labor and work-family conflict) and their relationship to marital satisfaction. This study builds upon the body of research regarding working couples and women's increased participation in the paid labor force as well as evaluates the findings in the context of data gathered from the recent United States census. Results from this study also are compared to the findings of other key studies. Emergent data may be used to prepare counselors to work more effectively with couple clients and to assist employers in the development of work life policies for dual career and dual earner employees. Results from the multiple regression revealed no direct effects of income on marital satisfaction. For this sample, increases in work family conflict contributed to less marital satisfaction as did the presence of children. Increased participation in household chores by respondents' partners contributed to increased marital satisfaction. No differences were observed by gender. Limitations of the study, recommendations for further research, and implications for practitioners also are addressed.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Menninger, Sarah Wheeler

Marital Satisfaction and Stability Following a Near-Death Experience of One of the Marital Partners

Description: The purpose of this quantitative and qualitative study was to determine retrospectively marital satisfaction and stability following the near-death experience (NDE) of one of the marital partners, focusing on the role of Gottman's Sound Marital House (1999) in the couple's relationship before and after the NDE. The researcher used the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (1959), the Weiss-Ceretto Marital Status Inventory (1980), and a modification of Gottman's Shared Meanings Questionnaire (1999). The first group of participants included 26 NDErs. To create as comparable a group as possible, the researcher designed a life-changing event (LCE) group of 26 people who used as their referent the non-NDE-related experience they considered their most life-changing one during their marriage. Sixty-five percent of the marriages in which the NDErs were involved at the time of their NDEs ended in divorce. This number is in contrast to the 19 percent of LCE participants whose marriages ended in divorce. Marital adjustment, marital stability, and meanings in marriage between retrospectively based pre-event and post-event composite scores were statistically significantly different between the NDErs and LCErs. Low effect sizes were identified for each of the instruments except the Weiss-Ceretto Marital Status Inventory, which had a moderate effect size. Strong correlations among the scores were identified. Further analysis of the results indicated strongly that the NDErs were less satisfied in their marriages, their marriages were less stable, and they did not have a strong level of shared meaning in the marriage after the NDE occurred as compared to the LCE participants. This study has serious implications for counselors who may work with NDErs. Findings from this study show that NDErs who were married at the time of their experiences have a strong possibility of experiencing marital problems. Encouraging these couples to seek professional help as soon as possible can provide a ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Christian, Sandra Rozan

Public safety curricula in American community colleges: Programs, problems, and prospects.

Description: This study explored public safety programs in publicly controlled American community colleges. The need for accurate and complete information in an era of homeland security and defense is paramount as government, education, the private sector, and the citizenry interact to ensure a safer nation. The general purposes of this study were to compile current descriptive information on public safety programs and curricula in America's publicly controlled community colleges, and to identify problems and prospects inherent in the administration of these programs. Information is critical as community colleges continue to struggle with decreased funding and seek alternative sources of revenue. Community colleges represent a tremendous network for course delivery, such as homeland security training, but struggle to obtain the attention or the funding from the federal government. A review of pertinent literature provided the foundation of a 100-item survey questionnaire that was mailed to a random sample of 200 public safety administrators at American community colleges. The study also included a review of archival data to further describe the programs. Of the 200 instruments sent, 97 (48.5%) were completed, returned, and useable. From the literature, the survey results, and the archival data, a comprehensive list of community colleges with public safety programs was constructed. The composition of the curricula was investigated, and problems and prospects were identified. The study includes conclusions and recommendations, which were based on all sources of information used in the study.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Phillips, Ted P.

Rural Community Colleges and the Nursing Shortage in Severely Distressed Counties

Description: The United States is in the middle of a gripping nursing shortage; a shortage that is putting patients' lives in danger. This study determined the impact community and tribal colleges in severely economically distressed counties of the United States have on the nursing shortage faced by health care facilities serving these areas. The initial sample of 24 institutions selected in the Ford Foundation's Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) (1995-2000). Data were collected from the Fall 1998 National Study of Post Secondary Faculty to obtain characteristics of faculty and from the 2003 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) to obtain characteristics of students, both at all publicly-controlled community colleges, all tribal colleges, and the 24 RCCI colleges that included 18 community and six tribal colleges. A survey was sent to the directors/deans/chairs of the nursing programs to ascertain issues related to the nursing program, nursing faculty, and nursing students. Respondents were asked to identify the healthcare facilities used for students' clinical experiences. A survey was then sent to each of these facilities asking about rural health, and source of nursing staff. Findings: 1) 87% of these these rural healthcare facilities are experiencing a significant shortage of nurses, and they are challenged to recruit and retain nursing staff; 2) Nursing programs, including both Licensed Practical Nursing and Associate's Degree Nursing are important to these rural community and tribal colleges, have seen growth over the past 5 years and expect to continue growth (86%); 3) Financial aid for nursing students is critically important; 4) Students are predominantly white and female; minorities are significantly under-represented; 5) Lack of subsidized public transportation and child care for nursing students even at tribal colleges are barriers that impact program completion; and 6) A shortage of nursing faculty exists at rural community and tribal colleges that negatively impacts ...
Date: August 2005
Creator: Reid, Mary Beth

Tenure Practices in Christian Higher Education: Policies of Member Institutions in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

Description: This study identified tenure policies and practices among Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) member schools. A survey of CCCU member schools was conducted; 65 usable questionnaires were received. A response rate of 69% was achieved. Schools also provided portions of their faculty handbooks addressing tenure. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what CCCU schools grant tenure, (b) why they grant tenure, (c) specific tenure policies and practices, (d) what CCCU schools do not grant tenure, (e) why they do not grant tenure, (f) retention policies used in place of tenure, and (g) how CCCU schools' tenure policies compare with the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) guidelines. The data suggests that (a) the majority of CCCU schools (68%) grant tenure, (b) these schools represent nearly all religious affiliations within the CCCU, and (c) they are large in relation to CCCU schools that do not grant tenure. The predominant reasons given for granting tenure are protection of academic freedom, mutual commitment by institution and faculty, and recruiting / retaining quality faculty. The schools grant tenure based on teaching, scholarship, service, and the integration of faith and learning. Tenure success rates seem high. Thirty-two percent of the CCCU colleges and universities do not grant tenure. These schools are small in relation to CCCU schools that grant tenure. They represent nearly all religious affiliations within the CCCU. The predominant reason given for not granting tenure is tradition / institutional values. The majority of these schools use a gradated contract system while some use an eventual continuous contract system. The CCCU member schools' tenure policies are largely consistent with AAUP guidelines.
Date: August 2005
Creator: Harris, Norman Scott

Twenty-five years of Scholarship: A Sociology of The Review of Higher Education Contributors, 1977-2002

Description: Given today's hurried pace of change in higher education and its institutions, it is imperative for the higher education research community to reflect on its current composition and resulting ability to understand and respond to the breadth and rapidity of that change. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify selected social and academic characteristics of the primary contributors (authors, editorial board members, and editors) to The Review of Higher Education, to categorize institutional affiliations of contributors via the Carnegie Classification System and to synthesize the data in a historical and sociological perspective. The contributions to The Review's articles, editorial board positions, and editorships in its first 25 years have predominantly been from male members of the higher education professoriate affiliated with and receiving doctoral degrees from major research universities ranked highest in the Carnegie Classification System. Trends toward greater gender and disciplinary representation, especially among author contributors, began to appear by the mid-point (1990s) of the study period.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Moss, Ron W.

An Analysis of On-Campus Housing at Public Rural Community Colleges in the United States

Description: This study has two purposes. First is to dispel myths that there are no residence halls at community colleges. Second is to discuss the ways in which these residence halls are administered, the amenities offered to students, the benefits of residence halls, and their future in community colleges. The study is based upon the Katsinas, Lacey and Hardy 2004 classifications and divides community colleges into 7 categories: Urban multi campus, Urban single campus, Suburban multi campus, Suburban single campus, and Rural small, medium and large. Included in the study are tables of data received from an original survey sent to 232 community college CEOs who reported to the US Department of Education that they had residence halls at their campus. The results indicate that a significant number of community colleges with residence halls exist, particularly at rural community colleges, that they bring significant financial gain to the colleges, and they append numerous benefits to students and to student life at these colleges. Residence halls are housed in divisions of student services and directed by experienced student affairs professionals. The study concludes with recommendations for policy as well as practice, the most important of which calls for more accurate data collection regarding on-campus residence housing by the US Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Moeck, Pat Gallagher

Assessing the Adlerian Personality Priorities: A Formal Instrument for Therapeutic Practice

Description: The purpose of this study was to develop an effective formal instrument to assess the Adlerian personality priorities. The development of the Allen Assessment for Adlerian Personality Priorities, AAAPP, seeks to provide a strong comparability to assessing the Adlerian construct of personality priorities as the counselor interview. One hundred and seven participants were given the 1st administration of the AAAPP, Social Interest Scale and a demographic survey. Sixty-four participants completed a 2nd administration of the AAAPP two weeks later. Twenty participants experienced a counseling interview following the 2nd administration. The methods used to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of the AAAPP included: face validity, predictive validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, multiple regression, Guttman split-half reliability and the Spearman Brown reliability.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Allen, Elizabeth Gayle Soules

Effects of a Trained Therapy Dog in Child-Centered Play Therapy on Children's Biobehavioral Measures of Anxiety

Description: This study was concerned with reducing children's anticipatory anxiety when entering mental health services for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combining two effective modalities, play therapy and animal-assisted therapy, would be effective in decreasing children's biobehavioral measurements of anxiety. Specifically, this study examined the effects of the presence of a trained therapy dog during one individual 30-minute play therapy session. The experimental group consisted of 26 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session with the presence of a trained therapy dog. The comparison group consisted of 25 children who received one individual 30-minute play therapy session without the presence of a trained therapy dog. The SenseWear® PRO 2 armband monitor measured children's biobehavioral measurements such as galvanic skin response, temperature, and activity level (BodyMedia, Inc., Pittsburgh , PA , www.bodymedia.com). The Tanita 6102 Cardio® digital heart rate monitor measured children's pre-treatment and post-treatment heart rates (Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., Arlington Heights , IL , www.tanita.com). Five hypotheses were tested using repeated measures ANOVA with mixed factors and eta squared. All five hypotheses in this study were retained based on statistical significance at the .05 level. The combination of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and animal-assisted therapy was shown to have little practical significance in decreasing children's first 5-minute biobehavioral measurements, middle 5-minute biobehavioral measurements, last 5-minute biobehavioral measurements as measured by the SenseWear Pro 2 armband monitor. The combination of CCPT and animal-assisted therapy was shown to have little practical significance in decreasing children's pre-treatment and post-treatment heart rate. The results of the two factor repeated measures analysis of variance with mixed factors were not statistically significant. Although, research has shown that play therapy is an effective modality in reducing children's anxiety over time, children's anticipatory anxiety was increased in the ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Athy, Annette L.

The Effects of Bilingual Education on Reading Test Scores: Can Dual-immersion Support Literacy for All Students?

Description: Dual-immersion is a bilingual education method offered that places English as a first language (EFL) and English language learner (ELL) students in the same classroom to learn two languages at the same time. This study examines whether second language acquisition through dual-immersion supports literacy for both ELL and EFLS children over time. Students' scores on standardized tests (ITBS, TAKS, Logramos, Stanford 9, and Aprenda) were studied to assess the impact, if any, of dual-immersion instruction vs. regular/bilingual education on reading development. Scores from 2000 through 2004 were gathered and analyzed for students enrolled in a dual-immersion class which started in kindergarten in 2000. These scores were compared to scores of students enrolled in regular and bilingual education classrooms for the same amount of time at the same school to examine whether there was an effect for students in the dual-immersion class. It was found that no significant difference existed between the groups. All groups were performing at a passing level on the standardized tests. The dual-immersion class was performing as well as the regular education class on standardized tests in both English and Spanish.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Ridley, Natalie D.

Higher Education and Entrepreneurship: The Relation between College Educational Background and Small Business Success in Texas

Description: This study examined the relationship between success of small businesses and the educational backgrounds of their owners. A survey composed of questions concerning demographics, educational backgrounds, and business success was mailed to 1100 businesses in Dallas, Denton, and Tarrant counties in Texas. There were 228 usable responses which were analyzed by using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS12). Data were sorted so that educational level, sales volume, number of employees, and longevity, were identified on a 5-point ordinal scale. Educational major was identified on a 5-point nominal scale. Pearson's correlation was used to determine whether relationships existed between founders' educational background and small business success. Spearman's correlation was used to determine the direction and strength of the relationships. Then educational level and major were combined with age, gender, ethnicity, and industry, to determine the relationships between founders' educational background, and business success. For this purpose a canonical correlation was used. Five opinion questions concerned influence of college education on business success among college graduates and non-college graduates were identified on a 5-point Likert scale and tested using one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. When educational level and major were the only predictors of business success, a statistically significant relationship was found between years of formal education, and sales volume. When educational level and major were combined with age, gender, ethnicity, and industry, a statistically significant relationship was found between founders' educational level and age, and business success. A statistically significant and negative relationship was found between founders' educational major and industry, and business success. All opinion questions revealed statistically significant relationships between owner's college education and business success. These relationships indicate the ability for the owner to learn, adapt and maintain a successful business. The influence of a college education on small business success was noticeable and reflects the ...
Date: May 2005
Creator: Al-Zubeidi, Mohammad

Meta-Parenting in Parents of Infants and Toddlers

Description: Meta-parenting, defined as parents thinking about their parenting, has been identified and is a new field of research. The purposes of this study were to add to the existing knowledge of meta-parenting and to compare the influences of gender, work status, and parenting experience on meta-parenting occurring in parents of infants and toddlers. Sixty parents participated either electronically or by completing a written survey and reported engaging from "sometimes" to "usually" in four domains of meta-parenting: anticipating, assessing, reflecting, and problem-solving. Gender, work status, and parenting experience did not significantly influence participants' meta-parenting scores. Parents were found to have a higher sense of satisfaction and overall sense of competence when they engaged in higher levels of meta-parenting.
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Date: May 2005
Creator: Vlach, Jennifer L.

Primary revenue streams of Hispanic-serving community colleges in Texas.

Description: This study examined the extent and sources of primary revenue for Hispanic-, African-American-, and Caucasian-serving public community colleges in Texas. The study also examined differences between and among primary revenue streams for these institutions. The public community colleges were identified as Hispanic-, African-American-, and Caucasian-serving based upon the percentage of enrollments for each ethnic classification. A comparative model was developed for the primary revenue streams of in-district student tuition, out-of-district student tuition differentials, out-of-state student tuition differentials, ad valorem property tax revenue per in-district contact hour, and state appropriations. Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was utilized to conduct multiple-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the data set to examine differences between and among the several variables. Post hoc tests were performed where necessary. Difference was identified in in-district student tuition. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that difference existed between Hispanic-serving and African-American-serving community colleges. No difference was identified in the remaining primary revenue streams.
Date: May 2005
Creator: Waller, Lee