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The Relationship Among Gender, Gender Role Attitudes, and the Anticipated Commitment to Career, Marriage, Family, and Housework

Description: The relationships between gender, gender role attitudes, and participants' anticipation of future life roles (career, marriage, family, and homecare) were examined. Participants consisted of 297 single college students between the ages of 17-29 years (M = 20). Females reported significantly (p< .01) more egalitarian gender role attitudes than males. Significant results were found for the relationship between gender and anticipated life roles (p< .01) as well as between gender role attitudes and anticipated life roles (career role value, r = .14 and marital role value, r = - .18). The study findings suggest a possible gender conflict for females with more egalitarian gender role attitudes and behavior intentions and their male counterparts.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Hunter, Kate

The Construct Validity of Self-Reported Historical Physical Activity

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of self-reported historical walking, running, and jogging (WRJ) activity. The criterion measure was concurrent performance on a maximal treadmill test. Subjects completed a medical exam and treadmill test between the years 1976 and 1985, and completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1986. Questionnaire included an item that assessed WRJ for each year from 1976 through 1985. Data analysis included Spearman correlations, partial correlations, ANOVA, and ANCOVA. Results indicated self-reported historical WRJ can be assessed with reasonable validity when compared with concurrently measured treadmill performance, and there is no decay in the accuracy of this reporting for up to ten years in the past.
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Date: May 2002
Creator: Bowles, Heather R.

The Effects of a College Human Sexuality Course on Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior.

Description: Using an experimental-comparison group design, data were collected at the beginning and end of a semester to assess the effect of a human sexuality course on students' sexual knowledge, sexual attitude, and sexual behaviors. Data analysis by t-tests showed statistical differences between the experimental and comparison group only on sexual knowledge scores ( p < .001), with the experimental group scoring higher. T-tests showed statistical difference between males and females in sexual attitude (p< .001) and sexual behavior (p< .001) with women scoring higher than men in the experimental group, and also when experimental and control groups were combined. Although not statistically significant, women scored higher in sexual knowledge than males.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Smith, Jolene A.

Practices and attitudes toward alternative medicine among college students.

Description: This study assesses practices of college students (N=913) toward alternative medicine, relationships of students' health locus of control with practices of alternative medicine, and relationships of students' attitudes toward alternative medicine and health locus of control. A principal components factor analysis established construct validity of the author-designed Attitude Toward Alternative Medicine Scale, extracting three factors: Holistic Attitude/Control, Safety, and Satisfaction. Holistic Attitude/Control predicted use of alternative medicine (Wald =61.9, p < .01). A principal components factor analysis established construct validity of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, extracting three factors: Internal Health Locus of Control, External-Chance, and External-Powerful Others. Internal Health Locus of Control significantly correlated with Holistic Attitude/Control (r = .35, p =.01).
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Date: December 2001
Creator: Fogle, Peggy

Perceived Submaximal Leg Extension Forces of Young Adult Males

Description: The purpose was to examine actual force (AF) productions of males for accuracy during leg extensions when given a random desired force (DF) ranging from 10-90% of maximal force (MF). Thirty males ranging from 18 to 30 years of age (M = 21.99 + 3.04), who had no previous experience with the test equipment, went through 9 randomly ordered submaximal efforts followed by a maximal effort. Correlations between AF and DF were high (r > .79) and test-retest was consistent between AF (r = .87) and MF (r = .90). Participants consistently undershot DF on both test and retest from 20-90% and overshot DF only at 10%. Power functions revealed exponents of less than 1, indicating that AF grows slower then DF for both test .70 (.95 CI = .63 - .77) and retest .66 (.95 CI = .60 - .73). The results replicate a prior study by Jackson, Martin, Koziris, Ludtke, and Dishman (2001) that used incremental rather than random increases in DF.
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Date: August 2001
Creator: Ludke, Andrew William

Relationship Between Acceptance of Sexual Double Standard Among Male and Female Students and Attitude Toward Sexual Harassment Involving Instructor and Student

Description: The study assessed the relationship between acceptance of sexual double standard and attitude toward sexual harassment among students (N = 426, 141 males and 285 females). A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation extracted 4 harassment factors: student blame, professor blame, reactions, and feelings about harassment. Controlling for marital status, age, race, and sexual double standard, one-way ANOVA revealed that gender significantly (p=.0001) affected attitude toward sexual harassment. Males reported less sensitivity toward harassment than females. Multiple regression analyses indicated that as acceptance of sexual double standard increases, sensitivity to sexual harassment decreases (p=.001), controlling for marital status, age, race, and gender. Controlling for marital status, age and race, two-way ANOVA revealed an interaction effect between gender and sexual double standard for student blame (p<.0001) and professor blame (p<.0044), where males reported higher levels of blame for both groups under the low sexual double standard condition.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Pisesnakornkit, Asaya

Assessment and Comparison of the Stress Experienced by International and American Students at the University of North Texas

Description: There were two purposes of the current study: (1) to evaluate if the East Asian Student Stress Inventory could be used to assess the stress experienced by International and American students at the University of North Texas and (2) to determine if the Inventory could discriminate between the two groups on the basis of the stress assessment. A sample of International (n=205) and American (n=216) graduate and undergraduate students completed the inventory. Results indicated that the EASSI could be generalized to a wider spectrum of International students. Using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation, eight factors were extracted: culture shock, physiological symptoms, family pressure, test anxiety, financial difficulties, attitude toward study, social support and academic self esteem. The inventory clearly discriminated between the two groups on the subscales of culture shock, family pressure and attitude toward study and the International students scored higher on these subscales.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Islam, Nehalul

The Effect of Steroid Dose Regimen on the Relationship Between Lower Extremity Muscle Function and Cardiac Function in Post Heart Transplant Patients

Description: Differences in cardiovascular/aerobic function in heart transplant patients might be attributed to the rate of corticosteroid withdrawal and/or to skeletal muscle function. This hypothesis was tested among nine male, cardiac transplant recipients. Prednisone dosage was monitored, and isokinetic strength testing was performed at 4 different time periods throughout the first year post-transplantation. Cardiovascular/aerobic measurements were obtained at the fourth time period. Pre-surgery characteristics were obtained from the patient's medical record. Significant Pearson-product moment correlations were only found between muscle function and aerobic function and between pre-surgery characteristics and cardiovascular/aerobic performance. The results of this study show no evidence that rapid reduction of prednisone dosage enhances aerobic function by benefiting skeletal muscle function.
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Galatas, Mary V.

Factors related to cycling performance

Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if results from field tests (time-trials and a Conconi incremental test) are related to performance in mass-start long-distance bicycle races. The second goal was to investigate inter-relationships among field test variables. The testing variables measured were critical velocity (CV), Conconi anaerobic threshold (AT) velocity, 4mM AT velocity, fatigue index, peak blood lactate, and anaerobic work capacity. Participants were USCF 30 category 1 through 5 cyclists. Participants performed one 20.75 km and two 10.37 km all-out tests in the field. They also performed an incremental test. The tests were performed at one-week intervals. Results from the field tests were compared to recent mass-start racing performance. Results indicated that Conconi AT velocity was related to performance in a 161-km race. There was also a relationship between 4mM AT velocity and CV and between Conconi AT velocity and 4mM AT velocity. It was concluded that field tests might provide information about performance ability in mass-start long-distance bicycle races.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Naukkarinen, Vesa

Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Weight, Body Shape and Eating in Male and Female College Students

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the association between body mass index as well as race/ethnicity and established correlates of disordered eating including drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, dietary restraint and social physique anxiety in male and female college students. Difference between actual, desirable and perceived body weight was also assessed. ANOVA suggested that as actual body mass index increased, in general, attitudes and behavior toward weight, body shape and eating increased. A two-tailed t-test suggested that males and females differed significantly with regards to attitudes and behavior toward weight body shape and eating. ANOVA indicated that little to no association existed between race/ethnicity and established correlates of disordered eating.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Lofton, Stacy L.

The Effects of Biofeedback on Task Performance

Description: This experiment attempted to study the effectiveness of biofeedback training on an individual's peak performance while performing a stress-provoking task. In a between subjects design 30 individual college students were divided into 2 groups. One group received auditory biofeedback and relaxation training, and the other group received no training. Both groups met the researcher for 1 hour a week for seven weeks. During each session the participant completed a ten-minute Competition and Coaction (C & C) computer software program (Shea, 1992). The biofeedback equipment recorded the physiological state of each of the participants while he/she performed the C & C task. Both groups' physiological values and C & C scores were compared using the SPSS software. The biofeedback group had statistically lower stress values than the non-biofeedback group (Schwartz, 1995). There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups' C & C scores. The STAI Y-1 and Y-2 anxiety inventories were given to each of the participants at the 1st and 7th session to examine the anxiety differences between the 2 groups. There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups' STAI scores. This study's findings show that individuals can be taught to lower their stress response while performing a computer task.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Bruce, Kurt

A Retrospective Study: The Relationship Between Health Care Costs, Absenteeism and Body Mass Index in a Group of Municipal Employees

Description: This study evaluated the relationship of varying body mass index and average annual health care costs and absenteeism in a group of 524 municipal employees. The 269 employees with health care claims and the 487 employees with attendance records were categorized into five different BMI categories based on self-reported weight and height. Findings from the study suggest that as BMI increases, average annual health care costs and average annual absenteeism increase. However, BMI was only significantly related to absenteeism. The study also found significant relationships between education and health care costs and absenteeism. No significant differences for health care costs or absenteeism were found based on race, age, gender, wellness center membership, or smoking status.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Satterwhite, Monica L.

The Effect of Mode and Intensity on Vo2 Kinetics in the Severe Intensity Domain

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mode and intensity on VO2 kinetics in the severe intensity domain. Seventeen participants completed 3-7 tests each on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. For each test, Tfatigue, VO2max, Tmean response, VO2GAIN, TVO2max and T@VO2max were determined. Linear regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between TVO2max and Tfatigue . VO2max values were higher in running. The VO2 response profile was faster for running than cycling and faster at higher intensities. The faster VO2 response in running may be associated with larger active muscle mass or differences in muscle activation patterns. The faster response at higher intensities may suggest that VO2 response is driven by O2 demand.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Updyke, Rhonda S.

Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Severe Intensity Exercise

Description: The purpose of this study was to describe mathematically the oxygen uptake kinetics during cycle ergometry, and to examine the effect of intensity on the kinetic responses within the severe domain. Sixteen volunteers performed a series of exercise tests at a range of intensities selected to elicit fatigue in ~3 to 10 min. A simple mono-exponential model effectively described the response across all intensities. There was a positive correlation between the response time and the time to fatigue, demonstrating that the maximal oxygen uptake was achieved faster at higher intensities within the severe domain. Models incorporating two components effectively described the responses only in tests lasting 8 min or more. It was concluded that there is a second, slow component in the oxygen uptake response only at the lower intensities within the severe domain.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Blumoff, Sonja

Goal Setting Strategies, Locus of Control Beliefs, and Personality Characteristics of NCAA Division IA Swimmers

Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine goal setting strategies, locus of control beliefs and personality characteristics of swimmers (108 males and 111 females) from top twenty 1999 NCAA Division IA programs. Three questionnaires were completed: (a) Goal Setting in Sport Questionnaire (GSISQ: Weinberg, Burton, Yukelson, & Weigand, 1993), (b) the Internal, Powerful Others, Chance Scale (IPC: Levenson, 1973), and (c) the compliance subscale and six conscientiousness subscales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R: Costa & McCrae, 1985). Descriptive statistics from the GSISQ indicated that most of the swimmers set goals to improve overall performance (51%) and set moderately difficult goals (58%). Results associated with the IPC scale revealed that most of the swimmers attributed their sport performance to internal factors. Results pertaining to the NEO-PI-R indicated that most swimmers were highly conscientious, disciplined, purposeful, and determined.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Stout, Joel T.

Ethnic Identity, Gay Identity and Sexual Sensation Seeking: HIV Risk-taking Predictors Among Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men

Description: This study examined relationships among ethnic identity, gay identity, sexual sensation seeking, and HIV risk-taking behaviors among 302 men of color recruited from gay bars, bathhouses, community agencies, and the 1998 United States Conference on AIDS. The sample included 24% African American, 28% Latino, 25% Asian/ Pacific Islander, 19% Caucasian, 1% American Indian, and 3% other ethnicity. Logistic regression analysis identified sexual sensation seeking, having an undefined gay identity, being in a sexually exclusive relationship, not being HIV seronegative, and length of stay in the country (for those born overseas) as significant predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (insertive and penetrative) among men of color who have sex with men.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Géliga-Vargas, Jesús A.

Parents' Motivation in Registering their Child for Gymnastics

Description: This study examined factors that motivate parents to involve their children in organized gymnastics programs. A questionnaire based on McCullagh et al.'s (1993) study of recreational soccer players was used along with open-ended questions. The questionnaire was administered to parents of children who were involved in a private gymnastics club. Descriptive statistics of 156 surveys showed that fitness, skill development, and fun were most frequently cited reasons for parents in their decision to enroll and keep their child in gymnastics programs. Competition was the least important factor. ANOVA showed that competition and team membership factors were more important to the parents of competitive gymnasts than parents of recreational gymnasts. Coaches and youth sport program organizers could use these findings to develop and market youth activity programs.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Wald, Jennie

Social Control and Self-Control Factors Associated with Interpersonal Violence in Adolescent Females

Description: Adolescent females are committing an increasing number of violent interpersonal acts. This study used the qualitative technique of focus group interviews to explore social control and self-control factors which impact such behaviors. Forty-seven girls aged 10-18 years described situations and events where interpersonal violence might be used and also what might prevent such acts. For the girls interviewed, social controls were the predominant means of controlling the use of interpersonal violence. Family and peer groups were the most powerful social controls, whether positive or negative. Self-control was deemed important but most girls lacked either the skills or desire to engage in self-control. Violence prevention programs need to teach techniques for improving self-control and increasing self-concept to be most effective.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Mavis, Beverly J.

An Assessment of College Students' Attitudes and Empathy toward Rape

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess rape attitudes and empathy levels of students at a university in North Texas. The Attitudes Toward Rape questionnaire and the Rape Empathy Scale were administered to 387 undergraduate students. Dependent variables were attitudes and empathy and independent variables were prior knowledge or experience as a rape victim, having female siblings, gender, marital status, and age. Significance was found between rape-intolerant attitudes and both prior experience as a victim (p < .001), and gender (p < .001). Significance was also found between empathy and experience as a rape victim (p < .035) and gender (p < .032).
Date: December 1998
Creator: Burke, Sloane C. (Sloane Christine)

Do American Adults Know How to Exercise for a Health Benefit?

Description: Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is a major risk factor for the development of CVD and a risk factor for stroke. The purpose of this research was to determine whether American adults know how to exercise to achieve health benefits and whether this knowledge is a function of demographics. Items included knowledge of exercise guidelines and knowledge of traditional and non-traditional exercise activities. This information was obtained from 22 questions that were a part of a larger national survey of 2,002 American households. Statistical analyses of this sample, indicate American adults have knowledge which varies by demographic groups. Data revealed that overall the 61+, Less than High School, African-American, Hispanic-American, and Male groups have the least amount of knowledge about exercise. These data can provide health educators with important aspects of exercise knowledge for future health promotions/interventions.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A. (Jeanette Aileen)

The Effects of Video-Computerized Feedback on Competitive State Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Effort, and Baseball Hitting-Task Performance

Description: This study examined the effects of frame-by-frame video-computerized feedback on competitive state anxiety, self-efficacy, effort, and baseball performance of high school players. Players were randomly assigned to one of three feedback conditions: (a) Hitting score, (b) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of a mechanically correct swing, (c) Hitting score and frame-by-frame analysis of participant's swing and a mechanically correct swing. Once per week for six weeks, the players completed three questionnaires: (a) Hitting Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2C, and (c) Performance Effort Scale, and performed a hitting task. Results of the 3 (Group) x 6 (Trials) ANOVAs revealed no significant effects. This study does not support previous confidence-baseball hitting research.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Leslie, P. Jason

The Effects of Project PACE on Adolescent Females' Physical Activity Readiness

Description: This study evaluated the effects of Project PACE, a program designed to increase physical activity, on the physical activity level and selected psychosocial variables of sedentary adolescent females ages 12 to 18. Psychosocial variables included self efficacy, attitude, perception of barriers, perceived social support, and knowledge. Of the 69 participants, 40 were enrolled in the treatment group and 29 were enrolled in the control group at the start of the study. The only significant differences were found for attitudes towards physical activity at base line. Findings from this study suggest that implementation of Project PACE protocol in school settings may produce some positive effects, but no significant findings were detected.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Williams, Christy Nicole

The Significance of Time to Exhaustion at the Velocity at VO2Max

Description: There were two primary goals in this investigation. The first goal was to determine if inter-individual variability in time to exhaustion at the velocity associated with V02max (Tlim at Vmax) was explained by anaerobic capacity (AC), Vmax, anaerobic threshold (AT), and/or a combination variable in the form [AC • (Vmax - vAT)^-1]. The second goal was to determine if AC could be predicted from Tlim at Vmax, AT, and/or a combination variable in the form [Tlim • (Vmax - vAT)].
Date: May 1998
Creator: Ehler, Karen

College Students' Attitudes toward Pregnancy and Women in the Work Force

Description: The purpose of this study was to assess college students' attitudes toward pregnancy and women in the work force following the passage of the Family Medical Leave Act of 1993. Data were obtained from 347 students at a university in North Texas during the spring semester of 1997. Gender, age, employment status, parental status, and citizenship were independent variables hypothesized to influence attitudes toward pregnant working women. Gender was significant for the following factors: pregnant women as employees (p<.001), emotional stereotypes (p<.001), choosing family or career (p<.001), and physical limitations (p<.001). Those students 17-19-years-old had a more negative attitude toward pregnant women choosing work over family (p<.001) than did the older students.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Coolidge, Amy (Amy Lewis)