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Effects of Water Quality, Instream Toxicity, and Habitat Variability on Fish Assemblages in the Trinity River, Texas

Description: The Trinity River flows through the Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex in north central Texas where it receives effluents from numerous point sources including seven large regional wastewater treatment facilities. Historically, the Trinity River has been impacted by massive wastewater loadings which often constitute > 80% of the total river discharge during low flow periods. Normally, high mass loadings correspond to the summer months, compounding the effects of a naturally stressful period, characterized by high temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Samples from 12 stations were collected quarterly over an 18 month period from the Trinity River and two tributaries. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of water quality variables, including metals, priority pollutants, pesticides, and general water quality parameters. Water samples were also tested for acute and subchronic effects with several test species. Fish were collected at each station and assemblages were characterized using traditional classification techniques and the Index of Biotic Integrity. In addition, sediment samples were assessed for toxic effects which could have adversely impacted fish recruitment and in situ biomonitoring experiments were performed. Quantitative habitat characterization analyses were performed to gain additional information that could possibly explains differences in fish assemblage structure related to habitat variability. Data were analyzed using regression, univariate, multivariate, and descriptive statistical techniques and new approaches for analyzing impact assessment data were discussed. Results indicated that the most substantial impacts on fish assemblages were confined to a segment of the river where a sequence of point sources, in close proximity to each other, were overloading the river's capacity to sufficiently dilute and/or detoxify the effluent. Data also indicated the presence of episodic toxicity from nonpoint sources. In addition, toxic effects in sediment samples and differences in habitat were detected and may have contributed to measured differences among fish assemblages in the Trinity River.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Arnold, Winfred R., 1960-

An Analysis of Respiratory Mechanisms Controlling Exercise Hyperpnea During Cycle Ergometry Conducted at Selected Workloads and Pedal Frequencies

Description: Respiratory and metabolic patterns in response to variations in exercise workload (WL) and pedal frequency (RPM) were examined in 10 healthy males. Each subject performed WLs of low (L), moderate (M) and high (H) intensity, equivalent to 25%, 50% and 75% V02 m a x at 7 pedal frequencies (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 RPM). ANOVA ( 3 X 7 design) indicated that WL and RPM had independent and significant effects on all respiratory and metabolic measures; i.e., the greater the WL and RPM, the higher the HR, V02, VC02, Ve, Fb, Vt, Vt/Ti, Vt/Te and Ti/TtQt and the lower the Ti and Te. However, analysis of the interaction effect revealed different response patterns for Fb, Vt, Ti, Vt/Ti, Vt/Te and Ve among the WLs. During L-WL, increases in RPM produced increases in Ve which were due to progressive increases in both Fb and Vt. However, during M-WL and H-WL, increases in RPM produced increases in Ve which were accomplished by a constant Vt and a progressive increase in Fb. My findings suggest that during low WLs, the signal for Vt is dependent on rate of contraction, while during M-WL and H-WL, the signal for Vt appears to depend on force of contraction and is independent of increasing RPM. When comparing the L-WL and M-WL, alterations in Ve, Fb, Vt/Ti and Vt/Te in relation to increases in pedal frequency were additive. However, when these two lower WLs were compared to the H-WL, the interaction between pedal frequency and Ve, Fb, Vt/Ti and Vt/Te was multiplicative. In addition, the interaction between WL and RPM on Vt and Ti was additive when comparing the M-WL and H-WL and multiplicative when these two lower WLs were compared to the H-WL. Correlation analysis indicated that for all WLs, Te was more ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Wise, Charles Hamilton

Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Description: The roles of Ca2 + and cAMP in olfactory transduction were explored using agents which affect calcium channels and second messenger systems. These agents were applied at certain calculated final concentrations onto olfactory epithelia of urethane-anesthetized frogs (Sana PiPlens) by two-sec aerosol spray. During extracellular recording, saturated vapors of isoamyl acetate were delivered every 100 sec in 0.3 sec pulses to produce an electroolfactogram (EOG). Inorganic cations that block inward calcium currents inhibit EOG responses with the following rank order: (La3+) > (Zn2+, Cd2+) > (Al3+, Ca2+, Sr2+) > (Co2+). Application of 7.5 mM La3+ eradicates £0G's, while Ba2+ (which can carry more current that Ca2+) initially produces significant enhancement (F=43.04, p<0.001, df=19). Magnesium ion has no effect on EOG's at 7.5 mM, while 1.5 X 10"4M Ca2+ is significantly inhibitory (F=5.74; p=0.0355; df=12). Control aerosol sprays of distilled water depress EOG's by an average of 5%. The organic calcium channel antagonists diltiazem and verapamil inhibit EOG's by 17% and 36X, respectively, at a concentration of 1.5 X 10~*M. Verapamil produces significant inhibition (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll) at 1.5 X 10" 5 M, while the 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nicardipine and nifedipine, do not inhibit beyond 1% DMSO controls. Several calmodulin antagonists decrease EOG's, but without correlation to their anti-calmodulin potency. Application of 1.5 X 10"*M chlorpromazine and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-l-naphthalenesulfonamide inhibit EOG's by 31% and 27%, respectively, while trifluoperazine inhibits by 23%. Dibutyryl cAMP, a lipophilic mimic of cAMP, produces 54% inhibition at 1.5 X 10" *M. Dibutyryl cGMP, cGMP, cAMP, and adenosine all decrease EOG's by less than 15% compared to distilled water controls. Forskolin, a reversible activator of adenylate cyclase, inhibits EOG's by 57% at 1.5 X 10"5M, which is significant beyond the 1% DMSO controls (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll). These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ participates in olfactory transduction. ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Winegar, Bruce D. (Bruce David)