UNT Libraries - 120 Matching Results

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Examining Career Transitions during Mid-Adulthood through the Lens of Bioecological and Microdevelopmental Research

Description: Using hierarchical multiple linear regression, this study examined the predictive relationship between micro-career transitions and career related outcomes and how those relationships were moderated by equilibration style. Participants (n = 177) answered an online survey which included a variety of measures for control, predictor, moderator, and outcome criterion (i.e., demographic descriptors, Instrumentality, Openness, Job Insecurity, Social Support Satisfaction, Microtransitions, Equilibration Style, Job Satisfaction, Job Burnout, Life Dissatisfaction, and Career Optimism). Research questions addressed the nature of micro-career transitions (e.g., frequencies, average stress ratings, category types), their predictive relationship with job and career outcomes, and the moderating role of Identity Styles on that relationship. Micro-career transitions were described according to responses for the research sample (n = 638). Significant effects were discovered between microtransitions and career outcomes (p < .05 and .01). Equilibration styles were also established as having a moderating effect on the predictive relationship between microtransitions and career outcomes (p < .05 and .01). Interaction terms were decomposed to examine the direction of significant moderating effects. In all cases where interaction terms were significant, moderators enhanced the negative predictive relationship between microtransitions and career outcomes.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Davis, Joe Edd

Self Blame in Sexual Assault Survivors and Attributions to Other Sexual Assault Survivors

Description: Previous research indicates that survivors of sexual assault often blame themselves for the assault. Research has also shown that people blame the perpetrator in some situations and the survivor in other situations involving sexual assault. The purpose of this study was to discover if survivors of sexual assault who blame themselves tend to blame other survivors (survivor blame) in situations different from their own. Another purpose was to assess whether or not sexual assault survivors who do not blame themselves for their attack tend to blame other survivors. The participants' attributional style was also assessed in order to understand the relations between self-blame and survivor blame in situations involving sexual assault. Findings indicated that certain types of attributional style are related to self-blame in sexual assault survivors and blame toward sexual assault survivors depicted in vignettes. This indicates that attributional style may have important implications in the clinical setting to aid sexual assault survivors who experience self-blame, as well in educating society about sexual assault and the ultimate responsibility of perpetrators.
Date: December 2009
Creator: Pepper, Sarah E.

A Comparison of Miranda Procedures: The Effects of Oral and Written Administrations on Miranda Comprehension

Description: Millions of custodial suspects waive their rights each year without the benefit of legal counsel. The question posed to psychologists in disputed Miranda waivers is whether this waiver decision was, knowing, intelligent, and voluntary. Mental health professionals must be aware of potential barriers to Miranda comprehension to provide expert opinions regarding a defendant's competency to waive rights. The current study examined how Miranda warning reading level, length, and method of administration affects Miranda comprehension. Recently arrested detainees at Grayson County Jail were administered oral and written Miranda warnings from the Miranda Statements Scale (MSS; Rogers, 2005) to measure their comprehension of the warnings. Surprisingly low levels of Miranda comprehension were found for most warnings. For all warnings at or above 8th grade, a substantial minority (27.1% - 39.6%) of defendants exhibited failed (i.e., < 50% understanding) Miranda comprehension. Regardless of other variables, oral administrations resulted in a substantially larger number of defendants with failed Miranda comprehension. Implications for public policy and clinical practice are discussed.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Blackwood, Hayley L.

Childhood Learning: Examining Attitudes toward School and Learning Ability

Description: A child's ability to learn in school and school performance are affected by various factors. Variables that affect learning and academic performance in 46 children, 4 - 7 years old, were examined. Children, parents, and teachers completed questionnaires rating children's attitudes and behavior toward school. Children completed a computerized matching-to-sample (MTS) task. The MTS trained the children to form 3 stimulus classes. One stimulus class included three arbitrary stimuli, the others contained a positively or negatively valenced stimulus, a school-related stimulus, and an arbitrary stimulus. Class formation performance was assessed. Rate of learning predicted attitudes toward school, school attitudes predicted academic performance; however a hypothesized mediation effect of attitudes was not demonstrated. No significant differences in rate of forming stimulus classes containing emotionally valenced and school stimuli were found. Future directions for intervention in the early education of students who have poor attitudes toward school are discussed.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Geddes, Jeffrey D.

No place to call home: Cultural homelessness, self-esteem and cross-cultural identities.

Description: The study examined relations between a cross-cultural geographically mobile childhood and adult cultural identity, attachment to cross-cultural identities (CCIs) and self-esteem. CCIs are loosely defined identities (e.g., third culture kids [TCKs], military brats, missionary kids) that describe some individuals' childhood cross-cultural experience. The 475 participants spent at least two years before age 18 in a culture different from their parents' and completed an online survey including childhood cross-cultural experiences, Cultural Homelessness Criteria, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Self Label Identity Measure (SLIM) that captured strength of affirmation, belonging and commitment to any CCI. Cultural homelessness (CH) was related to lower self-esteem; higher SLIM scores was related to higher self-esteem and lower CH. TCKs reported lower self-esteem than non-TCKs and older participants experienced less CH and higher self-esteem. SLIM scores buffered the CH-self-esteem relationship, whereas a TCK CCI and having more cross-culturally experienced social networks did not.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Hoersting, Raquel Carvalho

Penile plethysmography: Validation with a juvenile sex offending population.

Description: Traditionally, juvenile sex offenders have been ignored in the literature. More recently the research has expanded particularly in the area of assessment and treatment. This study focused on the assessment of sexual arousal to deviant stimuli using the penile plethysmography (PPG) since it likely plays a significant role in juvenile sex offending behaviors. The goal of this study assessed its validity and reliability using Becker et al.'s set of PPG scenarios with a population of juvenile sex offenders. Significant differences were found between groups of (a) admitters versus partial admitters and (b) offenders with and without male victims. This study also examined the latent structure of the PPG results and found three dimensions: arousal to male stimuli, arousal to females and paraphilias, and arousal to non-sexual acts. These findings provide important implications for assessment of juvenile sex offenders and add to the clinical utility of PPG assessments.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Martinez, Tonantzin Dionisia

Stories: A Revision of the Willingness & Action Measure for Children and Adolescents (WAM-C/A)

Description: In its earliest stages, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) with youths appears to be a promising therapeutic approach. Experiential willingness and committed action are two foci of ACT, making their assessment an integral part of therapy. Field tests have found validity problems with the Willingness and Action Measure for Children and Adolescents (WAM-C/A). The current study utilized the Story Version of the Willingness and Action Measure for Children and Adolescents (SWAM-C/A). Results supported the relationship between the SWAM-C/A and measures of experiential avoidance and mindfulness. Factor analysis indicated the presence of several distinct willingness and action factors. These results support the need for continued work on measurement of willingness and action in youth.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Larson, Christina Mary

Affective and cognitive components of job satisfaction: Scale development and initial validiation.

Description: Job satisfaction is one of the most commonly studied variables in the organizational literature. It is related to a multitude of employee-relevant variables including but not limited to performance, organizational commitment, and intent to quit. This study examined two new instruments measuring the components of affect and cognition as they relate to job satisfaction. It further proposed including an evaluative (or true attitudinal) component to improve the prediction of job satisfaction. Results provide some evidence of both two and three factor structures of affect and cognition. This study found minimal support for the inclusion of evaluation in the measurement of job satisfaction. Affect was found to be the single best predictor of job satisfaction, regardless of the satisfaction measure used. Further development is needed to define the factor structures of affect and cognition as well as the role of these factors and evaluation in the prediction of job satisfaction.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Tekell, Jeremy Kyle

The Effects of Sequential Versus Referential Montage Neurofeedback Amplitude Training on Qeeg Measures of Phase and Coherence.

Description: An important clinical research question to be answered in the field of neurofeedback (NF) is whether amplitude training affects connectivity between cortical sites. This study hypothesizes that, following NF amplitude training, there will be a difference in QEEG coherence and phase measures between NF training done using referential montages and using sequential montages. The study examined case files of 16 adult clients from the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab who had received NF training that consisted of either referential or sequential placement amplitude training (no coherence training) and who received both pre- and post- treatment QEEGs. Sixty-eight percent of the cases consisted of referential placements, while 34% of the cases consisted of sequential placements. All frontal site phase and coherence abnormal z-scores at pre-treatment were converted to deviation scores and compared by general linear model analysis of variance to post-treatment deviation scores. Effect size r-values and eta square values indicate that differences between referential and sequential electrode placements after NF amplitude training are moderately high. This study shows that referential placements tend to increase phase scores and decrease coherence scores, while sequential placements tend to decrease phase scores and increase coherence scores.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Ramezani, Amir

Negative affect, introversion and physiological markers of cardiovascular disease.

Description: Cardiovascular risk factors have expanded to include personality and other psychological characteristics. Negative affect (NA) has a longstanding history in cardiovascular health, but the path by which NA leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is yet to be defined. The following study examined the relationship of high NA and low extroversion (EX) with physiological cardiovascular markers in a sample of non-medical, professional adults. Our results indicated that individuals high in NA and low in EX displayed a significantly lower platelet count and a significantly higher mean platelet volume. Individuals high in NA displayed a significantly lower cholesterol risk ratio, while individuals high in EX displayed significantly higher platelet counts. Personality was not significantly related to blood pressure, high or low density lipoproteins. Understanding the relationships among psychological variables and physiological markers will help clinical researchers design interventions that reduce the likelihood of CVD.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Martin, Luci A.

Pediatric feeding disorders: Efficacy of multidisciplinary inpatient treatment of gastrostomy tube dependent children.

Description: Efficacy of multidisciplinary inpatient treatment of feeding disordered children was sought through retrospective chart review of 40 G-tube dependent children ages 22 months to 7 years. Premature births were 55% of the sample ranging from 23 to 36 weeks gestation. The majority of co-occurring medical conditions included congenital anomalies (50%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (25%) and chronic lung disease (25%). Treatment effect analyzed from pre and post treatment measures of oral and G-tube caloric intakes resulted in a significant difference from admission to discharge for both oral intake, t (39) = 5.76, p < 0.001, d = 1.02, and G-tube dependency, t(39) = 10.94, p < 0.001, d = 2.03 with both showing strong treatment effects. Results indicated a highly reliable and valid method of treating severe pediatric feeding disorders.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Cornwell, Sonya

Women's erotic rape fantasies.

Description: This study evaluated the rape fantasies of a female undergraduate sample (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist, a sexual fantasy log, a rape fantasy scenario presentation, and measures of personality. Results indicated that 62% of women have had a rape fantasy. For these women, the median rape fantasy frequency was about four times per year, with 14% of participants reporting that they had rape fantasies at least once a week. Further, rape fantasies exist on a continuum between erotic and aversive, with 9% completely aversive, 45% completely erotic, and 46% both erotic and aversive. Women who are more erotophilic, open to fantasy, and higher in self-esteem tended to have more frequent and erotic rape fantasies than other women. The major theories that have been proposed to explain why women have rape fantasies were tested. Results indicated that sexual blame avoidance and ovulation theories were not supported. Openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, and sympathetic activation theories received partial support.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Bivona, Jenny M.

An empirical investigation of the influence of age, gender, and occupational level on stress perceptions, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover.

Description: This study investigated relationships of age, gender, and supervisor level with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, stress perception, and turnover intention. The demographics were hypothesized to moderate the stress-satisfaction and commitment-turnover relationships. Hypotheses were tested using both parametric and non-parametric bootstrap methods. Subjects were taken from a national survey of 2,663 public sector IT workers. Missing data were imputed using NORM software. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression indicated a significant direct effect from all main variables and covariates, except for age on turnover intent. No mediating effects were found. Age-Commitment was the only significant higher order modifier relationship, although Gender-Commitment explained substantial variance. LMG statistic results enabled the predictors to be rank ordered with confidence intervals. Best subset bootstrap regression explored all possible predictor orders to confirm which model explained the most variance. The original model and predictor sequence were confirmed. The bootstrap AIC statistic provided a model which maximized explained variance while optimizing parsimony. Since only age had a mediating effect, Hypotheses 1 and 2 were not supported. All other hypotheses were partially confirmed.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Cordas, Jon D.

An Exploration of the Relationship between Worry and Other Verbal Phenomena

Description: This study hypothesized a direct relationship among three verbal phenomena: derived relational responding, verbal intelligence, and worry. It also hypothesized that experiential avoidance would mediate the relationship between derived relational responding and worry. Overall, results from this study failed to support a relationship between worry and the other two verbal phenomena, however, results did support a relationship between derived relational responding and verbal intelligence. Additionally, results indicated a significant relationship between experiential avoidance and worry. Future research should clarify the relationship among the three primary variables of interest, improve measurement of these variables, be more sensitive to external validity, and promote the study of acceptance-based treatments that target experiential avoidance.
Date: May 2008
Creator: O'Brien, Karen M.

Interpersonal Decentering and Psychopathology in a University Clinic Sample

Description: This study examined the relationship between interpersonal decentering and symptoms of psychopathology among 48 clients from the Psychology Clinic at the University of North Texas. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R®) instrument were administered to clients along with demographic packets. Interpersonal decentering was assessed using Melvin Feffer's Interpersonal Decentering Scoring System for the TAT. It was hypothesized that higher scores of global symptom severity would be associated with lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Higher scores of paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and hostility were also hypothesized to be associated with lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Results did not support these hypotheses. However, exploratory analyses revealed a significant correlation between higher scores of phobic anxiety and lower scores of interpersonal decentering. Results also provided information regarding the three methods for calculating interpersonal decentering summary scores.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Burkman, Summer D.

Longitudinal Study of Loneliness and Depression as Predictors of Health in Mid- to Later Life

Description: The longitudinal relationship between loneliness and depression as predictors of chronic health conditions in middle-aged to older adults was investigated utilizing data collected by the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a national representative longitudinal study of health, retirement, and aging, conducted by the Institute for Social Research (ISR) Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Michigan, funded by the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration. The correlation between these loneliness and depression was moderate (r = .32 to r = 51). The single-item subjective self-report of loneliness was found to be an adequate measure of loneliness. A cross-lagged panel correlation and regression design was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between loneliness, depression, and chronic health conditions. A temporal precedence was indicated implying a causal relationship with depression leading to subsequent loneliness. The relationship between recurring loneliness and chronic health conditions was weak (r = .13).
Date: May 2008
Creator: Chlipala, M. Linda

Women's career success: The contributions of human capital, individual, organizational, and power variables.

Description: Women are a significant presence in today's workforce; however, few rise to the top management ranks. Therefore, there is a critical need to better understand the factors that facilitate their success. This study examined several variables that may contribute to women's objective (income, span of control, promotions) and subjective (self-reported satisfaction) success. Predictive variables include human capital (training, experience), individual (perception of promotability, motivation for training), organizational (supervisor gender, percentage of male subordinates) and power (extent of supervisory authority) factors. Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Surveys Young Women cohort, conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data were analyzed through simultaneous multiple regression analysis, and the results indicated that education was significantly related to income for all women. For women in management positions, their degree of supervisory power was also predictive of higher income, yet negatively associated with job satisfaction. Further, their span of control was positively influenced by the amount of time they spent in on-the-job training. The implications for women's career advancement, study limitations, and future research possibilities are also discussed.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Blansett, Karen D.

The impact of organizational learning and training on multiple job satisfaction factors.

Description: This study explored benefits of providing employee training and development beyond the specific content covered in such interventions. The relationship between training and development opportunities, and associated factors (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent) were significant among participants. Implications for training and development investment returns are considered. Previous research has identified training and development as an antecedent to perceived organizational support. Results failed to confirm perceived organizational support as mediating the relationship between training and organizational commitment. Age was found to be significantly correlated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intent, while education level was not found to have an impact. Limitations of this study, practical implications and recommendations for further study are discussed.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Barcus, Sydney Anne

The role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and parental misperceptions in risk for child physical abuse

Description: Voice over IP (VoIP) is a key enabling technology for the migration of circuit-switched PSTN architectures to packet-based IP networks. However, this migration is successful only if the present problems in IP networks are addressed before deploying VoIP infrastructure on a large scale. One of the important issues that the present VoIP networks face is the problem of unwanted calls commonly referred to as SPIT (spam over Internet telephony). Mostly, these SPIT calls are from unknown callers who broadcast unwanted calls. There may be unwanted calls from legitimate and known people too. In this case, the unwantedness depends on social proximity of the communicating parties. For detecting these unwanted calls, I propose a framework that analyzes incoming calls for unwanted behavior. The framework includes a VoIP spam detector (VSD) that analyzes incoming VoIP calls for spam behavior using trust and reputation techniques. The framework also includes a nuisance detector (ND) that proactively infers the nuisance (or reluctance of the end user) to receive incoming calls. This inference is based on past mutual behavior between the calling and the called party (i.e., caller and callee), the callee's presence (mood or state of mind) and tolerance in receiving voice calls from the caller, and the social closeness between the caller and the callee. The VSD and ND learn the behavior of callers over time and estimate the possibility of the call to be unwanted based on predetermined thresholds configured by the callee (or the filter administrators). These threshold values have to be automatically updated for integrating dynamic behavioral changes of the communicating parties. For updating these threshold values, I propose an automatic calibration mechanism using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC). The VSD and ND use this mechanism for dynamically updating thresholds for optimizing their accuracy of detection. In addition to unwanted calls ...
Date: December 2007
Creator: LaBorde, Cicely T.

Educational Attainment among High-Risk Teenage Mothers

Description: Decreased educational attainment has been associated with numerous factors such as teenage pregnancy, repeat pregnancy, risky sexual behavior, substance use, depression, and parental distress. Educational attainment was examined among a group of predominantly Mexican American teenage mothers who were considered at high risk to have a repeat pregnancy, contract sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and use substances. Project Success Longitudinal Study is part of a national study funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Participants were recruited from eight traditional high schools in a large South Texas school district, an area with a high rate of teenage pregnancy and substance use. The treatment intervention included a multidimensional curriculum that was implemented in the participants' high schools in addition to home- and school-based case management services. It was hypothesized that participants who received the intervention would be more likely to attain their high school degree or equivalent and that amount of treatment received would be associated with educational attainment. Additionally, it was hypothesized that profiles of participants who attained their high school degree or equivalent would differ in the areas of parental distress, social support, symptoms of depression, and substance use when compared to participants who did not attain their high school degree or equivalent. Results indicated that participants who received the intervention reported increased educational attainment during the first two years of the study. Additionally, all participants experienced positive changes on various psychosocial measures.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Ortiz, Lisa M.

Examining the relationship between employee-superior conflict and voluntary turnover in the workplace: A comparison of companies across industries.

Description: Employee turnover is a topic of concern for a multitude of organizations. A variety of work-related factors play into why an individual chooses to change jobs, but these are often symptoms of underlying issues, such as conflict. This study set out to determine if conflict between employees and their superiors has an impact on the level of turnover in an organization, and if manufacturing versus non-manufacturing industry type makes a difference. The generated data were based on 141 selected cases from the ethnographic cases in the Workplace Ethnography Project. Linear and logistic regressions were performed, finding that there is a significant relationship between conflict with superiors and the level of turnover.
Date: August 2007
Creator: West, Lindsey Straka

Parental bonding, adult romantic attachment, fear of intimacy, and cognitive distortions among child molesters.

Description: Path models assessed different models of influential order for parental bonding; adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; the fear of intimacy; and cognitive distortions among child molesters and non-offending controls. Child molesters receiving sex offender treatment reported more problematic parental bonding; insecure adult romantic attachment; negative views of self, world/others, and the future; a greater fear of intimacy, and more cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. The predicted path models were not established as the models did not adequately fit the data. However, post hoc logistic regressions indicated that Maternal Optimal Bonding, Preoccupied attachment, and cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex significantly predicted child molester status. Overall, the findings provide support for a multi-factorial model of child molestation derived from attachment theory. Limitations of the study and areas for future research are also discussed.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Wood, Eric

Psychological Abuse and Health: What Role Does Forgiveness Play?

Description: Existent literature suggests forgiveness could lead to either greater psychological abuse (reinforcement theory), or lower psychological abuse (interpersonal theory). Questionnaires were completed by 291 participants who were dating at least 2 months. More forgiveness-particularly Absence of Negativity-was related to less abuse received from their partner, and this effect was stronger for females than for males. Absence of Negativity (AN) was predictive of health variables (psychosomatic symptoms, mental and physical health), although Presence of Positive forgiveness did not predict health beyond the impact of AN. Abuse-forgiveness and assertiveness-forgiveness interaction terms were not significant predictors of health. Results indicate interpersonal theory describes the link between forgiveness and psychological abuse. Results suggest that focus on AN could be sufficient for mental or physical health change
Date: August 2007
Creator: Scherbarth, Andrew J.

The psychosocial functioning in pediatric cancer survivors: The role of neurocognitive abilities.

Description: With the increase in survival for children with cancer, part of the focus of current research is aimed towards evaluating how these children are adapting psychosocially. Neurocognitive deficits have been well established. However, there are multiple facets encompassing quality of life, including general mental health, lifestyles and health behaviors, and academic and cognitive functioning. The relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning has yet to be thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning in survivors of brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Data was collected from existing archival database comprised of patients of the at Cook Children's Medical Center in Texas. The sample consisted of 177 patients between the ages of 3 and 12 who were at least two years post-diagnosis. Measures used included the NEPSY and the Behavioral Assessment for Children. Statistical analyses included a several one-way analysis of variances, an independent samples t-test, a univariate analysis of variance, a hierarchical multiple regression, and odds ratio analyses. Results indicated survivors treated with neurosurgery alone appear to be less at risk for developing behavior problems than other treatment modalities. Also, brain tumor survivors demonstrate more problematic behaviors than survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Visuospatial functioning, diagnosis, and type of treatment were found to be predictive variables of behavior problems. Attention, and perhaps language, deficits may predispose children to more problems in their behavior. It is concluded that there are other factors affecting behavior in this population that were not accounted for in this analysis. It is recommended for future studies to research the individual clinical scales of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, obtain information from multiple informants, study this relationship longitudinally, and research additional factors that may be influencing the relationship between neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. This provides evidence of ...
Date: August 2007
Creator: Begyn, Elizabeth