UNT Libraries - 9 Matching Results

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Attributional Style as a Predictor of Academic Success for Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder in Postsecondary Education

Description: Thirty one students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) completed a combined Academic Attributional Style and Coping with Academic Failures Questionnaire. The reformulated learned helplessness model (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978) predicted that students with negative attributional styles (i.e., internal-stable-global attributions) experienced motivational, cognitive, and emotional deficits. The present study examined college achievement (grade point average) of students with LD and/or ADHD. The Prediction that students with LD and/or ADHD with negative attributional styles would achieve less academic success than comparable students with positive attributional styles (i.e., extenal-unstable-specific attributions) was supported by the research results.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Tominey, Matthew F.

Characterization of Tolerance and Cross-tolerance between Noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Antagonists in Rats Trained to Self-administer Ketamine

Description: Ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) are noncompetitive antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of ligand-gated glutamate receptors. Both agents have high abuse liability, and may produce dependence. Tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is widely regarded as a key component of the dependence process. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether tolerance develops to the reinforcing effects of ketamine, and whether PCP and dizocilpine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist with negligible abuse liability, produce cross-tolerance to the reinforcing effects of ketamine. Further, identification of the neural mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the reinforcing effects of drugs may yield information regarding drug dependence.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Ward, Amie S. (Amie Sue)

Memory Functions among Children Irradiated for Brain Tumor

Description: Children who have received radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors have been shown to experience neurocognitive deficits which appear to increase over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the memory functioning of 22 children irradiated for brain tumor and 22 healthy children of the same age who had not received irradiation. Subjects were administered a brief form of the WISC-III, to obtain an IQ, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), to evaluate visual and verbal memory. Results indicated that, although there were no significant differences between the IQ scores of healthy children and children who had been irradiated, children who have received radiation therapy for brain tumor evidence memory deficits which effect visual and verbal memory abilities. Among the children who had been irradiated, as time since treatment increased, visual memory and overall memory functioning appeared to decline. Findings also suggested that children who received total tumor resection may evidence greater memory deficits than those who received only a partial resection. Visual memory was more closely related to IQ in the children irradiated for brain tumor than in the healthy children. The overall importance of research with this population lies in refining the understanding of memory deficits and strengths in order to formulate more effective remediation compensation, strategies.
Date: December 1995
Creator: McCormack, Sarah (Sarah Smith)

The Role of Neuronal Histamine in Memory Processing

Description: Neuronal histamine(HA) may play a role in memory processing. This hypothesis is based upon evidence that the action of histamine at central H1 and H2 histamine receptor sites has been shown to modulate memory of rats and mice in adversely-motivated tasks. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis more thoroughly in mice using two distinct approaches to neuronal HA manipulation. One approach involved the use of new pharmacological agents which act at the histamine H3 receptor. It has been demonstrated that the selective H3 antagonist thioperamide increases HA release in the brain of mice whereas the H3 agonist imetit decreases HA release via modulation of presynaptic H3 autoreceptors. It was expected that an increase in neuronal HA via the autoreceptor mechanism would result in facilitation of memory processing whereas a decrease in HA release would disrupt memory processing. The second approach involved the manipulation of cerebral HA levels via the specific enzyme inhibiting compounds alpha-flouromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH), a potent neuronal HA depleter and metoprine, a histamine-methyl transferase inhibitor which results in accumulation of neuronal HA. Again, effects of increased HA due to metoprine and decreased HA levels due to alpha-FMH were expected to facilitate and disrupt memory processing respectively. One trial inhibitory (passive) avoidance training was employed in each experiment in order to evaluate the effect of each drug on memory. Each compound was tested for effects on memory consolidation and memory retrieval as well as for the presence of state dependent effects. The pattern of effects obtained with thioperamide suggested facilitation of acquisition or memory storage (consolidation) processes, with no effect on the retrieval phase of memory processing. In accordance with those findings, significant disruption of memory occurred when imetit was present during the consolidation phase of memory processing, but not when presented prior to the retrieval ...
Date: December 1995
Creator: Stutts, William A. (William Anderson)

Distorted Time Perception as an Underlying Factor of Psychosis Proneness and Dissociation

Description: Distortions in the perception of time historically have been associated with dissociation and psychosis in clinical populations. However, the relations among dissociation, psychosis, and time perception in sub-clinical populations have not been investigated. In the present study, college undergraduates scoring either normally or deviantly high on the Per-Mag were given a Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and a computerized time-estimation/production task. Participants scoring high on the Per-Mag obtained higher scores on the DES than participants scoring low on the Per- Mag. Per-Mag scores also correlated positively with DES scores across 608 total participants screened. The relation between dissociative and psychotic symptomatology is discussed considering dichotomous versus continuous conceptualizations of psychopathology. The effects of intelligence, social desirability, malingering, gender, and post-traumatic stress on the measures used are also discussed.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Koehler, Gregory C. (Gregory Charles)

Effects of Experimental Psychological Stress on Human Physiological Functioning: Mediation by Affiliation

Description: This investigation sought to identify differences in the human psychophysiological stress response when mediated by affiliation, by assessing heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrodermal activity (EDA), serum Cortisol (SC) concentration, interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentration, and state anxiety among subjects who underwent an anagram solution task. Thirty male subjects from the University of North Texas were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and asked to solve a series of difficult anagrams either alone or with a companion. Subjects assigned to the control condition were asked to copy permutations of the anagrams. Before, and immediately after the anagram/copying tasks HR, SBP, DBP were measured, blood samples drawn, and The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) administered to all subjects. EDA was measured throughout all trials. Changes from baseline through the experimental period for all dependent variables were analyzed by employing difference scores derived from contrasting baseline and experimental measures. These scores were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) resulting in one significant between group effect among all dependent variables examined. Contrary to stated hypotheses, the alone condition significantly differed from the companion and control conditions by demonstrating a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period. It was concluded that the decrease in systolic blood pressure from baseline through the experimental period for the alone group was a result of chance sampling of individuals possessing unique psychophysiological response patterns. Appraisals of inter-group differences in response patterns across all dependent variables suggest that an insufficient stressor, and limitations in design, statistical analysis, and measurement may have contributed to this investigation's results. Implications of findings were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Walker, Douglas W. (Douglas Wallace)

The Influence of Relationship Quality and Preventability of Death on Perceptions of Funerals in Bereaved Adults

Description: Four hundred and thirty-eight participants who had lost a close friend or family in the last 2 years completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with the funeral. Results indicated individuals emotionally close to the deceased person reported higher levels of participation in funeral rituals and greater levels of bereavement adjustment. Those emotionally distant from the deceased person reported greater satisfaction with the funeral. Individuals who viewed the deceased person as a central figure in their lives had greater participation in the funeral. Those who viewed the deceased person as a peripheral figure had higher levels of bereavement adjustment. Additionally, those who viewed the death as unpreventable reported greater satisfaction with the funeral, and had higher levels of bereavement adjustment.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Pinkenburg, Lisa

A Comparison between the Self-concept of Visually-impaired Adults and Sighted Adults

Description: Self-concept scores of 19 visually-impaired adults were compared to those of 19 matched sighted adults using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS). All participants attended the University of North Texas. Scores were examined against the Vocabulary and Information subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R).
Date: May 1995
Creator: Martinez, Ramiro, 1964-