UNT Libraries - 8 Matching Results

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Client-Therapist Interaction and Perceived Therapeutic Outcome

Description: This study sought to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of client-therapist dyads in a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The theories of George Kelly's personal construct psychology were utilized in assessing the dyadic relationship. The four elements investigated were organizational similarity, understanding, organizational congruency and predominant selves. The sample consisted of 140 dyads comprised of 10 adolescent boys and girls and 14 therapeutic staff of a residential treatment center in the southwest United States. Responses to Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test were compared to four relational factors—parental/respect, identity, problem-solving, and sexual/affection—and two rating scales of client-therapist preference and ratings of therapeutic effectiveness. Contrary to expectations, as content similarity among dyads composed of clients and staff increased, there was not an increase in functional aspects of the therapy relationship. Possible mitigating factors may have been level of client disturbance and/or methodological issues relating to how organizational similarity was determined. Dyadic understanding was not found to be related to perceptions of the therapy relationship. This may be a function of adolescent of adolescent clients' need for independence and resistance to adult understanding and control. Therapy dyads with a moderate level of lateral or vertical organizational congruence were not found to be curvilinearly related to functional aspects of the therapy relationship. However, a weak linear relationship regarding client perceptions of the therapy relationship was noted on four measures. Several methodological recommendations related to the instruments used to determine therapeutic effectiveness and the means of eliciting personal constructs on the REP test.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Fogle, Joseph Edwin

Massage Therapy: Mind/Body Effects on Chronic Pain Patients

Description: This study assessed the influence of massage therapy on the psychobiology of chronic pain patients. A pre- and posttest design measured the effects of a one-month treatment program Twenty outpatients and twenty inpatients of two chronic pain treatment programs, were administered several psychological and physiological tests before and after the study. Experimental subjects received massage therapy twice a week for one month in addition to their other therapies. Control subjects continued with their regular treatment modalities for one month. Results showed statistically significant differences (p < .05) on 5 of the 17 psychological variables and on the electromyograph levels. Analysis of Holmes-Rahe scores suggested that these differences were not attributable to the artifact effect of differential life stress.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Lockart, Esther

Children's Perceived Contingencies of Teacher Reinforcements, Perceptions of Competence, and Academic Performance

Description: There are two principal definitions of response-reinforcer contingency in the current literature which Scott and Piatt (1985) have labeled the phi coefficient and Rescorla index. For both definitions, contingencies are sensitive to two conditional probabilities of reinforcement, that given the occurrence and that given the non-occurrence of the criterion response. However, phi coefficient is sensitive also to the probability of the criterion response. In order to examine the relationship between children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, and the children's perceptions of competence and measures of their academic performances, 119 5th grade children (54 boys and 65 girls) were studied. Two variables derived specifically from the phi coefficient, the probability of children's responses and the probability of teacher reinforcements, were also examined in their relationship to perceived contingencies and academic performance. In general, children's perceptions of teachers as both contingently rewarding and punishing, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, were predictive of good academic performance by the children and teachers rating them as academically competent. Childrens' perceptions of their academic competence were also predictive of their academic performances and teacher ratings. The children's perceptions of academic competence were related to their reporting themselves as likely to produce positive achievement behavior but unlikely to produce negative achievement behavior. No significant relationship was found between the children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements and their perceptions of their own academic competence. These results were discussed as supporting Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Thus, expectations of reinforcement contingency and expectations of personal competence jointly determine actual competence. The contingency findings support the utility of the Children's Perceived Contingencies of Reinforcements Questionnaire as a measure of contingency in the applied setting.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Dietz, Don Anthony

Cognitive Indices of Criminal Thought: Criminals Versus Non-Criminals

Description: The ability of several psychometric instruments to differentiate between criminal and non-criminal subjects was investigated. The subjects in the study consisted of fifty male individuals between the ages of 18 and 55, half of which had been convicted of one crime and half of which had no history of criminal activity. The tests administered consisted of the Psychopathic Deviation Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and two tests designed by the author. The author's tests consisted of the Test of Criminal Cognitions which evaluated antisocial thought patterns and cognitive flexibility, and the Social Semantics Test which assessed individual role definitions. The Test of Criminal Cognitions was administered as a part of a structured interview, and all other scales were administered in a paper and pencil format. The results indicated that the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the MMPI, and a portion of both the Test of Criminal Cognitions and the Social Semantics Scales differentiated between the groups at the .05 level or better. These findings indicated that criminals tend to be significantly less flexible in their thought and tend to view others in a much more narcissistic manner than non-criminals. The results also indicated that these tests can be utilized to discriminate between criminals and non-criminals. It was additionally noted that the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire did not consistently differentiate between the groups and should not be considered a valid instrument for discriminating between these groups.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Krusen, Richard Montgomery, 1954-

Mental Imagery: The Road to Construct Validity

Description: Internal consistency reliability and validity were established for a new 31 item Imagery Manipulation Scale. Previous attempts to correlate subjectively rated control of visual imagery with tests of spatial ability have been unsuccessful. However, no attempt to construct a subjectively rated control of imagery scale was located which tried to establish internal consistency reliability and both content and construct validity. Further, no research was located in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery ability utilized during the performance of the actual spatial tasks used to try to establish validity. A new scale of subjectively rated control of imagery was devised in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery while solving spatial tasks which involved visualizing the manipulation of geometric forms. Content validity was established by analyzing the transformation involved while solving the spatial problems. Internal consistency reliability for the 31 item scale was established across two samples. Validity was established with the second sample (100 university students: 26 male and 74 female). The task utilized to provide validity could be objectively scored, and was made up of four spatial subtests, which were adapted from the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test, the Kosslyn Directions Test, performed in both the forward and backward direction, and a block task utilized by Snyder. A convergent and discriminant validity analysis established construct validity. Further, the hypotheses of three investigators, Kosslyn, Shepard and his colleagues, and Snyder, were supported by the results of the present investigation, thus substantiating the conclusion that reported control of imagery processing can be operationalized with performance scores on spatial ability tasks.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Penk, Mildred Lotus

A Path Analysis of a Job Burnout Model Among Firefighers

Description: The purpose of this study was to propose an exploratory causal model that examines the influence of several antecedent variables on burnout. The antecedent variables included age, marital status, education, tenure, Type A personality, Jungian types, death anxiety, leadership style, job satisfaction, stress, coping efficacy, and marital satisfaction. The validity of the causal model was tested by using path analysis. Subjects were 100 male firefighters who completed self-report measures of the predictor variables. Instruments included the Jenkins Activity Survey, Myers- Briggs Type Indicator, Collett-Lester Attitudes Toward Death Scale, Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, Job Descriptive Index, Perceived Job Stress, The Coping Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Perceived work stress made the only direct contribution to the variance in burnout. Direct paths were found to stress from job satisfaction, Type A personality, and single marital status. Job satisfaction was directly related to leadership (consideration) and the Jungian Introversion, Feeling, and Perceiving preferences. Direct paths were found to marital satisfaction from death anxiety, leadership (consideration), and leadership (structure). Leadership (consideration) was directly related to structure. From the above results, it can be concluded that perception of stress is an important factor in predicting burnout. Other factors are important contributors to stress and have indirect effects on burnout. Implications for the prevention and treatment of job burnout are discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Goza, Gail R.

Social Skills Training with High-Functioning Autistic Adolescents

Description: Social skills training is a need among autistic adolescents. This investigation examined a social skills training program involving several teaching strategies. Specific social skills were targeted for improvement. Attempts to decrease negative social behaviors were made. Five autistic adolescents participated in the program and five were selected for the no-treatment group. Two measures were used. A survey addressing the skills targeted in the program was completed by parents and teachers before and after the program. A test conversation with a stranger and a peer was conducted with each subject before and after the program. Anecdotal information was obtained from therapists, teachers, and parents. Results provided information on the effectiveness of this social skills program. The benefits and limitations of the program were discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Eversole, Amy

Facial Expression Decoding Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients: Attention, Encoding, and Processing

Description: Psychiatric patients, particularly schizophrenics, tend to be less accurate decoders of facial expressions than normals. The involvement of three basic information processing stages in this deficit was investigated: attention; encoding; and processing. Psychiatric inpatients, classified by diagnosis and severity of pathology, and nonpatient controls were administered seven facial cue decoding tasks. Orientation of attention was assessed through rate of diversion of gaze from the stimuli. Encoding was assessed using simple tasks, requiring one contrast of two facial stimuli and selection from two response alternatives. Processing was assessed using a more complex task, requiring several contrasts between stimulus faces and selection from numerous response alternatives. Residualized error scores were used to statistically control for effects of attention on task performance. Processing task performance was evaluated using ANCOVA to control for effects of encoding. Schizophrenics were characterized by generalized information processing deficit while affective disorder subjects evidenced impairment only in attending. Attention impairments in both groups were related to severity of psychopathology. Problems in encoding and processing were related only to a schizophrenic diagnosis. Their decoding deficits appeared attributable to general visuospatial discrimination impairment rather than repression-sensitization defenses or the affective connotation of cues. Adequacy of interpersonal functioning was associated with measures of attending and processing but not encoding. The measures of encoding, however, may have lacked adequate discriminating power due to low difficulty.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Hoag, David Nelson