UNT Libraries - 20 Matching Results

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Resilience Among High Achievers In An Instrumental Music Program

Description: Positive adaptations experienced in spite of challenges faced is known as resilience. Comparatively little research has focused on in-depth descriptions regarding how resilience is manifested in children. The purpose of this study was to add to previous research in the identification of characteristics of resilience in students, and to determine the extent to which band membership has aided their resilience in other domains. Data was collected from a random sample of band seniors from the class of 2011 (n = 3) who attended a large high school in the South. Specific research questions were: (1) What characteristics of resilience are present in the talk of participants in a high school instrumental music program? (2) To what extent has this population perceived that membership in band aided their resilience in other domains? A descriptive study design was chosen that used qualitative data. Following data analysis that included category matrices, prominent themes emerged from the participants’ responses. These included self-improvement, forward thinking, optimism, inner drive, increased achievement, determination, development of relationships to peers and adult mentors, and development of connectedness to the school. The findings of this study complemented previous research on characteristics of resilient students, and suggested that the participants derived positive benefits from group membership and from positively contributing to the school. Recommendations based on these findings for researchers included the need for resilience to be studied across other subject areas in school, and across different populations of students. Recommendations for teachers and administrators included varied opportunities for extra-curricular and co-curricular student engagement.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Price, Benjamin J.

Texas Middle School Choral Directors’ Beliefs About Repertoire Selection

Description: Secondary choral directors often demonstrate a wide variety of organizational, instructional, and musical skills to promote and nurture thriving programs. Among the many tasks executed, choosing repertoire might be viewed as one of the most important duties performed. Material chosen for study is often the vehicle through which curricular concepts are taught. Multiple factors might influence middle school choral directors’ beliefs about repertoire choices. Ironically, repertoire choices might or might not reflect educators’ actual teaching philosophies; nevertheless, these decisions could influence student learning. This study surveyed a stratified random sampling of Texas middle school choral directors who participated in the 2010 University Interscholastic League Concert and Sight-reading competition (n = 209). Seventy middle school choral directors participated in the study. Each director took an online survey and indicated the degree to which they agreed or disagreed with 14 statements concerning repertoire choice. Many of the belief statements showed teachers were overwhelmingly in concordance with their beliefs (92.9%). Results indicated that beliefs were similar, regardless of who chose the curriculum or the amount of discussion perceived in undergraduate training. The only belief statement that continually showed differences between teachers concerned students’ ability to vote on repertoire.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Williams Jr., Scott Michael

An Investigation of the Influence of Evaluator Background on Appraisals of a Music Lesson Using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

Description: This study's purpose was to investigate the differences in scores and written comments given by two appraisal groups in their evaluation of a music teacher using the Texas Teacher Appraisal System (TTAS). One appraiser group had musical training while the other group specialized in other subjects. Analyses of both group's appraisal scores showed no significant differences. An examination of the written comments revealed that both appraisal groups focused on the same aspects of the lesson and used similar vocabulary. The TTAS instrument was a consistent measure of generic teacher behaviors in the music lesson, but it did not measure specific music teaching behaviors or encourage suggestions for improving musical instruction.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Bohnstengel, Carol

Band Directors and Hearing: Measuring School Bands for Potentially Hazardous Sound Levels

Description: This investigation sought to identify sound levels potentially harmful to directors' hearing, and examine the effects of band size, instrumentation, bandroom and playing ability on sound levels. The subjects were 2 elementary, 2 middle, and 4 high school bands, in 7 rooms, 10 to 66 members, and 26 students, beginning and advanced. A sound level meter was used. Sounds were measured in flat and A-weighted decibels. Sounds measured were steady state (>.5 sec.) and impulse (<.5 sec.). Results were compared with safety limits of OSHA, EPA and Baughn's study of safety limits (1966). Results show exceedences of limits used for comparison. Small rehearsal areas and younger players seemed to cause high levels in the tests. Further testing may prove potential hazards.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Samford, Brent R.

An Attributional Analysis of the Causes Cited by Junior High School Band Directors for Success and Failure at U.I.L. Concert/Sightreading Contest and Their Attitudes Towards Contest

Description: The reasons given by thirty-three junior high school band directors for success and failure at the University Interscholastic League Concert/Sightreading Contest were studied using the methodology of Attribution Theory. All of the subjects attended the same contest and were members of a region which included urban and suburban schools. The subjects responded to a questionnaire which evaluated their attitudes towards the contest, allowed them to make judgments about other directors in hypothetical contest situations, and finally asked them to list the five most important reasons for their success or failure at the contest in an open-response format.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Williams, Richard (Richard S.), 1958-2001

A Survey of Singers: Is Mental Imagery Used in the Conceptualization of Pitch and Vowel?

Description: Mental imagery is a common theme in research that clarifies how musical thought relates to musical performance. Unfortunately, minimal information exists regarding mental imagery and singers. The purpose of this study was to probe the role, if any, mental imagery plays in the conceptualization of pitch and vowel. By interviewing singers at differing levels of expertise, basic information was obtained about the mental processes used by singers. Through evaluations of the singers' mental processes, it was concluded that 95% of the singers in the study employed mental imagery. All singers described using kinesthetic imagery, while the majority implemented sensory and auditory imagery. Viso-spatial imagery was implemented among the more experienced singers. The majority of singers also reported: imaging pitch and vowel interactively; imaging from an internal perspective; and utilizing mental rehearsal. Less than half of the singers described using methods other than mental imagery to conceptualize pitch and vowel.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Moyer, Karen E. (Karen Elizabeth)

An Investigation of a Group of Third Graders' Pitch Matching Skills When Using Male Voice, Piano, and Resonator Bells as Melodic Models

Description: The purpose was to measure any statistically significant differences in pitch-matching skills among three classes of third grade students when using either adult male voice, piano, or resonator bells as melodic models for rote instruction of classroom singing. Each class was randomly assigned one of the three melodic models for a ten week treatment phase. Results indicated no significant differences in pitch matching skills between any of the three groups. No significant differences in pitch matching skills were found according to gender of subjects or among class piano students and non-piano students. Findings indicated overall improvement in pitch matching skills of subjects from pre-test to post-test phase.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Franks, Douglas Keith

Vocal Pitch-Matching: The Effect of Singing into the Right Ears of Fifth-Grade Students

Description: This study investigated whether fifth-grade students would sing more accurately when responding to pitch stimuli presented to the right ear as compared to left and both ears. Students were also classified as either strongly right-handed or other (left-handed or mixed) to see if ear treatment responses would differ with handedness. Sixty-six students were tested on their attempts to match 12 model pitches. Identical tests were given to each subject on 3 different days, with a different ear treatment each day. Vocal response scores were significantly better for both-ear presentation than for left-ear. No significant difference was found between right and both ears, right and left ears, or between handedness groups.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Watkins, Sharon C. (Sharon Carp)

The Effect of Teacher Approval/Disapproval on Students' On-Task Behaviors in a Selected Beginning Strings Class

Description: The present study explored whether (a) positive or negative reinforcement would produce higher percentages of on-task student behavior at set timed intervals, (b) positive, negative, or total reinforcement would increase student attentiveness after reinforcement, and (c) if natural fluctuations in teacher approval/disapproval would have any bearing on percentages of student attentiveness. Findings of the 15-day study concluded that (a) positive reinforcement maintained significantly higher levels of student attentiveness over negative reinforcement, (b) negative reinforcement did not significantly lower percentages of student attentiveness, and (c) natural fluctuations in rates of teacher approval/disapproval had no apparent effect on the amount of on-task behavior in the beginning strings class.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Thomas, Elizabeth Lord

Perception of Timbral Differences Among Bass Tubas

Description: The present study explored whether musicians could (1) differentiate among the timbres of bass tubas of a single design, but constructed of different materials, (2) determine differences within certain ranges and articulations, and (3) possess different perceptual abilities depending on previous experience in low brass performance. Findings indicated that (1) tubas made to the same specifications and constructed of the same material differed as much as those of made to the same specifications, constructed of different materials; 2) significant differences in perceptibility which occurred among tubas were inconsistent across ranges and articulations, and differed due to phrase type and the specific tuba on which the phrase was played; 3) low brass players did not differ from other auditors in their perception of timbral differences.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Cattley, Gary Thomas

The General Music Course in the Secondary School: A Content Analysis of Selected Curricular Sources

Description: The study described through content analysis the general music course in the secondary school as perceived in selected curricular sources from the 1960's and 1970's. As various writers of curricular sources developed their own content and methodologies, a vast amount of data became available which seemed unmanageable because of the particular philosophical goals chosen for the course. The study organized in a systematic manner the content and methodologies of the.course by means of eighteen categories. Categories of high frequency inclusion in the general music sources were shown to be the elements of music, music vocabulary as a specific area for learning, the predominant choice of classical Western/art music, the use of listening and creative activities and the discussion of psychological learning principles.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Lawrence, David Lee

Caro Carapetyan: His Choral Beliefs and Practices

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the convictions about choral conducting is held and applied by Caro Carapetyan which may have contributed to his superior choral work. The primary source of information was a series of personal interviews with Carapetyan. The report was organized into five sections. The first part supplied background material. Subjects covered in the report include philosophy, the relationship between conductor and singers the conductor's knowledge of music history and literature, rehearsal planning, conducting technique the selection of singers, choral tone, blend and balance, diction, intonation, rhythm, and dynamics. Each of the chapters in Parts II, III and IV includes a summary and some comparisons with other choral music sources. The fifth part is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Recommendations for choral conductors and future researchers are included.
Date: August 1981
Creator: King, Debbie Simpkin

Improvisation in the Beginning Piano Class

Description: The problem was to survey and collect ideas on the use of improvisation as a teaching and learning tool in elementary piano instruction and to prescribe activities and exercises for second through fourth grade piano classes. These areas were examined: philosophies and theories influencing traditional instruction, effects of creative keyboard activities on children's musical development, specific teaching strategies using improvisation, evaluative procedures, and suitability of materials for young children. Data collected from published and unpublished materials were classified, and presented concerning the feasibility of using keyboard improvisation with early elementary children. It was found that suitable improvisational exercises allow the child to organize his perceptions into the basic concepts of music. Recommendations for teachers and researchers were made.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Jones, Nancy Ragsdale

The Beginning Piano Class at the College Level

Description: The problem was to investigate current thoughts concerning the beginning piano class at the college level, Data were collected from published and unpublished materials from 1964 to 1976. It was found that class piano instruction usually occurs in a three- to four-semester sequence, with classes meeting from two to five periods per week, containing from four to twenty-five students. Classification of students is by interview, placement test, and/or audition. Varying room arrangements are used with either conventional or electronic pianos, plus a variety of audio-visual equipment, Course content, with varying emphases, includes sight-reading, functional skills, technique, and repertoire. Teaching techniques used are numerous and varying. Recommendations were submitted for administrators, teachers, and researchers.
Date: August 1976
Creator: LeCroy, Jacquelyn Aken

A Fourteen-Week Program for Teaching Beginning Music Reading Through Rhythmic Notation and Pitch Notation to Pre-School Children in Piano Classes

Description: The purpose of this study is to develop a fourteen-week program for teaching beginning music reading through rhythmic and pitch notation to pre-school children in piano classes. The historical background for the study discusses man's learning abilities in the group process in music education with the particular reference to class piano and its development and publications by leading authorities concerning class piano and rhythmic training in the classroom. The second chapter contains analyses and summaries of five selected texts pertinent to the study. The findings of research of the five selected texts serve as the groundwork for the development of the program which is contained in the third chapter.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Ogilvy, Susan

Compositions Designed to Improve Sight Singing in Junior High School

Description: The purpose of this study was to identify certain aspects related to sight singing which tend to cause difficulty in teaching junior high school students and to suggest exercises that might be used to aid in overcoming these difficulties, Data included a questionnaire to junior high school teachers in three states. Subjects researched and discussed were the physical, intellectual, and emotional development of the adolescent; the changing voice and the range and vocal limitations of junior high singers; and rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and other aspects of sight singing. Included were vocal procedures to be used with young voices, suggestions for choosing and/or arranging appropriate music, and original compositions designed to meet the needs and interests of junior high school students.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Thomas, Barbara A.

A Comparative Study of Two Choral Conductors: B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch

Description: Although much has been written on the subject of conducting, it is generally recognized that a great deal can be learned through discussion with and observation of successful conductors. Direct contact with master conductors is an excellent learning tool, but seldom do high school or college choral conductors have the opportunity for direct individual study of the experts in their normal situations. This study provided the opportunity for one practitioner to work with two expert choral conductors. The report was written with the hope that other practitioners might also benefit from the results of the investigation. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare preparations and experiences, philosophies of music, and observable choral concepts which may have contributed to the superior choral achievements of B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Bogle, Gary W.

A Comparison of Major Theories of Laryngeal Vibration

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare major theories of laryngeal vibration. The basic hypothesis of the study was that the differences and similarities between the major theories of laryngeal vibration could be made evident and clear through a comparative study. It was assumed that there are two or more theories of laryngeal vibration and that all the major theories of laryngeal vibration from 1945 to the present have been described in written form in English.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Smith, Sue Ellen

Functional Theory for Applied Music Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to prepare music theory textbook-workbooks for students of elementary school grades four through eight who are taking private music lessons in voice, piano, or other instruments. The study was prompted by the action taken first by Texas Music Teachers Association and later by Music Teachers National Association which made the passing of comprehensive music theory examinations a prerequisite for entering all student performance and contest events sponsored by these associations.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Flinn, Lois Clark