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Executive Control of Craving: An Examination of College Students

Description: Previous research has shown that alcohol abuse may cause a deficit in frontal lobe functioning, specifically, areas of the frontal lobe that are related to executive function. Additionally, problems with executive function have been related to increased difficulty in managing cravings to addictive substances. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol use and performance on measures of executive functioning in a sample of 121 traditional college students. Students were given 5 measures of executive function designed to explore mental set shifting, updating, inhibition, sustained attention, and planning. These measures were used to examine the relationship between executive function and craving as measured by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale. Levels of alcohol use were also examined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in relation to executive function performance and family history of alcohol abuse.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Yates, Robert Dean, III

Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences and similarities of quality of life (QoL) in American and Portuguese cancer patients with hematological malignancies as well as the robustness of the measures cross-culturally. Portuguese participants were 98 patients and 49 accompanying persons and the American participants were 55 patients and 22 accompanying persons. Fifty (Portuguese sample) to 40% (American sample) of the patients came with an accompanying person who answered the questionnaire concerning the patient's QoL. The two cultural groups were characterized in terms of QoL (measured by the SF-36 and the FLIC), social support (Social Support Scale), socio-demographic and clinical variables. Portuguese patients reported a higher QoL. However, this result could be attributable to the fact that the two cultural samples differ in socio-economic status. The measures seem to be comparable for the Portuguese and American samples, at least in what concerns reliability and concurrent validity.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Forjaz, Maria João

A Longitudinal Investigation of Different Exercise Modalities on Social Physique Anxiety

Description: The current study examined if students' levels of social physique anxiety vary depending on the type of exercise setting they select. The study determined the degree to which social physique anxiety changed over the course of semester-long involvements in different exercise settings.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Diehl, Nancy S. (Nancy Sue)

Effects of Meal Size and Type, and Level of Physical Activity on Perceived Masculinity, Femininity, Likability and Attractiveness

Description: Previous research indicates that women are judged on the amount of food eaten and that both men and women are judged on the type of food eaten. This study is an attempt to determine whether meal size or type predominantly accounts for these findings on the variables of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, thinness, fitness, and likability. Physical activity was also included to determine its effect on these variable. Subjects used were 313 undergraduate students. Results indicate that meal type is more influential than meal size and that physical activity significantly influences judgements of others. The results are discussed in terms of future research and relatedness to socio-cultural theories of eating disorders.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Hill, Christie D.

Personality Correlates of Anorexia Nervosa in a Nonclinical Sample

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anorexia nervosa and several personality traits. Past research in this area has been contradictory for several reasons. Sociocultural theories have described the media's role in promoting eating disorders by portraying a thin body-type as the ideal. However, they have neglected to describe the personality ideal which our society promotes in women. It is proposed here that anorexics incorporate and oppose this ideal. Therefore, the anorexic personality is one filled with conflict.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Rogers, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Lynn)

Predictors of Compliance and Aggressive Behavior in the Presence of Command Hallucinations

Description: The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version (SADS-C), the Social Adjustment Scale-Patient Version II (SAS-PATII) and the Command Hallucination Questionnaire (CAQ) were administered to 86 psychotic inpatients to investigate the relationship between command hallucinations, aggressive behavior, and compliance. Two SADS-C items ("severity of hallucinations" and "depersonalization") were useful as indicators of command hallucinations. Ninety-two percent had complied with their command at least once in the past month. Three SADS-C variables related to compliance with command hallucinations were identified: middle insomnia, the belief that the voice was acting in your best interest, and overt irritability. The patients' level of distortion of reality did not appear to influence compliance rates. Results also indicated that patients who experience command hallucinations were not significantly more or less dangerous than other psychotic inpatients.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Kasper, Mary E. (Mary Elizabeth)

Racial Differences in Female Achievement Motivation and Motivation to Work

Description: In the present project racial differences in female achievement motivation and motivation to work were examined, and related this information to the theory that African American females, when compared to White females, are less likely to marry someone equal to themselves in the areas of education, employment, and earning potential because of an assumed shortage of suitable African-American males. It was hypothesized that African-American females would score higher on assessments of achievement motivation and motivation to work, and rate lower the likelihood of meeting and marrying a partner equal in education level, employment level, and earning potential than would White females. Data analysis supported all hypotheses. The results were discussed in the context of the female achievement motivation literature as well as the literature concerning female motivation to work.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bruner, Yolanda Kaye

Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women

Description: Social support has been shown to lessen the negative effects of life stress on psychological and physical health. The stress buffering model and the main effects model of social support were compared using two samples of women over the age of 50 who were either married or recently widowed. These two groups represent low and high uncontrollable major life stress respectively. Other life stress events were also taken into account. Measures assessed current level of life stress, perceived social support, satisfaction with social support, and psychological symptomatology. Results using overall psychological health as the dependent variable support the main effects model.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Murdock, Melissa E. (Melissa Erleene)

Differences between Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Rape: Occurrence of PTSD

Description: This study examined the relation between level of rape acknowledgement and levels of PTSD symptoms reported in female college students. Subjects were administered the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), the PTSD Interview, and a demographics questionnaire. Subjects were then grouped into the following categories based on their responses to the SES: reported rape victims, acknowledged rape victims, unacknowledged rape victims, and a control group of non-rape subjects. Small sample analyses did not reveal the expected linear relation between the two variables. Only the acknowledged group showed greater PTSD symptoms. The unacknowledged and control groups did not significantly differ on overall PTSD symptom severity, or on any cluster of PTSD symptoms. Naturalistic selection factors are discussed that could have affected the outcome of the study.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Ovaert, Lynda B.

Self-Help Intervention and Locus of Control Perceptions of Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults

Description: Locus of Control (LOC) is operationalized as a dispositional trait remaining stable throughout life, but may also be conceptualized as a domain specific state. Widowed persons' support groups, consisting of recently conjugally bereaved older adults (N=22) and one high functioning, long-term widowed peer group leader, were utilized to test LOC malleability. A significant increase in one State measure subscale, Desire for Control, was noted. Trait LOC remained stable. The change in State and Trait LOC change did not significantly relate to psychological symptom reduction. However, Trait LOC Internality related to fewer symptoms whereas State LOC Internality related to more symptoms.
Date: August 1994
Creator: McKibbin, Christine L.

Stress Level, Background Variables, Premorbid Health Ratings, and Severity of Psychological Disorders Using DSM-III-R Ratings

Description: This study predicted that individuals diagnosed as having higher levels of stress, based upon DSM-III-R, Axis IV ratings, would also be diagnosed as having more severe forms of mental illness. Conversely, it predicted that individuals with higher premorbid health ratings, according to DSM-III-R, Axis V, would be diagnosed as having less severe forms of mental illness. Highly significant correlations were found between stress ratings and severity of disorder. Significant inverse relationships were also found between Axis V ratings and disorder severity. Additionally, several other demographic variables were significantly correlated with severity of disorder.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Eads, Julie A. (Julie Anne)

Temporally Versus Non-Temporally Contiguous Administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale and Assessment of Hypnotic Susceptibility

Description: The present study tested the hypothesis that contiguity, regarding time of administration of the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), differentially influences hypnotic susceptibility. Forty-eight subjects were administered the TAS immediately prior to assessment of hypnotic susceptibility versus 43 subjects who received the TAS one to three days before assessment of hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption, when measured in the temporally versus nontemporally contiguous context did not appear to affect hypnotic susceptibility. Absorption did, however, correlate significantly with hypnotic susceptibility in the temporally contiguous group as compared to a non-significant correlation in the nontemporally contiguous group. This finding suggests is a relationship between differential administration of the TAS with regard to time of administration and hypnotic susceptibility.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Cawood, Glenn N. (Glenn Nicolson)

Parental Expectations of Social-Emotional and Self-Help/Self-Direction Development in Abused Children

Description: The present study examined the existence of unrealistic expectations in abusive parents. It was hypothesized that abusive parents would have higher expectations of their children's social-emotional and self-help skills than nonabusive parents. It was also hypothesized that abusive parents would have higher expectations of their children's social-emotional skills than nonabusive parents when both groups compared their children to average children. Abusive and nonabusive parents were administered the Social Competence Scales of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Daily Living Skills domain of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The results contradict previous studies in this area and raise questions about present conceptualizations of expectations in abusive parents and the importance of this factor in child abuse.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Costas, Lisa Daniels

Perspective Taking and Self Disclosure

Description: The effects of taking a third person role on self disclosure, self sympatheticness and several nonverbal parameters of task involvement were examined in a psychotherapy analogue study. Subjects were classified as high or low in ego strength using previously established norms for college students. In the third person role subjects were instructed to describe themselves from the perspective of an "intimate and sympathetic best friend." An encouragement to talk format was used to facilitate self description from the first person. Support was not found for the hypotheses that altering the perspective used in self description would increase self disclosure and that high ego strength subjects would be better able to use a perspective taking intervention. Theoretical and methodological issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research are made.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Allen, Bruce W. (Bruce Wayne), 1958-

Validating the Rorschach Defense Scale by Examining Defensive Functioning in College Students

Description: This study attempted to provide validation for Lerner and Lerner's Rorschach Defense Scale by investigating the relationship between primitive defenses as measured by the Rorschach Defense Scale, level of object relations as measured by the Developmental Analysis of the Concept of the Object Scale, and characteristic defensive operations as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. One hundred and twenty undergraduates completed the Rorschach and MMPI, and the RDS and DACOS were applied to their Rorschach responses. The results show a significant positive correlation between use of primitive defenses and level of object relations development -and a significant negative correlation between the defense Projective Identification and MMPI scale 6 (Paranoia) elevation. Overall, these results did not support the validity of the RDS.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Esparza, Jana Scoville

Variables Affecting Grandchildren's Perceptions of Grandparents

Description: While many studies have investigated grandparenthood from the point of view of the grandparent, few have considered this issue from the perspective of the grandchild. In this respect, a number of variables (i.e., grandchild age and gender, parents' marital status, and grandparents' age, gender, education, kinship position, residential proximity to and frequency of visiting with grandchildren, perceived influence on the grandchild, style of grandparenting, and relationship with the parents) were investigated as determinants of the quality of the grandparent-grandchild relationship in a sample of 171 adolescents and young adults. It was found that different sets of variables operated for different grandparents to predict the quality of their relationships with grandchildren.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Shore, R. Jerald (Robert Jerald)

Stereotypes and Hiring Preferences Among Business Students as a Function of Psychologist's Attire

Description: To study what stereotypes exist regarding psychologists by the general public and determine whether and how this affects hiring preferences, 114 undergraduate business and non-business students at a large southwestern university were asked to participate. The Gough Adjective Check List was administered to determine what stereotypes are held by persons regarding psychologists. A study of visual perception/stereotype and hiring preference as a function of attire was also conducted. Three dress styles were used as stimuli. It was hypothesized that the groups would differ in their stereotypes of psychologists both cognitively and visually. There were no significant differences between the groups as a function of college major. However, a main effect for dress style was found. Possible explanations of findings are discussed.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Shaffer, Renita Philley

Back Pain Patients' Compliance with Vocational Rehabilitation: Use of the MMPI and HAT to Predict Outcome

Description: The use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Health Attribution Test (HAT) for predicting referral compliance to a state vocational rehabilitation program was evaluated. Subjects included 53 patients (26 males, 27 females) who were chosen at random three to 18 months following discharge from an inpatient chronic and spinal pain center. Subjects were administered the MMPI and HAT upon hospital admission and seven outcome measures of referral compliance were obtained. A discriminant analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that certain items would best discriminate compliance. Most discriminative of compliance was the MMPI validity scale K (Wilks Lambda = .751, p ≤ .033). A regrouping of data into two groups, active and inactive, yielded ego strength (MMPI, ES) and ability to trust others (PA) as significant differentiating variables.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Weisberg, James N. (James Noah)

Relationship Between College Student Perceived Separation and Emotional Status

Description: This study explored whether depression was related to the way college students interact with their parents. A second purpose was to explore whether the emotional states of depression, anxiety, and hostility were associated with different types of adolescent dependence (Functional, Attitudinal, Conflictual, and Emotional) on each parent. A total of 108 undergraduate students from intact families completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, hostility and psychological separation. A non-significant relationship was found between the way students relate to their parents and level of depression. However, subjects reporting angry or guilty feelings toward parents had significantly greater depression and hostility scores. Subjects reporting attitudes, values and beliefs that are not distinct from their parents also displayed significantly greater hostility scores. Furthermore, anxiety in the sample was significantly related to subjects' reports of dependence on approval, closeness and emotional support from parents.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Interrante, Ilana A. (Ilana Albanese)

The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse as Reflected in Rorschach Responses

Description: Research on child sexual abuse has been largely retrospective and anecdotal in nature, focusing on broad self-report measures of adjustment rather than on more explicit measures of psychopathology. Although there is general agreement that there are harmful effects, there is a lack of consistent empirical evidence. More specific measures, control groups, and larger Ns are needed to gain a clearer understanding. The present study examined Rorschach responses of sexually abused female children as associated with abuse characteristics. Rorschach responses of the sexually abused group were also compared with responses of female clinic controls. None of the a priori hypotheses predicting differences between the groups were supported.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Zivney, Olivia Ann

Frankel's Hypothesis of a Relation Between Phobic Symptoms and Hypnotic Responsiveness: Its Generalization to Agoraphobia

Description: The present study was designed to test Frankel and Orne's hypothesis that persons with a clinically significant phobia also show high susceptibility to hypnosis. The hypnotic susceptibility scores of 10 persons who sought treatment with hypnosis for agoraphobia were compared with the susceptibility scores of a control group of 20 persons having comparable motivation to succeed in hypnosis. The susceptibility measure was the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C, Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). The groups were also compared on: a) the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM; Nash, 1984); b) the Field Depth Inventory (FDI; Field, 1965); and c) the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS; Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974). No significant differences were found between the groups on the dependent measures. Factors which qualify the results are discussed.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Winnette, Miles

Differences in IQ Scores, Referral Source and Presenting Problem Between Boys and Girls Diagnosed ADD-H

Description: The purpose of this research was to investigate the possibility that there are sex differences between ADD-H boys and girls. ADD-H boys and girls were compared on the four variables of presenting problem, referral source, intelligence test performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and WISC-R subtest configuration. General demographics of the ADD-H boys and girls families were also examined. The subjects participating in this study were 39 girls and 41 boys from a large child outpatient facility in the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex diagnosed as ADD-H between February 1984 and February 1986. No differences were found when comparing ADD-H boys and girls on all four variables. These results may suggest that there are no real differences in regards to presenting problem, referral source, IQ scores and subtest configuration between boys and girls diagnosed ADD-H.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Harbeitner, Mary Hilado

An Examination of the Relationship Between Holland's Vocational Scales and a Measure of Interpersonal Needs

Description: Previous research has provided evidence of relationships between vocational interests and other psychological variables. Test scores from the VPI and FIRO-B for 699 white male job applicants were subjected to multiple regression analyses to determine if individual interest scales could be predicted by particular configurations of interpersonal need scales. It was hypothesized that Enterprising, Realistic, and Investigative interests would be predicted by Inclusion and Control needs and Social interests by Inclusion, Control, and Affection needs. To control for effects of sample size, a smaller sample (n = 125) was randomly drawn from the original data and subjected to identical analyses. Results indicated only partial support for some hypotheses and revealed little common variance between the two domains.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Crumpton, Gerald W. (Gerald Wayne)