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The Relationship Between Foreign Direct Investment And The Macro Economy

Description: In this thesis, I first investigate the relation between the aggregate unemployment rate and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and outflows. To study this relationship, I use a panel data set that contains 45 (developed and developing) countries observed from 1987 through 2008, and I employ Arellano and Bonds generalized methods of moments (ABGMM) estimation method for dynamic panel data. My results show that FDI inflows and outflows are not determinants of the aggregate unemployment rate. In addition, in line with macroeconomic theory, the previous level of aggregate unemployment has a positive impact on the current level of aggregate unemployment. Again, as macroeconomic theory suggests, my results show that per capita real gross domestic product (RGDP) has a negative effect on the current level of aggregate unemployment. Second, I study the long-run relationship between exports and per capita gross domestic product (instrumented by total population) using a panel data set of 51 countries from 1970 through 2008. To study this relationship, I employ the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimation method. I find that the percentage of exports in nominal gross domestic products (GDP) is sensitive to changes in the populations of host countries and, hence, to the changes in their GDP. In addition, my results show that the agreement on trade related investment measures increased the percentage of exports in the nominal GDP of developed host countries more than it did in developing host countries.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Kekec, Ibrahim

An Open Economy Model of Pakistan : Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policy

Description: This thesis examines the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Pakistan by utilizing an open economy framework. There is a great need for research about the effectiveness of macroeconomic policies as the knowledge of the relative importance of monetary and fiscal policy could prove useful to policymakers and help them understand the macroeconomic adjustment processes of these policy measures.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hameed, Abid

A Study on U.S. Japanese Foreign Trade

Description: This research presents an in depth discussion and analysis on U.S. Japanese foreign trade. It is divided into two parts. The first hypothesis states that the appreciation of the dollar in the early eighties is positively correlated with the U.S. trade deficit, especially with Japan. The second hypothesis states that Friedrich Von Hayek's Theory of Social Order applies to the development of capitalism in that country. This can also be divided into two parts, a) this generation of Japanese consumes, saves, and invests differently than previous generations, and b) Japanese consumption and investment patterns follow U.S. consumption and investment patterns with a lag.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Hachem, Daniel R. (Daniel Raymond)

Characteristics of Texas Border and Non-Border Banks and a Comparison of their Lending Practices

Description: This thesis presents a comparison of the loan to deposit ratios of Texas banks along the Mexican border and banks located throughout the rest of the state. Mean characteristics of the two groups (i.e. border and non-border groups) are presented. A multivariate regression model is used to examine the extent to which various operating ratios of the banks and differing economic conditions of the communities in which the banks are located help explain the loan to deposit ratios of the banks involved in this study. The model incorporates data from 1984-1989. No evidence was found to refute the hypothesis that Texas border banks have a lower loan to deposit ratio than their non-border counterparts. The evidence points to a need for developmental capital, supplied by some form of development bank.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Neal, William R. (William Russell)

U.S. - China Bilateral Trade 1972 - 1992

Description: The main task of this thesis is to investigate economic implications of U.S.- China trade. The study period covers from 1972 to 1992. Data are available from International Financial Statistics, Survey of Current Business, Statistical Yearbook of P.R.China. Various hypotheses are employed to explain the basis and gain of trade, the impact of trade on both economies, and the major determinants of bilateral trade flows. This thesis contains five parts: I. Introduction; II. Outlook; III. Theoretical Analysis; IV. Empirical Study; and V. Conclusion. The major findings of this thesis are that both countries have gained advantages from trade and have also faced some unpleasant problems; several widely recognized theories serve as good approaches to understand these issues; the time series distributed lag models are helpful in explaining the determinants of trade flows.
Date: August 1994
Creator: Zhang, Jianxin

Corporate Tax Rates and the Purchasing Power Parity Doctrine

Description: This thesis analyzes the effect of corporate tax rates on the purchasing-power-parity (PPP) doctrine. The data used to test this hypothesis are drawn from the U. S., the U. K., the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, and Japan. The first chapter introduces the reader to the concepts of the PPP doctrine and states the hypothesis. Chapter 2 reviews the literature on the PPP doctrine. Chapter 3 specifies a model of the PPP doctrine including tax rates. Chapter 4 reports and interprets the findings. The study is summarized and conclusions are drawn in chapter 5. In this study it is shown that tax rates are significant only in the case of the U. S. dollar/Canadian dollar exchange rate.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Ballard, Billy L. (Billy Lanoy)

Stock Returns and the Brazilian Default an Analysis of the Efficient Market and Contagion Effect Hypotheses

Description: This thesis attempts to analyze the market response of stock prices of major U.S. banks to the February, 1987 Brazilian loan default announcement. The study's general hypothesis is that the market revalued stock prices according to each bank's amount of Brazilian loan exposure. The first chapter examines the significance of the default announcement. A survey of related literature is presented in the second chapter. Chapter III specifies the methodological techniques involved in analysis of the data. Chapter IV reports the findings of the study. Conclusions about the results are drawn in Chapter V. The results indicate the market is efficient. They also suggest that individual exposure was the major determinant of bank stock price decline.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Mynatt, Joseph Ross

Population Growth and Socioeconomic Development in Nigeria 1960 - 1984

Description: This study is directed toward the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Nigeria for the period 1960-1984. A controlled population growth would positively affect every segment of the economic and social environment. With hunger and starvation, disease, poverty and illiteracy plaguing large portions of the world, Nigeria's limited resources would best be utilized if shared among a smaller population, Nigeria, like other developing African countries, does not have an official population control policy. The diversity in the Nigerian culture, the controversial nature of the subject of population control, and possibly, implementation difficulties, account for the absence of a population control policy in Nigeria. This study offers in its concluding section some policy recommendations on how to tackle Nigeria's population problem.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Asongwe, Michael N. (Michael Nde)

A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Redistribution of Regional Economic Growth

Description: Utilizing shift/share and economic base analysis, data covering employment, income, and population are analyzed for each of the nine regions of the United States as defined by the Census Bureau. The study covers 1970 through 1984 because widespread redistribution of employment and a shift toward more service-oriented, white collar jobs occurred during this period. This study presents currents trends and recommends ways in which people may better prepare for the future.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Riser, Jerome L.

The Relationship Between an Industry Average Beta Coefficient and Price Elasticity of Demand

Description: The price elasticity of demand coefficient for a good or service is a measure of the sensitivity, or responsiveness, of the quantity demanded of a product to changes in the price of that product. The price elasticity of demand coefficients were generated for goods and services in nine different industries for the years 1972 to 1984. A simple linear demand function was employed, using the changes in the Consumer Price Index as a proxy for changes in price and Personal Consumption Expenditures, taken from the National Income and Product Accounts, as a proxy for quantity. Beta measures the sensitivity, or responsiveness, of a stock to the market. An industry average beta coefficient was generated for each of the nine industries over the time period, using the beta coefficients published by Value Line for firms which met certain criteria. In order to test the relationship between the price elasticity of demand and an industry average beta coefficient, a simple regression was performed using the beta coefficient as the dependent variable and the price elasticity of demand coefficient as the independent variable. The results broke down into 3 basic categories: those industries for which there seemed to be no relationship, those industries where there was a fairly strong probability that a relationship exists and the price elasticity of demand explains at least part of the variation in beta coefficients, and those industries where there was a very high probability that a relationship does exist and the variation in the price elasticity of demand coefficients substantially explained the variation in the industry average beta coefficients. The first category includes the food at home, tobacco, and shoe industries. The second category includes the men's clothing, the women's clothing, and the alcoholic beverages industries, and the third includes the automobile, airline, and fast-food restaurant industries.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Joslyn-Battaglia, Kari

A Comparison of Permanent and Measured Income Inequality

Description: The degree of inequality present in the distribution of income may be measured with a gini coefficient. If the distribution is found to empirically fit a particular distribution function, then the gini coefficient may be derived from the mean value of income and the variation from the mean. For the purpose of this study, the Beta II distribution was used as the function which most closely approximates the actual distribution of income. The Beta II function provides the skewness which is normally found in an income distribution as well as fulfilling other required characteristics. The degree of inequality was approximated for the distribution of income from all sources and from ten separate components of income sources in constant (1973) dollars. Next, permanent income from all sources and from the ten component sources was estimated based upon actual income using the double exponential smoothing forecasting technique. The estimations of permanent income, which can be thought of as expected income, were used to derive measures of permanent income inequality. The degree of actual income inequality and the degree of permanent income inequality, both being represented by the hypothetical gini coefficient , were compared and tested for statistical differences. For the entire period under investigation, 1952 to 1979, the net effect was no statistically significant difference between permanent and actual income inequality, as was expected. However, significant differences were found in comparing year by year. Relating permanent income inequality to the underlying, structural inequality present in a given distribution, conclusions were drawn regarding the role of mobility in its ability to alter the actual distribution of income. The impact of business fluctuations on the distribution of permanent income relative to the distribution of actual income was studied in an effort to reach general conclusions. In general, cyclical upswings tend to reduce permanent inequality ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: McHargue, Susan L. (Susan Layne)

The Relationship Between Domestic Savings and Other Economic Indicators in Korea

Description: This study is an analysis of the relationship between domestic savings and three economic indicators in the Republic of Korea during the 1950s through 1980s. While domestic saving is affected by many economic phenomena, the analysis is confined to national income, exports, and inflation. The study is divided into five chapters. These are entitled (1) Introduction, (2) Domestic Savings, (3) Income and Domestic Savings, (4) Exports and Domestic Savings, (5) Inflation and Domestic Savings. In chapter I, Korea and the Korean economy are introduced, and the scope of the study is stated. Chapter II reviews the related realm of domestic savings: definition, kinds, and determinants of domestic savings. Chapter III presents the relationship between different incomes and domestic savings, and shows non-labor income contributes more powerfully to the formation of domestic savings than labor income. Chapter IV contains effects of exports, and hypothesis testing. The effect of exports suggests that export expansion affects domestic savings positively via an increase in gross national product. Chapter V deals with the correlation between inflation and domestic savings, and its testing. The correlation between inflation and domestic savings is not generally clear except for some specific cases.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Kim, Sunghoo

The Linkage Effect and Determinants of Direct Foreign Investment and Technology Transfer on a Developing Country's Industrialization: A Case Study of Taiwan

Description: Industrialization has held great attention in developing countries. Taiwan has demonstrated rapid industrial development. The problem of this study is to find out, what incentives the government in Taiwan has provided to foreign investors, what contributions foreign investment has made to capital formation and government revenue, and what been its impact on foreign trade and the balance of payments. The results of our study conclude that DFI and technology transfer can have a significant positive impact on a developing host country's industrialization.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Chen, Dor-Pin

The Impact of the 1967 War on the Jordanian Economic Development

Description: This thesis is an analysis of the Jordanian economic developmental process which demonstrates that it expanded rapidly between 1948 and 1970. During the period under study, Jordan had to face two wars, in 1948 and 1967, which had inverse effects on the economy. After each war, the economy experienced a period of recovery due primarily to government efforts to promote investment; the existence of a more educated people represented by the refugees; and the role of foreign aid. Chapter I is a brief introduction to the Jordanian economy. Chapter II is a discussion of some theories of economic development. Chapters III and IV provide us with a more detailed description of the economic situation before and after the 1967 war. However, the purpose of Chapter V is to incorporate the theory that appears to handle the processes discussed in both Chapters III and IV.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Zoubi, Marwan M. Sharif (Marwan Mohd Sharif)

Nigerian Military Government and Problems of Agricultural Development

Description: This thesis attempts to analyze the military government's role in solving the country's agricultural problems. This analysis is essential because it was during the military's stay in power that Nigeria's potential as a selfsufficient and food exporting nation declined. Materials collected to analyze the above problems reveal that the military government's lack of adequate personnel to supervise and implement decisions taken on agriculture, unplanned schemes, and unresearched projects were partly responsible for the government's inability to solve Nigeria's agricultural problems. While it may be necessary to blame the military government for not being able to completely solve the country's numerous agricultural problems, the presence of global political and economic decisions seriously hampered measures taken by the military government.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Agboaye, Izilin Christiana

Some Causes of Inflation in Korea

Description: The purpose of this study is to find causes of inflation in Korea. We hypothesized that inflation in Korea was a "mixed" inflation generated by not only monetary factors but also nonmonetary factors. The data was obtained mainly from International Finance Statistics (IMF) and Monthly Bulletin (The Bank of Korea). The first chapter introduces the Korean economy. Chapter two surveyed the effects of import prices, wages, and money supply in inflationary process. The third chapter studied some theoretical backgrounds of inflation. Chapter four analyzed the results of statistical tests. Finally, chapter five consisted of summary and policy implications.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Lee, Ihn Shik

Economic Development of the Oil and Natural Gas Sector in Bahrain

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is determining the viability of economic development in the oil and natural gas sector in Bahrain since its independence in August 1971, and the changing role of the government in shaping oil policies and managing downstream operations. This inquiry emphasizes the importance of cooperation and coordination in the oil industry among the Arab Gulf States. This study concludes that Bahrain's economy is passing through and era which will have one of two possible endings: one will protect the independence of the country and promote cooperation with the other Arab Gulf States as a transitional stage toward a board regional unity; the other will lead Bahrain to become a commercial outlet for Saudi Arabia.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Sadik, Abdullah

A General Economic Study of Patterns of Government Expenditures in Thailand

Description: An analysis of Thai government expenditures demonstrates that they expanded rapidly between 1900 and 1969, due primarily to rising prices and the extension of government functions, particularly during the post-war period. In contrast, the war effect had little influence on the growth of expenditures. During the period under study, Thai government expenditures were devoted largely to general, social, and economic services, with emphasis on transportation and communication, defense, agriculture, and education. Current expenditures (for defense, education, etc.) represented a higher percentage of total government expenditures than did capital expenditures (for public construction, social services, etc.). In general, the case of Thailand indicates that levels of government expenditure were higher in conjunction with greater emphasis on economic and social development.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Chandraprasert, Poch

The Harambee Movement and its Effects on Kenya's Economic Development

Description: This paper examines the Harambee Movement and how it affected Kenya's economic development. Before 1963 Kenya was a British colony and economic development favored the colonial government. At Independence the new government tried to restructure the economy for the Kenyan people. Recognizing the lack of adequate capital and a rural development program, the movement became a means by which people could provide services for themselves. These services included schools, technical training, water supply and health facilities. Sources of data were books, articles, government publications and papers published by the Institute of Development Studies, Nairobi University. The Harambee Movement flourished in the provision of educational opportunities, clean water supply and health facilities. Problems included planning, coordinating and duplication of services.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Moga, Mary M.

Indigenous Private Enterprise in Nigeria

Description: This study is directed towards the relationship between the economic environment in Nigeria and its indigenous private sector from 1960 to 1980. Nigeria practices mixed capitalism aided by the national government, foreign governments and international agencies. The 1972 and 1977 Indigenization Decrees were passed to eliminate foreigners from certain economic fields to be replaced by Nigerian citizens. The economic environment of Nigeria is less than suitable for the operation of modern business. Roads, telephones, telex services, electricity services, law and order and a few other critical underpinnings of business are inefficiently provided for in the economic system of the country. Despite the unfortunate economic environment Nigerian Entrepreneurs, especially the Ibos, have been particularly industrious. However, indigenous private enterprise in the country has not been especially successful.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Shitah, Chapi Martin

OPEC: A Sustained Cartel?

Description: The problem with which this paper is concerned is that of examining some ideas and predictions of some American economists about the survival of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). This paper is divided into three parts; the first part includes the introduction, examines the importance of oil, and analyzes the history of the oil industry. This part is composed of Chapters I and II. Part two examines OPEC's formation and objectives and the cartel theory with concentration on OPEC. This part is composed of Chapters III and IV. Part three analyzes some economists' ideas regarding OPEC survival. It examines the economic and political realities of OPEC during the last two decades and discusses its present problems. This paper concludes that OPEC is a strong and sustained cartel.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Zaher, Ghazi

Comparative Development with Large Endowments of Capital (Oil Revenue) Three Case Studies Nigeria, Iran, Libya

Description: This study is an examination and comparison of the manner in which Nigeria, Iran and Libya used oil revenue for their economic development. The research methodology was the case study approach, utilizing statistical time series data, as well as a historical profile of each country's income and expenditure accounts. As a prelude to the oil injection, the pre-oil revenue economy, the history of the oil industry, and the previously implemented development plans of each of these nations is surveyed. The impact of the oil revenues on the standard of living and the non-oil sectors of these economies is examined. The paper concludes with projections concerning each country's ability to continue to promote economic development when its exhaustible oil reserves runs out.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Inyang, Eno F.

Foreign Direct Investment and Political Risk

Description: This paper will show that, despite the need for extension of foreign direct investment in the form of multinational corporations to capital-scarce, less developed countries, political risk creates a gap between the demand and supply of foreign investments. In Chapter II, the patterns of foreign direct investment are analyzed. Chapter III reviews the various sources of political risk and concludes that the existence of political risk is an obstacle to the formation of optimum level investment. Chapter IV discusses the relative positions of the less developed countries and the multinational corporations. Chapter V shows the problems caused by the absence of a universal, regulatory institution. Chapter VI presents case studies of corporations based in Chile, Peru, and Angola. Chapter VII suggests ways that political risk can be minimized.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Bil, Faruk