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Reactions and Learning as Predictors of Job Performance in a United States Air Force Technical Training Program

Description: This study is based on Kirkpatrick's (1996) four level evaluation model. The study assessed the correlation between and among three levels of data that resulted from evaluation processes used in the U.S. Air Force technical training. The three levels of evaluation included trainee reaction (Level 1), test scores (Level 2), and job performance (Level 3). Level 1 data was obtained from the results of a 20 item survey that employed a 5-point Likert scale rating. Written test scores were used for Level 2 data. The Level 3 data was collected from supervisors of new graduates using a 5-point Likert scale survey. The study was conducted on an existing database of Air Force technical training graduates. The subjects were trainees that graduated since the process of collecting and storing Levels 1 and 2 data in computerized database began. All subjects for this study graduated between March 1997 and January 1999. A total of 188 graduates from five Air Force specialties were included. Thirty-four cases were from a single course in the aircrew protection specialty area; 12 were from a single course in the munitions and weapons specialty area; and 142 were from three separate courses in the manned aerospace maintenance specialty area. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were computed to determine the correlation coefficients between Levels 1 and 2; Level 1 and 3; Level 2 and 3 for each subject course. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the composite of Levels 1 and 2 and Level 3. There were significant correlation coefficients between Levels 1 and 2 and Levels 2 and 3 for only one of the five courses. The linear regression analysis revealed no significant correlation using the composite of Levels 1 and 2 as a predictor of Level 3.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Boyd, Steven W.

Dimensions of Quality : Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Texas Public Prekindergartens

Description: This study explores beliefs and practices about standards of quality in Texas public prekindergartens as viewed from various perspectives, including prekindergarten teachers, administrators of prekindergarten programs, and families of prekindergarten students. These beliefs and practices are compared with widely-accepted national standards of quality for preschool programs.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Kelly, Katherine Taddie

Development of a Discouragement Scale for Adults with Normative Data for Gay Males

Description: According to Alfred Adler, founder of Individual Psychology, a feeling of inferiority is in some degree common to all people. People who are unable to overcome these inferiority feelings by striving for cooperation may become discouraged. Although there are three scales to measure social interest, no scales measuring discouragement for adults was found. Additionally, Adler held basic assumptions regarding homosexuality, and the findings suggest that the assumptions should be reexamined. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, three University of North Texas candidates developed a discouragement scale for adults 18 years of age and older, known as the Discouragement Scale for Adults (DSA). Discouragement was examined relative to the five life tasks. Second, this candidate normed the instrument for the scores of gay male subjects and compared it to the scores of the other subject groups. Since the emphasis was on developing the instrument and norming it for various subject groups, no hypothesis was developed. Data was collected on three subject groups, known as the general norm subjects, the discouraged subjects, and the gay male subjects. Analyses were performed on the scores. Among the analyses, it was found that gay male subjects were slightly more discouraged than the general norm subjects, and the discouraged subjects were far greater discouraged than the other two subject groups. Initial reliability and validity was found to be high, offering support that the DSA is a reliable and valid instrument. The recommendations for further research include cultural and gender studies, predicting behavior, counseling intervention, and exploring the relationship between discouragement and stressors, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Date: December 1996
Creator: Chernin, Jeffrey N.

A Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Video-Based versus Live Presentation Staff Development on Teachers' Cognitive Learning and Attitudes

Description: The problem of this study was the identification of effective and efficient means of providing quality staff development for reading instruction within a school-district setting. The study investigated the comparative effectiveness of two staff development delivery systems measured by 1) a cognitive test of a school district's reading program and 2) an affective measure of teacher attitudes toward staff development. The sample was drawn from the teacher population of a large urban school district. The 46 subjects were elementary school teachers in grades K-5 randomly divided into two groups: Group A (videotape with a trained on-site facilitator) and Group B (face-to-face live presenter). Participants in the study received training using "The Fort Worth Reading Program," a staff development program designed by the researcher. In addition to the presentation of content information, which is the central component, the program features small group discussions, off-line activities, and question and answer periods. Both groups received the same treatment with the following exception. A central component to the Group A training was the presentation of content information in a videotape format. Group B did not view the videotape, but received the same information via live presenter. Two instruments developed by the researcher were used in the study: 1) The Teacher Staff Development Questionnaire, a Likert-type survey to obtain teacher attitudes toward staff development, and 2) The Cognitive Test of Reading Knowledge, an instrument designed to measure cognitive objectives of the district's reading program. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that elementary classroom teachers, regardless of their attitudes toward staff development, learn content material equally well with either of the two delivery systems explored in this study. Specific suggestions and recommendations for further studies are addressed and discussed. Examples of the measurement instruments are included.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Cox, Alan R. (Alan Ray)

The Relationship of Chinese Malaysian Maternal Child Rearing Practices and Preschool Children's Empathy

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between Malaysian maternal child-rearing practices and preschool children's empathic behavior. This study additionally investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and child-rearing practices, as well as explored whether gender differences exist in preschool children's empathy.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Lee, Yit-Fong

A Content Analysis of School Reading Textbooks in Taiwan and in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the values, beliefs, and ideas in school reading textbooks (Readers) in Taiwan and in Texas. It intended to examine the social control function of school Readers, with which a culture deliberately molds its young generation. This study employed primarily qualitative methods. The collection of data used the technique of content analysis, student surveys, and teacher expert panel discussions. The analysis of data followed a constant comparative approach. The themes shared by the two sets of Readers included family, friends, humans and living creatures, political ideals, reading/writing, appreciation of nature, science, indomitable spirit, turning danger into safety, setting goals, education, desirable and undesirable qualities or behaviors. Despite the similarities of these themes, the substance or focus of them may vary. The themes unique to the Texas Readers were content knowledge, cultural diversity, dilemma and choice, observations about people, words, tomorrow's technology, winning, and general truth. The themes unique to the Taiwan Readers included life philosophy, learning, necessary difficulties, sensitivity, and military strategies. The theme occurring most frequently in both sets of Readers was the desirable qualities or behaviors. The values advocated in the Taiwan Readers were idealistic and had a society-centered focus (for example, patriotism, appreciation of others, serving others, and honesty). Absolute moral principles were taught. A group orientation and altruism were evident. In contrast, the Texas Readers did not have such an emphasis on the concept of group. Personal feelings, individual accomplishments, and self-centered values (for instance, effort, courage, determination, talent, and independence) received more attention. The values were perceived to be relative to the situation. The Taiwan Readers, produced by a national education system, transmitted traditional Chinese beliefs and values. The Texas Readers, with the publishers' intent to avoid controversies, presented more general or universal values. Although the ...
Date: August 1993
Creator: Wang, Sheue-shya

The Effects of a Strategic Thinking Program on the Cognitive Ability of Seventh Grade Students

Description: This study used a posttest only design to determine the effects of a strategic thinking program on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT, Form 4) scores of seventh graders who received direct instruction in Strategic Thinking Skills (STS) with the scores of seventh graders who did not receive direct instruction in STS. The study was conducted in a large suburban middle school in north Texas.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Houchins, Joyce S. (Joyce Ann S.)

The Impact of Student Thinking Journals and Generic Problem Solving Software on Problem Solving Performance and Transfer of Problem Solving Skills

Description: This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using a software package called Moptown Hotel. Students completed separate posttests that measured (1) performance on problems of the same kind as those used in instruction, and (2) transfer of skills to other kinds of problems. Scores of students who wrote thinking journals prior to testing were compared with scores of students who did not. Results indicate that students who wrote thinking journals performed the same as students who did not when tested on problems similar to those practiced in class. Tests in which students transferred their skills to word problems, however, produced significant differences. There was no significant difference between scores when averaged over all four weekly occasions. However, for the final session alone, students who wrote thinking journals scored higher on tests of problem solving transfer than students who did not (p < .01). The study also examined the relationship between the degree of metacognitive thought displayed in students' journal entries, and their measured problem solving ability. Results indicate that students who had higher average reflectivity scores also had higher average problem solving performance and transfer scores (p < .05). It was also noted that the significant relationship between reflectivity and scores of problem solving ability was only observed in male students. It was concluded that under the right conditions, and for the right kinds of problems, thinking journal writing can help students understand their own thinking processes, resulting in improved problem solving behavior. The study also raises the question of whether there are differences between the ways that male and female students apply metacognitive awareness gained through journal writing experiences.
Date: August 1993
Creator: Sullivan, Gary E. (Gary Eugene)

Teacher Study Groups: A Case Study

Description: The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the operation and impact of teacher study groups at one school site throughout a school year. The study was exploratory in nature. The research questions focused on the major factors in the school's external and internal context that impacted the study groups, the typical behaviors and interactions of the study group participants, and the impact of the study groups on the participants, the curriculum, and instruction.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Rowland, Elizabeth Fraser

Subsidy ("Vanity") Publishing Among American College and University Faculty

Description: The problem of this study was subsidy ("vanity") publishing among college and university faculty. The purpose of the study was to estimate the extent to which postsecondary faculty use subsidy presses for the publication of their scholarly writings and the professional reasons for which academicians choose these presses to publish their works, viz., tenure, promotion, or salary increase. An additional purpose was to compare the subsidy publication experiences of faculty according to the types of institutions which employ them. The study involved 11 national subsidy publishers and 1,124 subsidy-published authors throughout the United States. Subsidy-published authors were identified occupationally as faculty by their appearance in the 1990 edition of The National Faculty Directory. The subjects in this study consisted of (a) faculty members listed in The National Faculty Directory. 1990 who are (b) known to have used subsidy presses for publishing their writings. A major finding of the study was that the proportion of vanity-published authors who are college and university faculty was small. Twenty-seven percent of the faculty whose books had been published by subsidy presses indicated that they had written and published in order to earn salary increases. Another 23% indicated that they had their books published to obtain promotions. Seventeen percent had their books published for the purpose of gaining tenure. Finally, one-third of the faculty surveyed identified miscellaneous other reasons for publishing their books through subsidy presses. More than two-thirds of the faculty who had used vanity presses (69%) claimed that their subsidy-published books had been effective in helping them achieve their purposes for publishing. Thirty percent judged their subsidy-produced books as ineffective. The majority of the subsidy-published faculty in the study were employed either by research universities or community/junior colleges. Only 26% of those surveyed indicated that they would choose a subsidy publisher if they ...
Date: May 1991
Creator: Alahmad, Husam I. (Husam Ibrahim)

Parent Adaptive Doll Play with Children Experiencing Parental Separation/Divorce

Description: Parent Adaptive Doll Play, a technique in an early stage of development, is designed for use by parents in assisting their young children to cope with the stresses of parental separation/divorce. The effects of technique implementation by parents of three- through six-year-old children were investigated. Data was collected before and after parents received training and implemented the technique over an eight-week period. Parents completed the Child Behavior Rating Scale, Burks' Behavior Rating Scales, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Parental Attitude Scale. Twenty-two parents, reporting marital separation through separation and/or divorce, within 18 months prior to the beginning of the study, and reporting more than 50 percent physical custody of a three- through six-year-old child qualified for participation. Twelve children were experimental subjects and ten were control subjects. To determine differences between groups, a one-way analysis of covariance was performed on each post test variable. Positive differences were calculated in several areas of child behavior by parents of subjects in the experimental group. No significant differences between groups were found in any area of child behavior. The score which most closely approached significance, however, was found in the Burks' Behavior Rating Scale area of poor anger control.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Brennan, Carol A. (Carol Ann)

Performance on Selected Mathematics and Reading Assessment Tests as Predictors of Achievement in Remedial Mathematics

Description: The problem of this study was performance on selected mathematics and reading assessment tests as predictors of achievement in remedial mathematics. The purpose of the study was twofold. The first was to determine the internal consistency of a locally developed remedial mathematics placement test and the mathematics section of the Pre-TASP Test. The second was to determine the predictive validity of performance on (a) the local remedial mathematics placement test, (b) the mathematics section of the Pre-TASP Test, and (c) the Descriptive Tests of Language Skills, Reading Comprehension Test in combination with demographic variables for mid-semester achievement, end-of-semester achievement, and course success in three levels of remedial mathematics at Richland College, Dallas, Texas.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Branum, Barbara K. (Barbara Kay)

Academic Achievement of National Social Fraternity Pledges Compared to Non-Fraternity Students

Description: This study examined the academic achievement of national social fraternity pledges compared to non-fraternity students at the University of Texas at Arlington. It was done to determine whether significant differences existed between the grade point averages of pledges of social fraternities and those of students who did not pledge a social fraternity, and to determine whether significant differences existed among fraternities when compared with each other with respect to academic achievement. This study was meant to provide a research design that could be used by other colleges and universities with fraternities to conduct the same comparison of academic performance. In the fall semester of 1989, 164 pledges were selected as the population for the study to be matched with non-fraternity students based on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, age, sex, classification, academic major, and number of hours attempted. A T-test of like groups was performed on the entire population with no significant difference found at the .05 level between all the fraternity pledges and all the matched pairs. A T-test of like groups was performed on the pledges from each separate organization and there was a significant difference among three of the fraternities. Two of the fraternities had significantly higher grade point averages than those of their matched pairs, and one group of matched pairs had a significantly higher grade point average than the fraternity. Of the 17 fraternities, 12 had higher grade point averages than their matched pairs and five of the matched pairs had higher grade point averages than the fraternities. The results of this study show that objective data can be collected to address the issue of academic excellence comparing fraternity and non-fraternity populations. It is recommended that further study be conducted in this area to establish longitudinal data, with specific examination of the scholarship programs of ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Gardner, Kent Lee

Academic, Behavioral, and Social Competency Characteristics of Non-Handicapped, Learning Disabled, and Emotionally/Behaviorally Disordered Adjudicated Juveniles

Description: The juvenile justice system is society's response to juvenile misconduct. In spite of numerous federal, state, and local programs, the problem of juvenile delinquency persists. An increasing number of juveniles are being taken into custody and placed in institutional settings. Although juvenile delinquents share a number of common general characteristics (e.g., sex, minority, lower socioeconomic status, a history of school failure), they are not a homogeneous group. Effective educational interventions with delinquent juveniles can meet their unique academic, vocational, and social skills deficits. Handicapped juveniles are disproportionately represented among juvenile correctional facility populations. The identification of handicapped juveniles among delinquent populations is compounded as they share many of the same general characteristics. Federal statutes require individualized educational programs for all handicapped juveniles. This research investigated academic, behavioral, and social competencies of non-handicapped and handicapped adjudicated youth. Specifically, this investigation assessed measures of academic performance, classroom behavior, self-esteem, and social behavior. ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences between non-handicapped, learning disabled, and emotionally/behaviorally disordered adjudicated juveniles in reading achievement, mathematics achievement, and teacher generated measures of classroom behavior.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Campbell, Robert E. (Robert Eugene)

Assessment of the Effects of Communication Training on the Adult Elderly and the Assisting Adult Child

Description: This study examined the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on affection, communication, and relationship between elderly parents and their assisting adult children. Twenty-eight pairs of parents and children were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Subjects took Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire as pre-, post-, and follow-up tests. Parents and children in the treatment groups attended a four-session STEP workshop. No significant differences were found on the 2 x 2 analysis of variance for repeated measures for the parents or adult children. Quinn's affection and relationship variables approached significance for the parents over time. His variable affection approached significance for the children over time, irrespective of group. Agreement approached significance for children in the treatment group. The results for the parents regarding affection suggest that the study may have emphasized their feelings of trust. Although the data for relationship approached significance, it was negative, indicating that parents in the treatment group may have reduced their interaction with their assisting children perhaps because they were learning new communication skills. The data for the children regarding affection approached significance, but it was negative, suggesting they felt free to question their feelings about themselves and their parents. The results for children in the treatment group regarding agreement may suggest that the study increased their awareness of areas of agreement with their parents. When the data for parents and children were compared, communication approached significance for the parents; that is, they felt more comfortable with their communication with their children than did their children. The variables affection and perception showed significance. The elderly parents perceived their relationship with their children more positively than did their children. Absence of statistically significant data may be explained because Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire was not sensitive enough. Analysis of covariance might have identified significant findings. ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Goldstein, Roberta Eisman

Curriculum Analysis of Content Related to Rural Nursing in Baccalaureate and Associate Degree Nursing Programs in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which rural nursing content is included in the curricula of baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs in Texas. Additional purposes include determining the association between the emphasis on rural nursing content perceived by curricular chairpersons as ideal and current content emphasis, examining the difference in rural nursing emphasis between the two program levels, determining variables predictive of rural nursing emphasis and determining efforts to recruit students from rural areas. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire developed by the investigator. Statistical analyses of these data were then conducted. Major findings include the determination of current and perceived ideal emphasis of rural nursing content, the difference in rural nursing emphasis between baccalaureate and associate degree nursing schools in Texas, the association between perceived ideal and actual content emphasis, those variables which are predictive of rural nursing emphasis in undergraduate curricula in Texas and the recruitment efforts from rural areas made by each level of program.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Singer, Shannon Gail

A Descriptive Study of a Native African Mental Health Problem Known in Zimbabwe as zvirwere zvechivanhu

Description: This is a study conducted in Zimbabwe which compared a group of 50 zvirvere zvechivanhu patients and a group of 50 non-patients in age, sex, marital status, level of education and claims of spirit possession. Claims of spirit possessions and types of spirits, as pointed out by Bennel (1982), were used as symptoms of zvirwere zvechivanhu. The two groups were also compared in symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R used in the study. The SCL-90-R, developed by Derogatis (1975), is a 90-item symptom check list used to screen people for psychological problems reflected in the nine symptom dimensions of somatization, obsessive/ compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and in the three global scores of Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index and Positive Symptom Total. The subjects were chosen from two different sites, using a systematic sampling method. Three statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The Chi-square was used to analyze data on descriptive variables. The T-test and 2 x 2 analysis of variance were used to analyze the data on symptom dimensions and global scores. The study had one main hypothesis and nine subhypotheses. The main hypothesis was that zvirwere zvechivanhu patients were significantly different from the non-patients on the overall global scores. The nine subhypotheses stated that the patient and non-patient groups were significantly different in the nine separate symptom dimensions. The study concluded that the zvirwere zvechivanhu patients were significantly different from the non-patients in the overall global scores. In the nine separate symptom dimensions, it was concluded that the two groups were the same in all except the somatization and obsessive/compulsive system dimensions.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Mungadze, Jerry Jesphat

Development of an Expert System to Teach Diagnostic Skills

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to develop an expert system that could C D perform medical diagnoses In selected problem areas, and C2) provide diagnostic Insights to assist medical students In their training. An expert system Is a computer-based set of procedures and algorithms that can solve problems In a given domain. Two research questions were proposed. The first was "Given a problem space defined by a matrix of diseases and symptoms, can a computer-based model be derived that will consistently perform accurate and efficient diagnoses of cases within that problem area?" The second question was "If the techniques derived from the model are taught to a medical student, is there a subsequent improvement of diagnostic skill?" An expert system was developed which met the objectives of the study. It was able to diagnose cases in the two problem areas studied with an accuracy of 94-95%. Furthermore, it was able to perform those diagnoses in a very efficient manner, often using no more than the theoretical minimum number of steps. The expert system employed three phases: rapid search by discrimination, confirmation by pattern matching against prototypes, and elimination of some candidates (impossible states) by making use of negative information. The discrimination phase alone achieved accuracies of 73-78%. By comparison, medical students achieved mean accuracies of 54-55% in the same problem areas. This suggests that novices could improve their diagnostic accuracy by approximately 20% by following the simple rules used in the first phase of the expert system. Curricular implications are discussed. When 49 first-year medical students at the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine were exposed to some of the insights of the expert system by means of a videotaped 10- minute lecture, their diagnostic approach was modified and the accuracy of their diagnoses did improve. However, the degree ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Elieson, S. Willard (Sanfred Willard)

The Effect of Color in Computer Assisted Instruction on Vocabulary Retention Rates and Computer Attitudes of Selected Upward Bound Students

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on selected Upward Bound students' vocabulary retention rate and attitude toward computers when using color in a computer assisted instructional (CAI) program. Past research on the use of color in the educational process does not answer questions about possible effects it may have when used in CAI programs. Specific areas addressed by this study include: (1) differences in color computer assisted instructional software and achromatic versions of the lesson, (2) differences in the short-term vocabulary retention rate for color versus achromatic versions, (3) differences in the long-term vocabulary retention rate for color versus achromatic versions, (4) differences on the affective attitude scale for color versus achromatic versions, (5) differences in short-term memory based on gender and computer experience, (6) differences in long-term memory based on gender and computer experience and (7) differences on the affective attitude scale based on gender and computer experience. Subjects in the experiment were high school students participating in Upward Bound programs at Texas Christian University and the University of North Texas. A pretestposttest design was used and data were obtained from seventy-one students. A CAI program presented students with twenty words and definitions via a drill and practice mode. The words came from Schuster's list of rare and seldom used words considered easy to learn. Two computer systems were used in this study, achromatic and color. Students completed the Computer Attitude Scale at the beginning and end of the CAI lesson. A pretest, immediate posttest and two week delayed posttest were administered to both experimental groups. Analysis of the data revealed a significant difference in long-term memory based on gender and computer experience. Girls using the color version of the lesson scored significantly higher on the delayed posttest than girls using the achromatic version.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Latham, Charles V. (Charles Vernon)

The Effect of the Conflict Between Instructional Leadership and Building Management Roles on Job Satisfaction of the Texas Public High School Principal

Description: The problem of this study was the conflict perceived by Texas Public High School Principals involving two roles which have been described as contradictory in nature; namely as an instructional leader and as a building manager. This study was also concerned with the level of job satisfaction of the Texas Public High School Principal. 1,205 Texas Public High School Principals identified by the Texas Education Agency and University Interscholastic League were mailed a three part questionnaire survey. 700 principals (or 58.09% of the entire population) returned the completed surveys. The questionnaire "Demographic Survey for Texas Public High School Principals" consisted of eight questions. The thirty-four statement "Questionnaire for Texas High School Principals" allowed principals to provide their perceptions of the roles and responsibilities for their present position as well as an ideal position. The final questionnaire, the four question "Survey of Job Satisfaction", assessed the level of job satisfaction for each principal. Hypothesis one was analyzed with a one-way ANOVA to determine if principals differed in their perceptions of their job roles and job positions. These positions included both the present job position and a more desired or ideal job position. The differences in these positions resulted in conflict. Hypothesis two utilized a point bi-serial correlation to find a significant difference in the number of satisfied and dissatisfied principals. Research questions one through three compared the responses from the surveys by the demographic variables. Significant differences for perceptions of instructional leadership and building management, job satisfaction, and conflict respectively were reported. A summary, findings, conclusions, implications, and recommendations for further study, conclude the dissertation. Findings of the study conclude that the more assistance a principal has, the less conflict the principal seems to have between the roles of instructional leader and building manager.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Hulen, Chris Wendell

An Ethnographic Study of the Use of Puppetry with a Children's Group

Description: This study utilized an ethnographic methodology to examine and describe the various aspects and processes occurring in a children's group as the members created their own puppets and accompanying puppet plays. Individual and interactive behavior patterns were isolated and analyzed as a means of gaining an in depth understanding of the puppetry process. The puppetry process, in turn, was viewed in terms of information it provided regarding the individual members and the group process. The facilitative and non-facilitative aspects of the procedure were delineated. The adult leader met with a group of six boys, in grades four and five, for 12 one-hour sessions in which they made puppets and then created puppet plays around issues that they had articulated as problems. The group sessions were videotaped and transcribed. The transcriptions were coded in an effort to extensively analyze the puppetry process and the group process, and the ways in which the two processes interacted. An independent observer/rater was utilized in order to provide some validity for the researcher's reported results. The puppet-making task appeared to offer an opportunity for individuals to begin to come together in a common, but individual task. Characteristic styles and individual personality dynamics were evidenced. General response to the task was enthusiastic, with varying degrees of satisfaction expressed regarding their finished products. The play-creating and performing process met with less success than the puppet-making. While the group members appeared to be generally amenable to contributing ideas for the puppet plays, the process met with far more resistance in the cooperative task of putting their ideas into a finished product. The group discussion and interaction that occurred around these tasks provided a vehicle by which to view levels of interpersonal skills and the group's overall stage of development. The puppets the children created appeared to act as ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Deniger, Marcy M. (Marcy Marble)