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Perceptions of Graduate Courses and Competencies Associated with High School and Junior College Athletic Administration

Description: Texas 5A high school and junior college athletic directors' perceptions concerning graduate courses and competencies relating to athletic director performance were investigated. Graduate courses needing emphasis for prospective directors, most and least beneficial graduate courses, perceptions of values of graduate courses, and selected skills necessary for performance of duties were ranked. Significant differences of perceptions of values of graduate courses between 5A high school and junior college athletic directors were found using chi square. Significant differences between graduate course areas and competency areas in Communications, Technical, Business and Public Relations were found utilizing a t-test. 5A athletic directors receive adequate preparation in Communications. Junior college athletic directors receive adequate preparation in Business and Public Relations.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Davey, Diane F.

The Relationship Between Cohesion and Performance in Competitive Bowling Teams

Description: The purpose of this present investigation was twofold: to determine the relationship between cohesion and performance for successful and unsuccessful bowling teams and to investigate the internal consistency of items from the Group Environment Questionnaire. Subjects were 148 bowling teams (28 men's, 55 women's, 65 mixed--3-5 members each) from 14 different leagues. Results revealed that task cohesion (ATGT) in early, mid, and late season, as well as social cohesion (ATGS) in late season significantly differentiated between high/low cohesion teams. In addition, successful teams (i.e., league position) exhibited significantly higher levels of both task and composite cohesion. All cohesion scales, with the exception of ATGS in early season, revealed a moderate to high level of internal consistency.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Frierman, Steven H. (Steven Howard)

Relationship Between Ventilation and Oxygen Uptake at 40% And 85% of Peak Oxygen Uptake in 18-35-Year-Old Women Using the Arm Crank Ergometer

Description: This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% and 85% of V02 peak intensity in 30 upper body fit and 30 unfit 18- 35-year-old women. The correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% of peak intensity for the fit group (r = -.51) and the unfit group (r = -.48) were modestly negative. At 85% intensity the relationship between ventilation and oxygen uptake in the two groups was -.44 and -.66, respectively. The lower correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake observed at the 85% level of peak intensity among the unfit group could be due to a lower ventilatory threshold (66% = fit; 49% = unfit), lesser local muscle changes, along with reduced lactate and C02 management; all of which would be improved with training.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Zervopoulos, Peter C. (Peter Cosmas)

A Kinematic Comparison Between Greater-and Lesser-Skilled Powerlifters Doing the Traditional Style Deadlift

Description: Comparison kinematic models of the traditional style deadlift are presented. Data was obtained through film and analyzed via computer and computer graphics. The comparison between the models revealed that the greater-skilled: 1. used less trunk flexion from the instant of initial trunk lean to the instant of maximum trunk lean, 2. used less knee extension (in same time interval as 1), and 3. demonstrated a smaller horizontal distance between the body center of mass (CM) and the CM of the bar at the instant the bar left the platform. A trend was also observed in which the greater-skilled subjects demonstrated less thoracic lean than the lesser-skilled group at the time the bar reached knee level.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Canales, Daniel

A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

Description: The present study examined Garland's cognitive mediation theory of goal setting in a three-minute basketball shooting task. The effects of different goal conditions were also investigated along with achievement motivation and self-motivation as mediating constructs of performance. Subjects (N=150) were males and females, assigned to one of five goal conditions: "do your best", easy, moderate, hard, and improbable. Results indicated no performance differences between the different goal conditions, with subjects in the "do your best" condition performing as well as subjects in the other goal conditions. Results also yielded partial support for Garland's cognitive mediation theory with task goals influencing performance through its influence on performance expectancy. Furthermore, a negative correlation between achievement motivation and performance was found for females in the improbable goal condition and a positive correlation was found between self-motivation and performance for females in the easy goal condition.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Bagnall, Jamie

The Relationship of the Sit and Reach Test to Criterion Measures of Hamstring and Back Flexibility in Adult Males and Females

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test as a measure of hamstring and low back flexibility in adult males and females. Subjects were 52 males and 52 females, 20 to 45 years of age. Hamstring flexibility was measured using a goniometer. Spinal flexibility was measured using a tape measure and an inclinometer. The sit and reach test was performed according to the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test Manual. Data were analyzed using correlations and appropriate descriptive statistics. Conclusions of the investigation were: 1) in adult males 20 to 45, the sit and reach test is a valid measure of hamstring flexibility but has questionable validity as a measure of low back flexibility, 2) in adult females 20 to 45, the sit and reach test is a moderately valid measure of hamstring flexibility and is not a valid measure of low back flexibility.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Langford, Nancy Jane

The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John

The Interrelationships of Strength, Speed, Power and Anthropometric Measures in College Aged Women

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the interrelationships of strength, speed, power and anthropometric measures in women. Sixty females ranging in ages from 18 to 25 volunteered as subjects. Subjects were measured for strength on the bench press, leg extension and leg curl, power vertical jump, speed--a 40 yard dash, body weight (BW) and fat weight (FW) using a scale and skinfold tests. The correlations for strength and power (.35 to .53), strength and speed (-.37 to -.56) and speed and power (-.45) were significant (p < .01). Partial correlations with (BW) and (FW) held constant were also significant, but were not significantly greater than their zero-order correlations.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinojosa, Richard

The Relationship Between Pace Characteristics of Distance Runs and Criterion Measures of Endurance

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between treadmill time, maximal oxygen consumption and pace characteristics of the 1.5 and 3 mile runs and to compare the distances and pace characteristics as predictors of aerobic capacity. Subjects were 70 college aged males, ages 18 to 25, enrolled in jogging and conditioning classes at North Texas State University. Three tests were administered: the 1.5 mile run, the 3 mile run and the Bruce treadmill test. The data were analyzed using correlations and factor analysis. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) the 1.5 and 3 mile runs are valid measures of aerobic capacity, (2) the 3 mile run does not significantly increase the correlation between VO2max and endurance runs and (3) pacing characteristics are evident in the 1.5 and 3 mile runs.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Sanchez, Robert J.

The Relative Contribution of Flexibility of the Back and Hamstring Muscles in the Performance of the Sit and Reach Component of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in Girls Thirteen to Fifteen Years of Age

Description: The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative contribution of low back flexibility and hamstring flexibility in the sit and reach test item of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in order to examine the validity of the sit and reach test. Subjects were 100 female students, 13 to 15 years of age in physical education classes. Hamstring flexibility was measured using the Leighton flexometer. Spinal mobility was measured using a tape measure. The sit and reach test was performed according to instructions given in the AAHPERD Test Manual. Data were analyzed using correlation, linear regression, and multiple regression. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) hamstring flexibility is moderately related to the sit and reach test, (2) low back flexibility has a very small relationship to the sit and reach test, and (3) the sit and reach test is an inadequate measure of low back and hamstring flexibility.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Baker, Alice Ann

A Study of Lean Body Mass in Estimating Basal Metabolic Rate

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to determine if measured LBM could be used as a more powerful predictor of BMR than could surface area (SA) as calculated by the formula of DuBois and DuBois (1916). It was also of interest to develop a prediction equation for BMR using multiple regression analysis. Data from 82 women and 76 men were included in the study. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that LBM was a better predictor for BMR than SA on either of the principal SA prediction equations, those of Aub and DuBois (1917) and Harris and Benedict (1919). Age, sex, and fat weight were not found to contribute significantly to prediction when included by multiple regression analyses. Linear equations for BMR as a function of LBM were developed for each sex. Tables based on these equations were also generated as a quick reference for clinicians.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Lachenbruch, Charles

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne

Fatigue Related Changes in the Body Motion and Force Application During the Performance of Consecutive Chin-ups

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on force application and resulting movement patterns during the performance of consecutive chin-ups. Special attention was directed toward relating any fatigue effects to upper limb strength dominance. Twenty male adult subjects each performed one trial. Each trial consisted of consecutive chin-ups. Fatigue caused changes in the movement patterns, duration of movement and force applied through the supporting hands. Throughout the performance greater vertical forces were applied through the dominant upper limb segment with the application of these forces resulting in horizontal displacement of the total body center of gravity toward the dominant hand.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Hong, Der-Ming

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine

Swinging Gait Patterns and Preferred Rung Spacing During Free Choice Horizontal Ladder Traverses

Description: Fifty-one subjects each performed two trials which consisted of traversing a horizontal ladder. Film records were made of each trial using a high-speed camera. Absolute and relative temporal and kinematic parameters were obtained from the film records. The conclusions were that there was no age related interaction or differences in preferred rung spacing or contact/airborne times. A Chi-Square analysis did show a preference for a specific gait pattern for the six year old age group.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Roth, Charles H. (Charles Hillary)

The Effects of Surface Type on Experienced Foot Contact Pressures and Lower Limb Functioning During Running Performance

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different surfaces on lower limb motion and encountered pressures at two locations on the plantar surface of the right foot. Nine females performed five trials for each of four surface conditions. The results provided no evidence for surface-related changes in experienced foot contact pressures. Both asphalt and grass surfaces resulted in the shortest relative time of forefoot immobility. No surface related differences were found for the range of pronation.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Denniston, Nancy L. (Nancy Louise)

The Acute Effects of Intermittent Running on Serum CK and LDH Enzyme Activities in Runners and Non-Runners

Description: Acute effects of repeated sprinting upon serum creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and isozymal activities were studied in five collegiate runners (R_s) and six non-runners (NR_s ). After an intermittent running treadmill test, blood sampling showed three-fold mean increases in CK with no change in LDH in both groups; group differences were insignificant (p>.05). Results suggest (1) intense anaerobic exercise produces moderate enzyme elevations; (2) relatively equivalent exercise intensities are critical to enzyme responses in exercising individuals of varying fitness levels; and (3) exercise-induced enzyme release may be consequential to muscle cell membrane permeability changes from decreased intracellular high-energy phosphates.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Heffner, Kyle Daniels

Initial Starting Posture and Total Body Movement-Reaction Time for Lateral Movement

Description: Eighteen subjects each performed fifty-five trials which consisted of assuming an initial stance and then in response to a visual stimulus running to either the left or right. For each trial both the foot width spacing and orientation of the feet were varied. Direct and indirect measurements were taken of selected temporal and kinematic parameters. The conclusions were that no interactions or differences exist among foot width spacing, foot orientation, and direction of movement; the jab step start is the preferred initial movement; the preferred foot width spacing is 46.6 centimeters; the preferred angular orientation of both feet is approximately 1.36 radians.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Darnall, Sylvia Pacheco

Normative Assessment Technique for Bench Press and Leg Extension Strength in College Females on the Universal Gym

Description: This study was to develop normative data of isotonic muscular strength in college females using the Spartacus model Universal Gym bench press and leg extension and to control for the influence of body weight. Two hundred and two college age females enrolled in weight training and conditioning classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks. Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 2 exercises and their percent body fat was calculated. Pearson-product moment correlations between lean body weight , body weight and the bench press test and the leg extension test were correlated. After statistically controlling for the effects of body weight, percentile ranks were calculated for both tests.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Gibson, Jean

The Effect of Roughness Elements on the Magnus Characteristics of Rotating Spherical Projectiles

Description: Thirty trials of each of three roughness conditions were examined. The first condition consisted of a baseball pitched so that two of the roughness elements opposed the flow. The second condition consisted of a pitched baseball with four of the roughness elements opposing the flow. The third consisted of a pitched uniformly rough sphere. The conclusions were that roughness elements increase horizontal flight deviations when a baseball rotates about a vertical axis; roughness elements on the surface of a baseball may cause a decrease in the encountered drag forces; linear velocity has a dominating effect on the trajectory of a spinning baseball; previously developed mathematical models do not adequately predict flight deviations.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Smith, Michael A. (Michael Albert)

Employee Perceptions of the Use of Corporate Fitness Programs in Recruitment

Description: This study investigated how employees perceived corporate fitness programs as benefits, how fitness programs were ranked with other selected employee benefits and if they would be considered in future career opportunities. A questionnaire was given to employees from five companies with and five companies without fitness programs. The 452 Ss were subdivided into the two sub-groups of employees with and without company fitness programs, and high and low adherers to physical activity. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square and proportional differences. Fitness programs were considered to be significantly important benefits; high/low adherers responses were significant. In N rank ordering of eight selected benefits, fitness programs ranked seventh; high/low adherers had significant rankings of fitness programs; employees with and without fitness programs had significant rankings of sick leave time/pay. The N did not consider fitness programs as significant future recruitment tools; there were significant differences from responses of high/low adherers. Some companies did not emphasize fitness programs as important benefits to employees.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Hill, Carolyn Schnure

Fear of Failure and Fear of Success: The Relationship of Achievement Motives to the Motor Performance of Males and Females

Description: The study was designed to determine the relationship between the psychological constructs of "fear of failure (FOF)" and "fear of success (FOS)" and motor performance in badminton. Forty-three males and fifty-one females in beginning badminton classes were administered the FOF and FOS scales, followed by three independent skills tests and a round-robin singles tournament. Conclusions were that FOF and FOS are two separate performance motives; FOF appears to be the dominant motive for females; both FOF and FOS are related to motor performance in face-to-face competition, while only FOS is related to performance in isolated skills.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Albury, Kevin W.