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Perceptions of the Sudanese Professional Working in Saudi Arabia on Migration and Economic Development of the Sudan

Description: The brain drain emerged as a phenomenon in the Sudan in the early 1970's when a change in the political system was followed by a change in the economic situation. The oil price increases created a dynamic process that led to attractive employment conditions in the petroleum producing countries such as Saudi Arabia and to depressed economic conditions in the developing countries like the Sudan. The purposes of the study are to (a) obtain information on the Sudanese professionals working in Saudi Arabia, (b) determine what major factors influence their migration, and (c) to develop policy recommendations on the flow of migration from the Sudan. The population of this study were Sudanese professionals living in Saudi Arabia. Data were generated through surveying a sample of 300 subjects selected randomly from the defined population. A survey questionnaire based on the research questions was developed for this study. Data from 263 respondents were analyzed. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of the Sudanese professionals working in Saudi Arabia are male, between 30 to 40 years of age. They have many years of experience and a high level of qualifications. The factors that led to their migration are: (a) high cost of living in the Sudan, (b) low salary, (c) money shortage, (d) high cost of housing, (e) little opportunity for advancement, and (f) shortage of basic necessities. It is realized that migration has costs and benefits for the Sudan. Government policies should be directed to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs. It is recommended that the government should adopt policies to regulate migration and assure the Sudanese expatriates of the efficient execution of these policies, attract their remittances through exemption and facilities, and work toward eliminating or reducing the causes of migration.
Date: March 1990
Creator: Hamid, Adil A. (Adil Abdelaziz)

Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Description: This investigation used a descriptive approach to explore and evaluate early recollection changes of children in Adlerian counseling. The study addressed seven research questions regarding early recollection change for children in Adlerian counseling as compared with children not in Adlerian counseling. The treatment group was engaged in Adlerian counseling for 10 weeks. The investigator conducted pre-counseling and post-counseling interviews to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The comparison group was not engaged in treatment for counseling. The investigator conducted interviews at an interval of 10 weeks to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The Manaster-Perryraan Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual was used for analysis of early recollection content. Following training sesions, raters scored absence or presence of content variables in early recollections. Tables were employed to reveal findings of early recollection content change as addressed by the seven research questions of this study. A descriptive evaluation of' the data indicated that the treatment group manifested greater change in early recollection content as compared to the comparison group in six of seven research questions. On the basis of these findings, this study concluded that early recollections of children are a valid source of potential in measuring therapeutic progress and are a reliable measure of the thematic apperception of children. The data from this study provide a foundation from which to build the clinical utility of the early recollections of children. In view of these results, this study recommended the routine use of early recollections of children in Adlerian counseling.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Statton, Jane Ellis Porter

Adolescent Discouragement: Development of an Assessment Instrument

Description: The Adolescent Discouragement Indicator (ADI) was developed to assess the Adlerian construct of discouragement. The 75-item ADI contains five subscales corresponding to the five life tasks specified in Individual Psychology and is specifically designed to pinpoint the area and degree of adolescent discouragement. Item selection was based on ratings by five prominent Adlerians and item correlation with subscale scores. Age and sex norms for the ADI were established on 225 females and 299 males 12 to 18 years of age. Findings indicate that female adolescents are less discouraged than male adolescents on all scales except the love scale and both sexes reported the least amount of discouragment on the love scale. The only significant difference among the age groups is between the 13-year-olds and the 15, 16, and 17-year-olds on the love scale. An internal consistency coefficient of .95, a 2-week test-retest coefficient of .89, and a 4-week test-retest coefficient of .92 indicates that the ADI is a reliable instrument. Negative and significant (p < .001) correlations between the ADI and Social Interest Index (Greever, Tseng, & Friedland, 1973) and between the ADI and the Social Interest Scale (Crandall, 1975) contribute to construct validity and support Adler's belief that discouragement and social interest are inversely related. Results of behavioral and academic comparisons on a sample of adolescent males (N=57) seem to indicate a link between behavior, academic performance, and levels of discouragement. Results of factor analysis and interscale correlations are presented. Implications for further research include continued validation using behavioral criteria associated with discouragement, refinement of the subscales and establishment of score ranges to indicate when an adolescent is considered discouraged.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Lingg, MaryAnn

Agenda-Setting by Minority Political Groups: A Case Study of American Indian Tribes

Description: This study tested theoretical propositions concerning agenda-setting by minority political groups in the United States to see if they had the scope to be applicable to American Indian tribes or if there were alternative explanations for how this group places its agenda items on the formal agenda and resolves them. Indian tribes were chosen as the case study because they are of significantly different legal and political status than other minority groups upon which much of the previous research has been done. The study showed that many of the theoretical propositions regarding agenda-setting by minority groups were explanatory for agenda-setting by Indian tribes. The analyses seemed to demonstrate that Indian tribes use a closed policy subsystem to place tribal agenda items on the formal agenda. The analyses demonstrated that most tribal agenda items resolved by Congress involve no major policy changes but rather incremental changes in existing policies. The analyses also demonstrated that most federal court decisions involving Indian tribes have no broad impact or significance to all Indian tribes. The analyses showed that both Congress and the federal courts significantly influence the tribal agenda but the relationship between the courts and Congress in agenda-setting in this area of policy are unclear. Another finding of the study was that tribal leaders have no significant influence in setting the formal agendas of either Congress or the federal courts. However, they do have some success in the resolution of significant tribal agenda items as a result of their unique legal and political status. This study also contributed to the literature concerning agenda-setting by Indian tribes and tribal politics and study results have many practical implications for tribal leaders.
Date: May 1990
Creator: McCoy, Leila M. (Leila Melanie)

Anger Reduction in Closed Head Injured Individuals with Group Social Skills Training

Description: In the present study, an anger management treatment program was compared to a pseudo-social skills training program (self-help group) and waiting list control group to determine its effectiveness in reducing irritable/angry behavior in head injured subjects. Subjects consisted of 28 adults with previous head injury trauma who had difficulty with excessive irritability and anger. Subjects averaged 35.4 years of age and had an average of 8.9 years post head injury. Treatment consisted of 10 group sessions over a five week period. Anger management training was designed to teach subjects self management skills aimed at reducing the frequency of angry acting out behavior. Training methods included role playing, relaxation training, assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring. The pseudo-social skills training group was a self-help group designed to encourage discussion of irritability problems without teaching specific coping techniques. To assure some degree of homogeneity in cognitive abilities among subjects, minimum eligibility scores were required on five subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Dependent measures were pre and posttreatment scores obtained from five categories of the Katz Adjustment Scale - Relative form: belligerence, negativity, general psychopathology, social obstreperousness, and social role functioning. In addition, pre and posttreatment recordings of observed angry/irritable behavior in the subjects were obtained from a significant other. Results failed to reveal statistically significant differences on the dependent measures between the three study groups. In addition, analysis failed to reveal any significant variables that predicted outcome. It is evident that much more organized research is needed to further investigate the possibilities of treatment for various problems encountered by those with head injuries.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Nicolette, Myrna K. (Myrna Kay)

"Beowulf": Myth as a Structural and Thematic Key

Description: Very little of the huge corpus of Beowulf criticism has been directed at discovering the function and meaning of myth in the poem. Scholars have noted many mythological elements, but there has never been a satisfactory explanation of the poet's use of this material. A close analysis of Beowulf reveals that myth does, in fact, inform its structure, plot, characters and even imagery. More significant than the poet's use of myth, however, is the way he interlaces the historical and Christian elements with the mythological story to reflect his understanding of the cyclic nature of human existence. The examination in Chapter II of the religious component in eighth-century Anglo-Saxon culture demonstrates that the traditional Germanic religion or mythology was still very much alive. Thus the Beowulf poet was certainly aware of pre-Christian beliefs. Furthermore, he seems to have perceived basic similarities between the old and new religions, and this understanding is reflected in the poem. Chapter III discusses the way in which the characterization of the monsters is enriched by their mythological connotations. Chapter IV demonstrates that the poet also imbued the hero Beowulf with mythological significance. The discussion in Chapter V of themes and type-scenes reveals the origins of these formulaic elements in Indo-European myth, particularly in the myth of the dying god. Chapter VI argues that both historical and mythological layers of meaning reflect traditional man's view of history as cyclic, a temporal period with a beginning and an end. At the juncture between end and beginning is conflict, which is necessary for regeneration. The interlacing of Christian, historical and mythic elements suggests the impossibility of extricating the individual and collective historical manifestations from the cosmic imperative of this cycle. The Beowulf poet perhaps saw in the ancient myths which permeated his cultural traditions the basis of meaning ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Aitches, Marian A. (Marian Annette)

I, Blavatsky: A One-Act Opera

Description: I, Blavatsky is a one-act opera based on the life of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, a nineteenth-century Russian princess and co-founder of a religious organization called the Theosophical Society. The libretto, by the composer, involves a cast of three principal soloists and minor roles for six more singers who are also participants in a small chorus. The text format features free verse alternating with regular, rhymed strophes. Accompaniment is provided by a piano. Melodic structure combines some nineteenth-century Romantic idioms with twentieth-century style. Most of the melodic and harmonic material was intuitively composed to express the text. Rhythmic and stylistic contrasts are accomplished in the representation of the extensive travels of the main character. Stage directions involve a stylized set, several scenes requiring minimal set changes, magical effects to represent that facet of Blavatsky's life, and onstage costume changes for several characters. Approximate duration is one hour.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cooper, Steve, 1951 Dec. 4-

Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet: Her Significance in Adult Education

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine Bonaro Wilkinson Overstreet's significance and development as a leader in adult education. This study provided information on her life, her individual and collaborative contributions with Harry Overstreet in adult education, and her interest in poetry. Data were collected using online database searching; review of published, unpublished, and informal documents of Bonaro Overstreet; and correspondence and interviews with professional colleagues, employers, and personal acquaintances. Interviews were conducted with current authorities in the field of adult education for informational purposes. Bonaro Overstreet did not influence or alter the course of adult education as a field of study. Her strength was in her role of practitioner and contributor to research, theory, and professional development of the adult education field. She broadened the depth of adult education as an advocate of knowing oneself and acting responsibly in the context of democratic responsibility.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Dorman, Brigid Byrne

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Implementation of Texas House Bill 72 in Selected Texas Public School Districts

Description: This study was conducted to analyze the effect of implementation of Texas House Bill 72 on budgets of selected Texas public school districts and to ascertain educational benefits to students derived from implementation of the bill as perceived by superintendents. Questionnaires were sent to superintendents of the Region 10 Education Service Center to determine perceived educational benefits to students. A demographic data sheet provided information for classifying respondents by educational experience, superintendent experience, and district enrollment classifications. Sixty-two districts responded. Official public school budget data for each district were analyzed for fiscal years 1983 through 1986 as were data from the questionnaire. Overall statistical information was gleaned through CONDESCRIPTIVE. Mean total expenditures, mean total tax rate, and state fiscal aid data were compiled, tabulated, and reported for each enrollment classification and entire sample. In addition, a t-test between the difference of two independent means at a probability level of .05 was applied. The two independent means were the averages of data for the two years prior to and after implementation of the law for expenditures, tax rates, and state fiscal contributions. Data comparing local and state expenditures were compiled, tabulated, and reported for each group to compare local and state fiscal effort prior to and after implementation. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare demographic variables with perceived educational benefits. Item and factor analyses were applied to establish reliability.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Bradford, Ronald W. (Ronald Wayne)

Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Description: In an effort to determine whether job satisfaction and expectations in a group of workers undergoing major change in the workplace differ from groups of workers not undergoing major change, data were collected from three groups of workers at the operator level in a major U.S. electronics manufacturing company. Two of the groups were not undergoing a major work redesign and served as control groups. A group undergoing the early stages of a major work redesign, characterized primarily by their formation into a self-managed work team, served as the experimental group. The experimental group and one control group were located at the same manufacturing plant, while the other control group was located at another plant. It was hypothesized that the group of workers undergoing change would differ in job satisfaction and that over time, the difference would grow. It was also hypothesized that the group undergoing change would have different expectations about the nature of their jobs in the future. Data were collected from members of the three groups using a modified version of Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey, with two administrations of the survey seven months apart. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Groups) X 2 (Perception: "Now" versus "Near Future") x 2 (Administration) factorial design, with repeated measures Oil the Perception variable. Results revealed a difference in job satisfaction between the groups, as hypothesized. Results also revealed that members of the experimental group did have a few expectations for the future not held by members of the control groups; otherwise, expectations differed very little between the groups. Explanations for these findings are offered. This study suggests that those charged with implementing major change in the workplace should keep in mind that they may not see dramatic reactions from workers asked to make major changes, at least ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cheney, Alan B. (Alan Bruce)

Development of Cooperative Education at the University of North Texas, 1976-1988

Description: The main purpose of the study is to describe the developmental story of one of the larger university cooperative education programs in the United States to provide the evidence of outcomes and to utilize selected elements of the program in other colleges and universities. The study utilizes historical methodology with a descriptive approach to investigate and analyze the program's establishment, its development of staffing, organization, students, employers, funding, and its evaluation by using primary and secondary sources, annual reports, federal grant request proposals, evaluation reports, and the on-campus newspaper. The information for this study was also gathered through personal interviews with previous and present staff members of the program. The study shows that the program was established in the dean of students' office, but in order to get more support from the faculty, the program was moved to the academic affairs office. As a result of the academic support by the faculty, the program expanded. The findings show that the federal grant, Title VIII, contributed significantly to the initiation and growth of the program. The investigator observes that the director's leadership and the staff members' commitment to the program were two of the most important factors in the continued growth of the program. Strong commitment by the chief executive officer of the institution has also been a strong factor in the continuous growth of the program. The study indicates that close affiliation with professional organizations has benefited the program by influencing the development of quality and effective, diverse employers. The results show that the cooperative program significantly aided the students, institutions, and employers annually by placing approximately 1,200 students in their major-related working places.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Kim, Sang Kil

Differences in School Districts' Decision-Making Processes Before and After Tax Limitation Elections: A Case Study

Description: Using a case study approach, this investigation focused on the decision-making processes involved in developing budgets in two Texas school districts following a tax limitation, or rollback, election. Factors influencing the decision-making processes included the rollback election's outcome in each district, the participants, the perceptions participants held of themselves, the perceptions participants held of others in the district and community, the decisions made, and the factors influencing participants' decisions. Two Texas school districts were selected as subjects of this study which used qualitative data collection methods. In one school district, the rollback election passed. In the other, it failed. Data collection included observations of school board meetings and budget workshops. Structured interviews of school board members and administrators, pro- and antirollback proponents, and newspaper editors were conducted. Questions focused on the budgetary decision-making processes before and after the rollback elections. They also solicited information fromsubjects regarding rollback elections, the factors precipitating the rollback elections and the impact of the rollback election campaign upon each school district. Document analyses were triangulated with the observations and interviews to identify the factors influencing the budgetary decision-making process. Following the rollback elections, school officials in both districts adopted a conservative approach to budgetary decision-making. In both districts, school board members and administrators listened more carefully to citizens' concerns. Citizen finance committees were formed in both districts following the rollback elections to receive community input into the 1989-90 budgets. The decision-making processes in both districts were influenced by school board members' and administrators' personal philosophies, the presence or absence of long-range district goals, and pressures to finance unfunded and underfunded state mandates. The budget documents produced in both districts following the rollback elections reflected a commitment to funding curricular rather than extracurricular programs. School officials protected teachers' and support staffers' salaries, recognizing the importance of ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Travis, Rosemary Fechner

Educational Activities at the University of Jordan in Two Decades (1962-1982)

Description: This study examined the educational activities at the University of Jordan, established in 1962, which is the oldest university in the country. The study traced the historical development of the university, which emphasizes highly-qualified graduates, and analyzed some of its educational practices. Research on this subject is limited. Jordanians have written little about their educational system, and there is little evidence of foreign scholars' interest in the subject. Some researchers argued that national pride was the main reason for establishing the university, since financial resources were not available to initiate and sustain serious research. The university started in the fall semester of 1962 with 167 students and one faculty, the Faculty of Arts. Two decades later, the university had ten faculties: Commerce and Administrative Sciences, Sciences, Medical Sciences (Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy), Agriculture, Education, Law, Engineering, Sharia, and Physical Education. The total number of staff continued to increase from 7 in 1962 to 627 by 1982. The size of the physical structure increased from one building to 40 buildings with approximately 18,000 square meters in 1982. As of 1982, more than 15,253 students had graduated from the university with bachelor's, master's, and diplomas-in-education degrees. In 1972, the University of Jordan changed from the yearly system to the credit-hour system, making it the first university in the region to adapt the credit-hour system. This study also provided information on students studying in Jordanian schools, students in host countries, students and faculty distribution in seven faculties, faculty demographics, research projects, degree programs, university budgets, as well as the multipurpose general secondary education examination which has no clear directive philosophy.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Sammour, Hael Y.

Effect of Task Appropriateness, Social Comparison, and Feedback on Female Goals, Performance, and Self-Confidence with a Motor Task

Description: Lenney (1977) concluded that achievement gender differences were predicted by females' lower self confidence and expectancies in competitive situations, identifying three variables that mediated female self confidence in achievement situations, (1) task appropriateness. (2) social comparison, and (3) feedback. The present study manipulated all three mediating variables with 240 undergraduate 18-25 year old female subjects with the pursuit rotor task that requires tracking a moving (40 rpm's) white light with a hand-held stylus for 60 seconds. Response measurement was based upon time on target. Subjects were tested over five trials while setting goals for each trial. Females were randomly assigned to a male appropriate, female appropriate, or gender neutral task condition, a competition or alone condition, and to one of four feedback conditions (no feedback, feedback about own performance only, feedback about own performance that provided the perception that subject was performing better than an opponent and/or average on each trial, or feedback about own performance that provided the perception that subject was performing poorer than an opponent and/or average on each of the five trials). Results from the 2 (social comparison) X 3 (task appropriateness) X 4 (feedback) ANOVA were contradictory to previous findings (Corbin, 1981; Petruzzello & Corbin, 1988) as females performed significantly better in competition than alone. Data support the conclusion that presentation of clear and unambiguous feedback enhanced female self-confidence (Corbin, 1981; Petruzzello & Corbin, 1988; Lenney, 1977). Data also provide null findings for the task appropriateness condition which contradicts the previous research (Corbin, 1981; Lenney, 1977) in that females perceiving the task as male appropriate did not exhibit less self-confidence and perform poorer than when the task was perceived as either female appropriate or gender neutral. Conclusions reflect methodological differences from previous research and changes in gender role identification that have significantly impacted on female ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Adler, William P.

An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

Description: Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not self-reflective), and person-oriented. They are more oriented toward relationship with their children and had felt dissatisfied with how their wives had cared for their children. Several overlapping characteristics of the Type I/II typology with Mendes1 seeker/assenter continuum are discussed. Limitations of the longitudinal adjustment data restrict the conclusions that can be drawn about differential adjustment of Types I and II. Comparisons with adjustment of other typologies suggest that extremes on the typology continuum are most at risk for problems in adjustment to the single custodial role. Implications for helping professions and future research are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Theurer, Gregory W. (Gregory Wayne)

The Everyday Experience of Satisfaction, Conflict, Anger, and Violence for Women in Love Relationships

Description: The problem of this study addressed how women experience the conflict variables of beliefs about conflict, anger arousal, conflict styles, and received and expressed violence as partners in love relationships and how these factors affect their reported satisfaction. Graduate women (M = 186) from University of North Texas completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a subscale of Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Interpersonal Conflict Tactics and Strategies Scale (ICTAS), and the Severity of Violence Against Women scale (SVAW). Data were analyzed using MANOVAs with ANOVAs to examine significant differences. Multiple regression procedures were used for the exploratory questions. Women reporting less satisfied relationships were expected to believe that disagreement was more destructive and to report higher anger arousal than those who were more satisfied. The hypotheses were supported. Women who were less satisfied also reported using less constructive conflict tactics and more destructive and avoidant tactics as well as receiving some forms of violence. Expressed violence was not significantly related to low satisfaction. Results suggested that these conflict variables are highly interrelated. Strong feedback loops may develop. Strongly held conflict beliefs may affect the use of destructive and avoidant conflict strategies and increase anger which may reinforce the conflict beliefs. Women who have received violence may use both destructive and avoidant tactics. Use of tactics that escalate then de-escalate conflict suggests that conflict strategies may not be mutually exclusive. However, when a woman is low in anger and has previously received violence from a partner, she may use more avoidant tactics. In contrast women who express violence to their partners may use all three conflict tactics including constructive tactics. This finding suggested that women may express violence as a last resort to get a reaction from their partners.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Smith, R. Lee

An Examination of Selected Product Characteristics Associated with the Sales Success of Nontheatrical Film and Video Works

Description: The purpose of this study was to test assumptions made about characteristics of nontheatrical film and video works that were thought to contribute to the frequency with which the works were purchased. This study proposed and tested three variables for which relationships to the sales success of nontheatrical film and video works were hypothesized, as well as four variables about which no hypotheses were forwarded. Nineteen film and video distribution organizations contributed unit sales data for the period 1982-1987 on 151 works copyrighted between 1982 and 1984. These data were analyzed for relationships between sales totals and 1) curricular significance of the works' subjects, 2) relevance to general reading interest in the works' subjects, 3) intensity of competition faced by the works, 4) the works' Dewey classifications as compared to the composition of typical K-12 school library book collections, 5) the series or non-series status of the works, 6) the media format(s) in which the works were available for purchase and 7) the sources of the works' production financing. Analyses of correlation and association were performed and no significant relationships were found between sales and curricular significance of the works' subjects, or their relevance to general reading interest. Some evidence was presented to suggest a significant association between the intensity of competition faced by a work and its eventual sales. None of the hypotheses about these variables was supported. However, the four remaining variables were found to be significant, or to approach significance, as correlates or associates of sales success. The best predictor of sales for works intended for the K-12 school market was the work's Dewey Decimal classification. Other important findings included associations between high sales and intense product competition, between high sales and non-series status, between high sales and availability for purchase in 16mm film and between high ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Munde, Gail Marie

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Clinical Scales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery, Form II

Description: The factor structure of the Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) Form II was examined. A principle components factor analysis was performed on a sample of 102 psychiatric and neurologic subjects. It was necessary to remove 45 items from the analysis due to perfect performance by most subjects. The results were orthogonally rotated to simple structure using a Varimax method of rotation, and then compared to previous LNNB Form I and Form II results. Thirty-three factors were generated in the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) . There was a very high agreement with the factors from Form I. Only one new factor was identified that didn't have a comparable Form I factor, and this factor appears to have neurological support. The similarity of the factor solutions between the two forms supports the continued use of factors derived from Form I for the interpretation of Form II, and supports the underlying structure presupposed by Lurian constructs. The present study also tested the significance of the hypothesized factor structures through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). No hypothesis about the underlying factor structure based on previous exploratory studies was supported. The CFA did suggest that the best factor solution to the LNNB Form II is one that (a) has correlated factors and (b) has items loading on more than one factor. The confirmatory results were interpreted as not supporting the current exploratory results, or the previous factor analytic results. Problems notwithstanding, researchers may be better directed to propose factor models for the LNNB that have correlated factors, and to work samples approaching the 10 to 1 recommended sample size for multivariate analysis. One conclusion that was drawn from the concurrence between the two Form II studies pertains to psychiatric populations used in both studies. It was necessary to exclude a large number of items in each ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Nagel, Jeffrey A.

Factors Associated with the Use of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings: an Empirical Investigation

Description: Although ingratiatory behaviors have been investigated by social psychologists for almost twenty-five years, and have been discussed as being used in organizational settings as an upward influence strategy, few empirical studies have explored the use of ingratiation in organizations. The intent of this study has been to empirically investigate the use of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. In doing so, a theory-based rationale for the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings was developed. The framework developed for this study examined ingratiation as both an individually initiated and organizationally induced behavior. Next, a scale was developed to measure the frequency with which employees resort to ingratiatory behaviors in relationships with their superiors. Finally, a series of research propositions about the occurrence of ingratiatory behaviors in organizations were tested across a variety of organizational settings.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Kumar, Kamalesh

Individual Resources, Social Environment, and Flood Victimization

Description: The study is a contextual analysis of flood victimization. Victimization is defined as the social, psychological, and physiological aftermath experienced by victims of a disaster. Disaster researchers concentrate on the victims' characteristics to explain the varying degrees of their victimization, providing only ambiguous results. Theorists such as Kreps, Wildavsky, and Douglas contend that the outcomes of disasters are contingent upon social structure. This analysis treats victimization as one such outcome. The condition and behavior of individuals can be explained by the presence of disaster and the conditions of social organization. A model explains victimization based on individual's attributes (individual resources), his social environment, and the disaster characteristics. This study uses the 1984 Mingo Creek Flood Victims Survey data to test the model. The data contain information measuring victimization. The survey data are linked with 1980 Census tract data. The tract data provide indicators of the social networks. This tract information, the contextual variables, taps the social conditions, including poverty, unemployment, geographic mobility, and family patterns. This study uses factor analysis to identify the dimensions of victimization. Regression tests the relationship between the contextual variables, the individual resource variables, the disaster characteristic variables, and victimization. The results of the analysis show that victimization is multidimensional with different types of variables being significant predictors for each dimension of victimization, one variable indicating the intensity of the disaster, the dollar value of damage victims experienced, is found to be a significant predictor of the psychological, physiological, and social disruption aspects of victimization. Variables measuring the family and unemployment patterns in the victims' census tract are significant predictors of the psychological and social disruption aspect of victimization. The findings provide general support for the proposed model of victimization. However, victimization is multidimensional with each dimension having a unique set of predictors. Based on the ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Rossman, Edwin J. (Edwin John)

The Influence of the First Amendment on Academic Freedom

Description: Academic freedom has gone through three distinct eras yet each era overlaps a great deal with the one following it. The first era was the bureaucratic. It was exemplified by the negotiations between administrators and professors in the 1920s. The American Association of University Professors and the American Association of Colleges began cooperating and a hierarchical structure emerged, with the tenured professor at the top of the faculty. The second era was the political era and it was mainly a result of loyalty oaths, which began after the first World War and then escalated again during the 1930s when communism became a major concern. The political era then gave way to the legal era when the first academic freedom cases went to the United States Supreme Court in the 1950s. The first cases were the result of political pressures that became legal pressures. Most of the early court cases were based on communism. The legal era has produced changes. There are now more rights; for students and teachers of all levels, including pre-college levels, are guaranteed some academic freedom rights. However, the First Amendment and academic freedom are not synonymous because a professor usually cannot win a case based solely on his free speech rights under academic freedom. It is only when academic freedom is guaranteed through some form of due process, custom or contract—and that guarantee has been violated—that a professor normally wins a suit. There are times, too, when a professor's free speech rights have been violated and she can then win a suit based on the First Amendment, but academic freedom is not always a part of the decision. Many times academic freedom is simply used as dictum in a decision that is, in fact, based on a different part of law such as contract law, public ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Ferdon, Douglas Robert, 1945-

Inter-Rater Reliability of the Texas Teacher Appraisal System

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the Texas Teacher Appraisal System instrument. The performance indicators, criteria, domains, and total instrument were analyzed for inter rater reliability. Five videotaped teaching episodes were viewed and scored by 557 to 881 school administrators trained to utilize the Texas Teacher Appraisal System. The fifty-five performance indicators were analyzed for simple percentage of agreement. The ten criteria, four performance domains, and) the whole instrument were analyzed utilizing Ruder-Richardson Formula 20. Indicators were judged reliable if there was 75 percent or greater agreement on four of the five videotaped exercises. Criteria, domains, and the whole instrument were judged reliable if they yielded a -Ruder-Richardson Formula 20 score of .75 or greater on four of the Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions v/ere drawn: 1. Forty-eight of the fifty-five performance indicators were reliable in evaluation teacher performance. 2. Seven of the performance indicators were unreliable in evaluating teacher performance. 3. None of the ten performance criteria appeared to be reliable in evaluating teacher performance. 4. None of the four performance domains appeared to be reliable in evaluating teacher performance. 5. The whole instrument was reliable in evaluating teacher performance. 6. Reliability problems with the criteria and domains appeared to be an underestimate of reliability of the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Crain, John Allen

An Investigation of Selected Female Singing- and Speaking-Voice Characteristics Through Comparison of a Group of Pre-Menarcheal Girls to a Group of Post-Menarcheal Girls

Description: The purpose of this study was to compare the speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, singing voice quality, and self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice between two groups of girls ages 11 through 15 years, who were pre-menarcheal by 6 months and post-menarcheal by 10 months or more. Subjects were volunteers who attended a North Texas public school system. Each subject was examined by an otolaryngologist. Age, height, weight, a hearing screening, and information on music classes and/or private music lessons were obtained. The speaking fundamental frequency measure was obtained by having each subject speak for 30 seconds on a subject of choice and read a passage of approximately 100 syllables. The vocal range measure was obtained by having each subject begin at an arbitrary pitch and sing mah and moo up the scale as high as possible and mah and moo down the scale as low as possible. These four measures were repeated with the researcher giving visual gestures. For singing-voice quality, each subject sang "America" in the key of her choice and again in the key of F major. Each subjects singing voice was rated according to breathiness. Data regarding self-perceptions of the singing and speaking voice were obtained through a rating assessment of 10 questions and a conversation with each subject. There were no significant differences between the means of the pre-meanarcheal and post-menarcheal girls on speaking fundamental frequency, physiological vocal range, and singing-voice quality. But, more of the post-menarcheal girls exhibited lower speaking pitches, lower singing ranges, and increased breathiness in their singing voices than did the pre-menarcheal girls. Two questions of the perceptions rating assessment were significant, with the post-menarcheal girls citing higher incidences of vocal inconsistencies than the pre-menarcheal girls. The findings of the qualitative data analysis indicated that more post-menarcheal girls had ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Williams, Bonnie Blu

Let Me Make it Simple for You

Description: Discusses the creation and performance at a concert on Feb. 12, 1990, in the Merrill Ellis Intermedia Theater at the University of North Texas of three computer music-intermedia compositions: Shakespeare quartet for 4 acoustic guitars; A noite, porem, rangeu e quebrou, for instrument of low pitch range, tape and computer; and Help me remember, for performer, Synclavier, interactive MIDI computer music system and slides.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Waschka, R., 1958-