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Individual, Social, and Seasonal Behavior of the Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus)

Description: The purpose of this study is to provide a qualitative, detailed description of individual and social behavior in a free-living population of thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Behavioral differences in relation to various periods of the annual cycle are also evaluated.
Date: January 1970
Creator: Wistrand, Harry E.

Food, Feeding Selectivity, and Ecological Efficiencies of Fundulus notatus (Rafinesque) (Osteichthyes; Cyprinodontidae)

Description: This study was made to further define the trophic dynamics of Fundulus notatus by determining its ration composition under natural conditions, measuring feeding selectivity under various laboratory conditions of prey-species composition and availability, and determining the efficiencies with which F. notatus utilizes ingested chironomid larvae.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Atmar, Gerald Legare

The Influence of a Return of Native Grasslands upon the Ecology and Distribution of Small Rodents in Big Bend National Park

Description: In the southwestern United States there is a delicate balance between the existing grasslands and the rodent fauna. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of secondary succession of native grasslands upon the ecology and distribution of small rodents. Two methods of determining the rodent species were plot quadrates and trap lines using Sherman live traps.
Date: August 1971
Creator: Baccus, John T.

Carbon Flux in Reservoir Sediments

Description: The central objective of the study was to fractionate sedimenting organic materials according to their source (allochthonous or autochthonous) and ultimately to determine the degree of biodegradability of contributions from either source with particular reference to activities at the mud-water interface.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Newton, Charles Eugene

Trophogenic Ecology of Selected Southwestern Reservoirs

Description: Three north central Texas reservoirs (Grapevine Reservoir, Lake Ray Hubbard, Lewisville Reservoir) were investigated in order to characterize the nutritional ecology, phytoplankton community structure, and primary productivity within the trophogenic zones of each. Emphasis was placed on elucidating the relative influences of the major nutrients (C, N, P, Fe, Si) and various other physico-chemical parameters on phytoplankton community biomass, structure, and productivity. Extensive physical, chemical, and biological analyses consisting of approximately eighty parameter measurements were made on each of twenty-three integrated water samples (surface to three meters) taken from the three reservoirs during the period July, 1971 to June, 1972. New methods which were employed included a high-intensity ultraviolet photocombustion procedure for the determination of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron, and an in vitro oxygen method for estimating community metabolism. General chemical and physical regimes are described for the three reservoirs, and various interrelationships discussed. Phytoplankton communities are delineated on bases of species composition, volume, diversity, pigments, and metabolism data. The more salient biotic and physico-chemical interrelationships are examined within the context of the limiting nutrient controversy.
Date: May 1973
Creator: McDaniel, Michael David

Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Southwestern Reservoirs

Description: This investigation has determined the presence of biological nitrogen fixation in two reservoirs in the southwestern United States: Lake Arlington and Lake Ray Hubbard. Subsequent tests have gathered baseline data on the effects of various biological, chemical, and physical parameters on in situ nitrogen fixation in these reservoirs. Of specific importance is the relationship between nitrogen fixation arid occasional blooms of blue-green algae which produce such problems as testes and odors in these water-supply impoundments.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Lawley, Gary G.

The Vertical Stratification of the Macrobenthos in the Brazos River, Texas

Description: Quantification of stream macrobenthos populations has remained a perplexing problem in rivbrine ecology, despite numerous attempts at improvement. This is in part due to well documented variations in chemical and physical parameters locally and geographically, and resultant adapted macrobenthos populations. Southwood (1968) and Hynes (1970a) have reviewed the various sampling techniques developed'for the census of lotic macrobenthos populations. Needham and Usinger (1956), Chutter (1969), and others have pointed out the difficulty in obtaining adequate numbers of samples which will yield population estimates with desired statistical confidence, and still maintain some degree of sampling economy. Needham and Usinger (1956) and Gaufin et al. (1956) mentioned the "patchy" distribution of aquatic insect populations as the primary source of this difficulty. The concept of patchy distribution in insect populations was originally discussed by Andrewartha (1961). Attempts to improve confidence through improved sampling devices and techniques have led to development of numerous types of samplers. Cummins (1962) indicated that there were almost as many samplers as there were researchers.
Date: December 1973
Creator: Poole, Walton Charles

The Distribution of Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Sewage

Description: The purpose of this study was to extend our understanding of the ecological relationships of P. aeruginosa by investigating the differences or similarities between the strains of this organism found in sewage and those found as pathogens in human infections. This research was approached by comparing the serological types of P. aeruginosa isolated from sewage contaminated waters in Argentina (South America) to those isolated from sewage contaminated waters in Texas. They were typed with sera obtained using P. aeruginosa isolated from human infections. The data obtained revealed that bacteria isolated from sewage in Texas and from soil and water in Argentina are antigenically similar to those isolated from human infections.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Labay, Joseph Edward

Microbiological Treatment of Wastewater from a Wood-Preserving Plant

Description: This research investigates interacting biological, chemical, and physical factors affecting the efficiency of microbiological wastewater treatment at the W. J. Smith Wood- Preserving Company in Denison, Texas. The treatment process consisted of collecting exhaust boiler water containing unidentified boiler treatment compounds, steam condensate contaminated with preservatives and wood extracts, plant process waters, and rainfall runoff from plant grounds. With a 5-minute residence time, wastewater was passed over 2 oxidation towers in series, each containing approximately 47,000 square feet of surface area. Suspended solids were removed from the wastewater before discharge. Various amino acids such as serine, aspartate, cysteine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, glycine, histidine, and tyrosine significantly stimulated phenol degradation in the laboratory. The plant wastewater contained approximately 0.1 mg/l of several of the stimulatory amino acids. It was assumed that these concentrations provided maximal stimulation in the field situation. The plant wastewater also contained sufficient nitrogen to permit the organisms to degrade up to 100 mg phenol/1 of water examined. Amino acids in the wastewater probably serve as a source of microbial nutrition. Toxicity of the wastewater to fish was not caused by the presence of phenol, phenol degradation products, or traces of pentachlorophenol. The wastewater was rendered non-toxic by diluting with between 4 to 9 volumes of stream water. Toxicity could also be removed by chemical coagulation followed by activated carbon adsorption. As a result of biological treatment, the plant now discharges the treated wastewater into the municipal sewage treatment facility.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Ralston, James R.

The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Texas

Description: An illustrated key to the adults and known nymphs of Texas Plecoptera is provided. Species accounts, including geographic distribution within Texas, and biological notes are given. Of the twenty-seven species of Plecoptera known from Texas, six are new state records. TWo species new to science, Isoperla jewetti and Isoperla coushatta are described. Taeniopteryx starki Stewart and Szczytko, Zealeuctra arnoldi Ricker and Ross, and Zealeuctra hitei Ricker and Ross are endemic to the Edwards Plateau area of Texas. Two species, Mesocapnia frisoni (Baumam and Gaufin) and Isoperla jewetti New Species are western in origin. The remaining nineteen species (excluding Anacroneuria) are typically eastern species.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Szczytko, Stanley W.

The Detection of Poliovirus in Denton Sewage by Immunofluorescence and Immunodiffusion Techniques

Description: Several final sewage effluents from the Denton Disposal Plant were demonstrated to contain Poliovirus types II and III. Pleated encapsulated filters at pH3.5 enhanced the recovery of the Poliovirus at a higher tier in comparison with nitrocellulose filter (Millipore) and glass fiber filter of pore size 0.45u. This thesis explores problems that face us today in our quest to eliminate viral pathogens from the natural and waste water needed for human, domestic, and industrial consumption. Preliminary experiments concern the use of immunofluorescence, and immunodiffusion techniques as a means of poliovirus identification, which invariably suggests that these techniques may be useful as rapid screening procedures of water samples for presence of potentially pathogenic viruses.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Olaiya, Felix Ayodele

Genic Differentiation and Evolution in the Ground Squirrel Subgenus Ictidomys (Spermophilus)

Description: The genetic structure of 26 natural populations of three species (S. tridecemlineatus, S. mexicanus, and S. spilosoma) of the Ictidomys subgenus of ground squirrels was analyzed using chromosomal and electrophoretic techniques. Chromosomal variation was not observed in S. mexicanus, and only slight karyotypic variation was found in the other two species. Chromosomal evidence indicated hybridization between S. tridecemlineatus and S. mexicanus, placing these species within the classical definition of semispecies. Analysis of electrophoretic variation at 29 genetic loci indicated close genetic relationships between these species. Evolution in Ictidomys appears to be linked with Pleistocene events, and speciation appears to have occurred within the last 155,000 years.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Cothran, E. Gus, 1951-

Aspects of the Thermal Ecology of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) in North Central Texas

Description: The coefficient of body temperature change (K) ranged from -0.53 to -0.072 for bass weighing 73-1440 g. The double log regression of K on weight was similar to that reported for other poikilotherms (slope = -0.57; R = 0.93). Fingerling bass were eurythermal, being capable of surviving instantaneous temperature changes over a 20 C range at acclimation temperatures of 15, 25 and 30 C and over a 15 C range at acclimation temperatures of 20 and 35 C. Preferred temperatures for adult bass measured in the laboratory ranged from 27-32 C with no relationship to day or night. The overall mean preferred temperature was 29 C. The laboratory determined preferred temperatures were supported by limited field determined body temperatures taken in a vertical temperature gradient near the discharge of a power plant effluent. Routine metabolic rates of bass from a heated reservoir and a nearby hatchery were similar from 10-30 C in summer and winter. The weight exponent (0.77) and Q^gS (1*6-2.9) were similar to those published for more northern bass populations; however, the Texas bass had lower metabolic rates than those published for the northern populations. Bass exposed to rapid temperature increase (0.2 C/min) from 25-30 C increased their metabolic rate by 53% but showed no detectable increase in opercular rate. Bass warmed from 30-35 C and 30-33 C increased their metabolic rate by 140%, and their opercular rates increased to over 100 beats per minute before death.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Venables, Barney J.

Comparative Chemistry of Thermally Stressed North Lake and Its Water Source, Elm Fork Trinity River

Description: To better understand abiotic dynamics in Southern reservoirs receiving heated effluents, water was analyzed before and after impoundment in 330 ha North Lake. Macronutrients, metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons were measured. Concentrations of nutrients and metals in sediments were quantified in this 2 yr study. River water prior to impoundment contained 16 times more total phosphorus, and supported 23 times more Selenastrum capricornutum cells in an algal assay than reservoir water. The reservoir has essentially no drainage and since evaporation is high, the concentrations of many dissolved solids have increased since the reservoir was filled in 1958. North Lake is now phosphorus limited. Apparently altered chemical equilibria have caused precipitation or adsorption of phosphorus with calcium and iron.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Sams, Barry L.

The Relation Between Carbon Assimilation and Biomass Dynamics in a Phytoplankton Community

Description: Production dynamics in the phytoplankton community of a mesotrophic Texas reservoir were measured weekly over a four month period using 14C incubation and ATP assay methodologies. Assimilation values of 14C ranged from 0.2 to 45 ug C 1 hr1 - . Significant positive and occasionally negative changes in biomass (i.e. viable organic carbon) were observed in short term (4 hr) in situ incubations juxtapo-sitioned with the 14C experiments; viable organic carbon production, estimated with the ATP assay, ranged from -25 to +50 ug C 1l1hr1. Carbon assimilation and biomass changes did not correlate in either short term (4-5 hr.) or over the study period (6 months). However, weekly biomass trends were predicted by relative positive or negative biomass changes in the short term incubations. Biomass measurements gave a more sensitive insight into production dynamics in the phytoplankton community than did carbon assimilation measurements.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Wilcox, Douglas P.

Production and Energy Metabolism in Three Benthic Insect Populations in a Small North Central Texas Pond

Description: Annual energy budgets of dominant benthic macro-invertebrates were examined during November 1973 to October 1974 from the benthos of a small pond ecosystem in north-central Texas. Estimates of annual secondary production (Hynes and Coleman 1968) were Procladius s. (Diptera, Chironimidae), 2.4 g m^-2 y^-1 (13 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Tendipes decorus (Diptera, Chironomidae), 6.0 g m^-2 y^-1 (40 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ); Brachycercus sp. (Ephemeroptera, Caenidae), 1.9 g m^-2 y^-1 (11 kcal m^-2 y^-1). Energy metabolism was measured in the laboratory at six seasonally encountered temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 C) on an acclimatization basis, and then extrapolated to the field. Estimates of annual energy metabolism are Procladius sp., 5.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Tendipes decorus, 17.2 kcal m^-2 y^-1 ; Brachycercus sp. 40.0 kcal m^-2 y^-1.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Benson, Daniel J.

Thermal Selection at an Enzyme Locus in Populations of the Red Shiner, Notropis lutrensis, Receiving Hypolimnion Effluents from a Reservoir

Description: Genetic variation was examined at 19 loci encoding enzymatic and general proteins Notropis lutrensis from the Brazos River in Texas. The thermal regime of the Brazos River below Possum Kingdom Reservoir is altered due to the release of water from the hypolimnion. Summer water temperatures fluctuate as much as 7^oC. Levels of heterozygosity at the malate dehydrogenase-2 locus were correlated with the degree of water temperature fluctuation at each locality. The isozymes from three homozygous patterns of supernatant malate dehydrogenase (Mdh-l, Mdh-2) exhibited different activities at different experimental temperatures.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Richmond, M. Carol

Trophic Structure and Energy Flow in a Texas Pond

Description: Annual energy flow and mean annual biocontent of eighteen compartments were determined for a 0.94 ha north central Texas pond ecosystem. Annual primary production was 7,780 kcal m^-2 yr^-2, and community production-to-respiration ratio was 1.49. One-third of annual primary production accumulated on the substrate as silt and sedimentation. Community production, production-respiration ratio, and biocontents of all compartments except aquatic insects were large in summer, small in winter. Biocontents of four trophic levels in the pond were all of the same order of magnitude, approximately 50 kcal m^-2. Suspended and benthic organic material forprimary consumers and terrestrial insects for tertiary consumers were substantial allochthanous energy imports into the pond system.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Childress, William M.

Distribution, Abundance, and Food Habits of Larval Fish in a Cooling Reservoir

Description: Analysis of larval fish collected at four stations in a 330-ha cooling reservoir indicated Dorosoma spp. were most numerous at all stations, followed by Lepomis spp. and Percina Macrolepida. Largest numbers and greatest diversity of larval fish were found at the station least affected by thermal effluent; the mid-lake station provided the smallest numbers and least diversity. The two warmwater stations were intermediate, with similar numbers and diversity. Diversity and abundance of zooplankton between stations were similar to those of fish. The most abundant zooplankter (Bosmina) was generally selected against by Dorosoma, Lepomis and Micropterus spp. larvae except when the larvae were quite small ((10mm). Cyclopoid copepods were most often selected by all larvae.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Mitterer, Lana Gayle

Pelagic Phytoplankton and Physicochemical Correlates for Lake Texoma

Description: An analysis and correlation of phytoplankton communities with physicochemical data from 3 sites in Lake Texoma was conducted to supplement time-series data. Water and phytoplankton were sampled monthly, March, 1976-February, 1977. Simple correlations were run between all physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton standing crop from the 3 sites. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop equations predictive of phytoplankton standing crop and chloride concentration. Minerals leached from marine sediments in the Red River chennel contribute to formation of a, halocline which seals the anoxic hypolimnion from the reservoir surface in midsummer. Conductivity decreased west to east, 2980-1800. pmhos/cm. Maximum mean annual phytoplankton standing crop in Red River arm was 36 percent greater than midlake. Eutrophication was evident.
Date: December 1978
Creator: McCullough, William P.

Seasonal and Spatial Variability of the Microcrustacean Community in Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma

Description: Twenty-eight species of zooplankton were identified from Lake Texoma. Seasonal density of the overall microcrustacean community and seasonal cycles of individual species were compared with northern populations and any available literature from the Southwest. Cycles of occurrence and abundance were similar to those observed in northern populations but tended to occur earlier in the year due to higher temperatures. Spatial distributions within the reservoir were heavily influenced by nutrient and salt input from the Red River, which resulted in dense populations in the Red River Arm. In addition, during the summer, the microcrustacean community was restricted to the epilimnion due to anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion of the reservoir.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Crist, Lawrence W.

Population Dynamics of Macrobenthos in a Regulated Stream 1970-71 and 1978

Description: Stability of the macrobenthic community in a regulated section of the Brazos River, Texas, was evaluated. Physicochemical data and information on spatial distribution of macrobenthos were collected. Populations of two invertebrate species, Isonychia sicca and Neoperla clymene, had been greatly reduced since 1970-71 and I. sicca had been practically eliminated from this section of the Brazos. Three other insect populations, Choroterpes mexicanus, Cheumatopsche campyla and Cheumatopsyche lasia, had more than doubled their numbers since the 1970-71 study. A physicochemical gradient existed in this regulated section of the Brazos but it appeared to have changed little in comparison of earlier chemical data. A gradation of the macrobenthic community was evident as distance from the dam increased,
Date: August 1981
Creator: Coulter, James D. (James Duard)

Qualitative and Microcosm Predictions of Effects of Endothal for Control of Myriophyllum spicatum in Pat Mayse Lake, Texas

Description: Qualitative and microcosm models were used to predict effects of herbicide application for control of Myriophyllum spicatum. Predictions were compared to data from Pat Mayse Lake, a Texas reservoir, where localized areas were treated with endothall. Although milf oil was temporarily eliminated, when endothall was used according to manufacturer's directions, no ecologically significant direct or indirect effects were observed on nontarget species or abiotic water quality. Comparisons of the predictions with field data confirmed the capabilities of this approach for estimating risk and emphasizing the importance of identifying regulating or driving factors that modify environmental impacts of aquatic weed control programs so they can be incorporated into future risk assessments.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Hinman, Mark L.