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Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon

Life Stress and Incidence of Pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia Pain Crises

Description: This study investigated the relationship between stress and pain crisis incidence in pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA). It was hypothesized that SCA children were exposed to higher levels of stress than healthy children. It was also hypothesized that a significant positive correlation existed between level of stress and pain crisis incidence both within and between years. The sample consisted of 20 Black elementary school children with SCA. There were 12 female and 8 male children. The period of investigation included the calendar years 1983 and 1984. Pain crisis incidence was determined through parent interviews and verified by a review of medical records.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Norsworthy, William Ludy, 1948-

Absorption, Relaxation, and Imagery Instruction Effects on Thermal Imagery Experience and Finger Temperature

Description: A skill instruction technique based on cognitive behavioral principles was applied to thermal imagery to determine if it could enhance either subjective or physiological responsiveness. The effects of imagery instruction were compared with the effects of muscle relaxation on imagery vividness, thermal imagery involvement, and the finger temperature response. The subjects were 39 male and 29 female volunteers from a minimum security federal prison. The personality characteristic of absorption was used as a classification variable to control for individual differences. It was hypothesized that high absorption individuals would reveal higher levels of imagery vividness, involvement, and finger temperature change; that imagery skill instruction and muscle relaxation would be more effective than a control condition; and that the low absorption group would derive the greatest benefit from the imagery task instruction condition. None of the hypotheses was supported. Finger temperature increased over time during the experimental procedure but remained stable during thermal imagery. The results suggest that nonspecific relaxation effects may best account for finger temperature increases during thermal imagery. Results were discussed in relation to cognitive-behavioral theory and the characteristic of absorption.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Durrenberger, Robert Earl, 1951-

Children's Cognitive and Moral Reasoning: Expressive Versus Receptive Cognitive Skills

Description: Past research has shown that there are differences between children's ability to express verbally moral judgment or social cognitive principles (cognitive-expression) and their ability to understand and utilize these principles when making evaluations about others (cognitive-reception). This study investigated these differences.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Parker, Deborah A. (Deborah Ann)

Imagery/Mental Practice: A Cognitive Technique for Teaching Adaptive Movement to Postoperative Spinal Patients

Description: Postoperative spinal patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and were taught five adaptive movements by occupational therapists. The Control group received routine hospital occupational therapy; the Placebo group participated in an imagery relaxation task unrelated to the mental practice task of the Imagery group, which was shown line drawings of the adaptive movements under study, provided movement instructions, and asked to mentally practice each movement in a familiar, daily living situation. Thirty-five patients returned for follow-up, and a measure of outcome was obtained through the use of a quantified movement assessment instrument. Subjective ratings for anxiety, rumination, and imagery were made by the occupational therapists. An occupational motoric-symbolic rating scale was developed to assess the symbolic portion of the patient's job experience. Statistical procedures including chi square, analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation were performed. Results were in the predicted direction although statistical significance was not achieved. Possible explanations for the obtained results were discussed.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Ransom, Kay Johnson

Improving Adherence: Use of Relapse Prevention Instructions in Clinical Nutrition Programs

Description: The possibility that faulty expectations about success and relapse recovery contributed to poor adherence was examined in this study. Support for such an expectancy model was sought through comparing an index of relative task magnitude to adherence rates. Instructions designed to improve adherence through changing expectations about relapse and relapse recovery were also administered to 46 clients in two clinical nutritional programs. Their adherence rates <in days) were compared to the rates obtained from the records of 64 other clients who did not receive the instructions. To further understand the adherence phenomenon, several other measures were obtained from the treatment subjects. These data were compared to adherence rates in an attempt to identify potential co-variate relationships. Statistical procedures including analysis of variance to determine comparability of subject groups, Pearson Product Moment correlations, t tests of the difference between means, and the Lawshe—Baker Nomograph comparing per cent adherence rates were performed on the data. Obtained results did not support the predicted relationship between relative task magnitude and adherence. This may have been due to differences between subjective assessments of task magnitude and the objective measure used in this study. Although improvement in adherence was noted in both treatment groups, statistical significance was achieved only in the university based clinic. Differences in the settings, assisting nutritionists, and participating subjects could have produced these findings. However, because improvement did occur in both settings, and because the techniques may be easily and inexpensively utilized by clinical nutritionists, these instructions were recommended for inclusion as a routine component of nutritional clinic procedures. No strong co-variate relationships were found between adherence and the additional measures included in the study. The only variables which correlated with adherence more than trivially, emotional response to a verbal food stimulus, and imaging ability, did lend support for this cognitively active ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Snowden, James E. (James Edward)

The Influence of Self-Monitoring on Return Rate Following Intake at a Child Guidance Clinic

Description: Research has yet to identify any characteristics of clients, therapists, or treatment dyads which consistently identify those clients most likely to drop out of treatment. A frame of reference which may prove useful in identifying such clients is the social psychological construct of selfmonitoring. This theory proposes that individuals involved in any social encounter differ from each other in their approach to constructing a relevant self-presentation. High self-monitors emphasize matching their behavior to situational cues while low self-monitors match their behavior to perceived internal values and traits. The present study demonstrates the effects that selfmonitoring styles of therapists and clients have on the effectiveness of a therapeutic intake interview and the client's decision whether or not to return for treatment. Additionally examined are the effects of therapist selfmonitoring style on theoretical orientations toward psychotherapy. The hypothesis that pairings of high self-monitors would be most effective is tested by Chi-square and found to be nonsignificant. Using the Chi-square test, low self-monitoring therapists are found to endorse a single approach to therapy and to strongly endorse the psychoanalytical orientation. Low self-monitors are found to be eclectic in approach. Satisfaction with the interview is examined using ANOVA. Results are nonsignificant with the exception that low self-monitoring therapists are more satisfied with the intake interview than are high selfmonitoring therapists. Finally, within-cell Pearson correlations are examined to measure agreement about satisfaction between therapist and client. Pairs of high self-monitors show the highest rate of agreement. Implications for further research in this area are discussed.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Matthews, Catherine Henson

Causal Attributions, Attributional Dimensions, and Academic Performance in a School Setting

Description: The attribution model of achievement motivation has been applied to academic achievement as a way of understanding underachievement and as a basis for developing intervention programs. There has been little applied research in this area, however, that supports the use of the model in school settings. The purpose of the present study was to test the applicability of the model to an actual school setting. Subjects were 149 tenth grade students in a large urban school district. In accordance with the model, specific attributions for success or failure were assessed, as well as subjects' perceptions of the locus, stability, and controllability of attributions. Attribution patterns found in previous analog research were not found in a school setting. Immediate effort attributions were the most prevalent, regardless of performance level or outcome. Causal beliefs were found to relate to performance in ways predicted by the model but also in some ways not predicted. Relationships were generally stronger for high performers. Comparing subjects' perceptions of the dimensional properties of attributions across outcomes showed a strong outcome bias. Attributions were perceived as more internal and stable following successes, consistent with previous research. In addition, a performance level bias was found. Low performers rated attributions as less internal, stable, and controllable following successes and more so following failures than did high performers. This bias, termed the underachievement bias, was discussed in terms of its detrimental effects on school performance. The differences between high and low performers regarding perceptions of dimensionalities were consistent with the predictions of the attribution model. It was concluded that the attribution model is applicable to school settings. Suggestions were made that more applied research be conducted, that intervention programs based on this model should target subjects' perceptions of attributions rather than just the specific attributions themselves, and that because of the ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Huffine, John Harold

Facial Expression Decoding Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients: Attention, Encoding, and Processing

Description: Psychiatric patients, particularly schizophrenics, tend to be less accurate decoders of facial expressions than normals. The involvement of three basic information processing stages in this deficit was investigated: attention; encoding; and processing. Psychiatric inpatients, classified by diagnosis and severity of pathology, and nonpatient controls were administered seven facial cue decoding tasks. Orientation of attention was assessed through rate of diversion of gaze from the stimuli. Encoding was assessed using simple tasks, requiring one contrast of two facial stimuli and selection from two response alternatives. Processing was assessed using a more complex task, requiring several contrasts between stimulus faces and selection from numerous response alternatives. Residualized error scores were used to statistically control for effects of attention on task performance. Processing task performance was evaluated using ANCOVA to control for effects of encoding. Schizophrenics were characterized by generalized information processing deficit while affective disorder subjects evidenced impairment only in attending. Attention impairments in both groups were related to severity of psychopathology. Problems in encoding and processing were related only to a schizophrenic diagnosis. Their decoding deficits appeared attributable to general visuospatial discrimination impairment rather than repression-sensitization defenses or the affective connotation of cues. Adequacy of interpersonal functioning was associated with measures of attending and processing but not encoding. The measures of encoding, however, may have lacked adequate discriminating power due to low difficulty.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Hoag, David Nelson

Children's Perceived Contingencies of Teacher Reinforcements, Perceptions of Competence, and Academic Performance

Description: There are two principal definitions of response-reinforcer contingency in the current literature which Scott and Piatt (1985) have labeled the phi coefficient and Rescorla index. For both definitions, contingencies are sensitive to two conditional probabilities of reinforcement, that given the occurrence and that given the non-occurrence of the criterion response. However, phi coefficient is sensitive also to the probability of the criterion response. In order to examine the relationship between children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, and the children's perceptions of competence and measures of their academic performances, 119 5th grade children (54 boys and 65 girls) were studied. Two variables derived specifically from the phi coefficient, the probability of children's responses and the probability of teacher reinforcements, were also examined in their relationship to perceived contingencies and academic performance. In general, children's perceptions of teachers as both contingently rewarding and punishing, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, were predictive of good academic performance by the children and teachers rating them as academically competent. Childrens' perceptions of their academic competence were also predictive of their academic performances and teacher ratings. The children's perceptions of academic competence were related to their reporting themselves as likely to produce positive achievement behavior but unlikely to produce negative achievement behavior. No significant relationship was found between the children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements and their perceptions of their own academic competence. These results were discussed as supporting Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Thus, expectations of reinforcement contingency and expectations of personal competence jointly determine actual competence. The contingency findings support the utility of the Children's Perceived Contingencies of Reinforcements Questionnaire as a measure of contingency in the applied setting.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Dietz, Don Anthony

Cognitive Indices of Criminal Thought: Criminals Versus Non-Criminals

Description: The ability of several psychometric instruments to differentiate between criminal and non-criminal subjects was investigated. The subjects in the study consisted of fifty male individuals between the ages of 18 and 55, half of which had been convicted of one crime and half of which had no history of criminal activity. The tests administered consisted of the Psychopathic Deviation Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire, and two tests designed by the author. The author's tests consisted of the Test of Criminal Cognitions which evaluated antisocial thought patterns and cognitive flexibility, and the Social Semantics Test which assessed individual role definitions. The Test of Criminal Cognitions was administered as a part of a structured interview, and all other scales were administered in a paper and pencil format. The results indicated that the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the MMPI, and a portion of both the Test of Criminal Cognitions and the Social Semantics Scales differentiated between the groups at the .05 level or better. These findings indicated that criminals tend to be significantly less flexible in their thought and tend to view others in a much more narcissistic manner than non-criminals. The results also indicated that these tests can be utilized to discriminate between criminals and non-criminals. It was additionally noted that the Psychopathic Deviation Scale of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire did not consistently differentiate between the groups and should not be considered a valid instrument for discriminating between these groups.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Krusen, Richard Montgomery, 1954-

Mental Imagery: The Road to Construct Validity

Description: Internal consistency reliability and validity were established for a new 31 item Imagery Manipulation Scale. Previous attempts to correlate subjectively rated control of visual imagery with tests of spatial ability have been unsuccessful. However, no attempt to construct a subjectively rated control of imagery scale was located which tried to establish internal consistency reliability and both content and construct validity. Further, no research was located in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery ability utilized during the performance of the actual spatial tasks used to try to establish validity. A new scale of subjectively rated control of imagery was devised in which subjects were requested to rate their imagery while solving spatial tasks which involved visualizing the manipulation of geometric forms. Content validity was established by analyzing the transformation involved while solving the spatial problems. Internal consistency reliability for the 31 item scale was established across two samples. Validity was established with the second sample (100 university students: 26 male and 74 female). The task utilized to provide validity could be objectively scored, and was made up of four spatial subtests, which were adapted from the Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test, the Kosslyn Directions Test, performed in both the forward and backward direction, and a block task utilized by Snyder. A convergent and discriminant validity analysis established construct validity. Further, the hypotheses of three investigators, Kosslyn, Shepard and his colleagues, and Snyder, were supported by the results of the present investigation, thus substantiating the conclusion that reported control of imagery processing can be operationalized with performance scores on spatial ability tasks.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Penk, Mildred Lotus

A Path Analysis of a Job Burnout Model Among Firefighers

Description: The purpose of this study was to propose an exploratory causal model that examines the influence of several antecedent variables on burnout. The antecedent variables included age, marital status, education, tenure, Type A personality, Jungian types, death anxiety, leadership style, job satisfaction, stress, coping efficacy, and marital satisfaction. The validity of the causal model was tested by using path analysis. Subjects were 100 male firefighters who completed self-report measures of the predictor variables. Instruments included the Jenkins Activity Survey, Myers- Briggs Type Indicator, Collett-Lester Attitudes Toward Death Scale, Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, Job Descriptive Index, Perceived Job Stress, The Coping Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Perceived work stress made the only direct contribution to the variance in burnout. Direct paths were found to stress from job satisfaction, Type A personality, and single marital status. Job satisfaction was directly related to leadership (consideration) and the Jungian Introversion, Feeling, and Perceiving preferences. Direct paths were found to marital satisfaction from death anxiety, leadership (consideration), and leadership (structure). Leadership (consideration) was directly related to structure. From the above results, it can be concluded that perception of stress is an important factor in predicting burnout. Other factors are important contributors to stress and have indirect effects on burnout. Implications for the prevention and treatment of job burnout are discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Goza, Gail R.

Client-Therapist Interaction and Perceived Therapeutic Outcome

Description: This study sought to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of client-therapist dyads in a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed adolescents. The theories of George Kelly's personal construct psychology were utilized in assessing the dyadic relationship. The four elements investigated were organizational similarity, understanding, organizational congruency and predominant selves. The sample consisted of 140 dyads comprised of 10 adolescent boys and girls and 14 therapeutic staff of a residential treatment center in the southwest United States. Responses to Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test were compared to four relational factors—parental/respect, identity, problem-solving, and sexual/affection—and two rating scales of client-therapist preference and ratings of therapeutic effectiveness. Contrary to expectations, as content similarity among dyads composed of clients and staff increased, there was not an increase in functional aspects of the therapy relationship. Possible mitigating factors may have been level of client disturbance and/or methodological issues relating to how organizational similarity was determined. Dyadic understanding was not found to be related to perceptions of the therapy relationship. This may be a function of adolescent of adolescent clients' need for independence and resistance to adult understanding and control. Therapy dyads with a moderate level of lateral or vertical organizational congruence were not found to be curvilinearly related to functional aspects of the therapy relationship. However, a weak linear relationship regarding client perceptions of the therapy relationship was noted on four measures. Several methodological recommendations related to the instruments used to determine therapeutic effectiveness and the means of eliciting personal constructs on the REP test.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Fogle, Joseph Edwin

Forensic Hypnosis and Memory Enhancement: Recall, Recognition, and Confidence

Description: The recent finding of memory enhancement using either cognitive mnemonic or standard hypnotic interviews (Geiselman et al., 1985) suggests the possibility of additive forensic utility when these methods are combined. The present crime-analogue study compared waking and hypnotic cognitive mnemonics to investigate this and potential problems previously unaddressed. Recall and recognition accuracy and confidence were measured for low and high density stimuli in a videotaped murder, including central, peripheral, and facial detail. The effect of misleading information given after stimulus presentation was also examined.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Wiley, Stephen K. (Stephen Kenneth)

Self Cognitions of Depressed Adolescents: a Personal Construct Approach

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the characteristics of certain self cognitions that occur in depressed adolescents. A secondary purpose was to assess the change that occurs in these self cognitions during a depressive episode. The intervention, in the form of guided imagery about a previous drug-using episode, was used to induce a mood change. The REP, a Personal Construct Theory measure, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used in a repeated measures design.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Rasile, Karen D.

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Clinical Scales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery, Form II

Description: The factor structure of the Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) Form II was examined. A principle components factor analysis was performed on a sample of 102 psychiatric and neurologic subjects. It was necessary to remove 45 items from the analysis due to perfect performance by most subjects. The results were orthogonally rotated to simple structure using a Varimax method of rotation, and then compared to previous LNNB Form I and Form II results. Thirty-three factors were generated in the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) . There was a very high agreement with the factors from Form I. Only one new factor was identified that didn't have a comparable Form I factor, and this factor appears to have neurological support. The similarity of the factor solutions between the two forms supports the continued use of factors derived from Form I for the interpretation of Form II, and supports the underlying structure presupposed by Lurian constructs. The present study also tested the significance of the hypothesized factor structures through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). No hypothesis about the underlying factor structure based on previous exploratory studies was supported. The CFA did suggest that the best factor solution to the LNNB Form II is one that (a) has correlated factors and (b) has items loading on more than one factor. The confirmatory results were interpreted as not supporting the current exploratory results, or the previous factor analytic results. Problems notwithstanding, researchers may be better directed to propose factor models for the LNNB that have correlated factors, and to work samples approaching the 10 to 1 recommended sample size for multivariate analysis. One conclusion that was drawn from the concurrence between the two Form II studies pertains to psychiatric populations used in both studies. It was necessary to exclude a large number of items in each ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Nagel, Jeffrey A.

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Model of Psychological Functioning

Description: A sample of 203 grandparents, 103 of whom were surrogate parents for their grandchildren, were assessed to construct a model of their psychological functioning. Four measures of psychological functioning (i.e., well-being, satisfaction with grandparenting, meaning of grandparenthood, and perceived relationships with grandchildren) were evaluated. Path analysis of data suggested that the resumption of the parental role negatively impacted all measures except the meaning of grandparenthood. Data also suggested a sense of isolation among those raising grandchildren, as well as a sense of role confusion. These factors may have been exacerbated by behavior difficulties of many grandchildren as a result of family conflict preceding the loss of their parents, and by a lack of parenting skills of grandparents who assumed parental responsibilities. These results reinforce other work that found a preference for fulfilling voluntary, nonparental relationships with grandchildren among grandparents.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Shore, R. Jerald (Robert Jerald)

Personality Characteristics Associated with Pet Ownership: Validating the Theoretical Propositions of Boris Levinson

Description: The purpose of the present study was to provide validation for Levinson's theory about pets and human personality development. Levinson (1978) proposed that the personality development of individuals who have pets to which they are attached differs from that of those who do not have pets and that pets play an important role in facilitating the development of certain adaptive personality traits. In the present study, specific areas that were addressed included differences in certain personality characteristics between life-long pet owners who were strongly attached to their pets, life-long pet owners who were less strongly attached to their pets, and people who had owned pets for only a limited period of time in their lives. One hundred undergraduates completed the Pet Attitude Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, the Personality Research Form - Form E, the Hogan Empathy Scale, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation - Behavior (FIRO-B), and the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire. No significant differences were found between the three pet owner groups in levels of affiliation with other people, impulse control, nurturance, succorance, capacity for empathy, and anxiety levels. In addition, no significant differences were found between the three pet owner groups in interpersonal behavior characteristics or self-esteem. Concurrent validity was shown between membership in the different pet owner groups and positive attitudes toward pets as measured by the Pet Attitude Scale. As predicted, the most attached life-long pet owners reported more positive attitudes toward pets than the least attached life-long pet owners or the limited-time pet owners.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Esparza, Jana Scoville

Relationship between Selected Behaviors and Developmental Skills in Children with Autism

Description: The purpose of this exploratory study was to gain more information about the developmental skills and abnormal behaviors of children with autism. Major interests included exploring the pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses, the relationship between unusual behaviors, and the relationship of autistic behaviors to development and IQ.
Date: August 1991
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda

Construct Use and Self-Aspect Change in Recovery From Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: a Personal Construct Analysis

Description: Cognitive ratings that use bipolar constructs based upon similarity and contrast have been shown to be biased towards the similarity pole in approximately a 62/38 ratio. This bias has also been known to shift in the contrastive direction for individuals who have psychiatric problems. This quantitative measure of cognitive change has a potential for characterizing cognitive changes that occur during the disease process, including recovery from disease. The present study investigated changes in self-aspect ratings and bipolar construct use in adult male veterans who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results indicated that treatment subjects' self-aspect and construct ratings were more negative than controls'. Results also indicated that all subjects rated core interpersonal self-aspects closest to the expected bias, while self-aspects related to cardiac recovery problems were rated in the most contrastive direction. The results finally suggested that the greatest degree of change for the treatment subjects were in emotionally generated constructs. The results suggested a preliminary validation for characterizing cognitive changes in the disease process by measuring shifts in bipolar construct ratings.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Zolten, Avram J. (Avram Jeffery)

Control, Commitment, and Challenge: Relationships to Stress, Illness, and Gender

Description: Male and female college students were administered scales assessing their daily hassles, negative life events, control, commitment, challenge, psychological symptomatology, psychological distress, and physical symptomatology. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that control, commitment, and challenge act in an additive (rather than multiplicative) manner in relation to psychological and physical outcome measures.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Embry, Judy K.