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Effects of Adlerian Parent Education on Parents' Stress and Perception of Their Learning Disabled Child's Behavior

Description: This study examined the effects of an Adlerian-based parent education program on parental stress and perception of Learning Disabled (LD) childrens' behavior. Forty parents, randomly assigned to treatment or waiting-list control groups, took the Parental Stress Index (PSI) and the Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Rating Scale (APACBS) as pre and post tests. Parents in the treatment group attended a six-session Active Parenting program. No significant differences were found on the analysis of covariance for perceived parental stress following the parent education program. Seventy percent of the parents in this study had total PSI scores in the range defined as high stress by the PSI author. All of the PSI Child Domain pretest z scores were elevated indicating that parents perceive their LD children to be demanding, moody, distractible, and unadaptable. LD children's behavior is perceived as unacceptable and does not positively reinforce parents. The elevated z scores on the PSI parent Domain pretest indicate that parents of LD children feel less competent as parents and experience less attachment to their children than do parents of normal children. No significant differences were found on the APACBS following treatment, but 80 percent of the parents in the treatment group did perceive some positive behavior change. A positive correlation was found between the PSI and the APACBS indicating that perceived parental stress and child behavior are related. Parents identified 67 perceived stresors of raising LD children on a questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that parents of LD children perceive themselves to experience greater parenting stress than parents of normal childrenn. This perceived parental stress was not reduced and perception of children's behavior was not improved after participation in the Active Parenting program. Therefore, parent education groups for parents of LD children may need to be smaller, provide more time ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Latson, Sherry R. (Sherry Rose)

Family Stress Factors and Behavior Problems of Children

Description: This study examined the relationship among the factors of parental stress, marital adjustment, life event stress, and behavior problems of children and whether the sources and levels of parental stress, marital adjustment, and life event stress differed among families of children with . behavior problems and families whose children did not experience behavior problems. The subjects for this study were 60 mothers and their children from the North Texas metropolitan area chosen from two populations. Group I was composed of mothers of 30 children referred to a university related counseling center for behavior problems. Group II was composed of 30 mothers of children identified as not experiencing difficulty. Each mother completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Short Marital Adjustment Test (SMAT), and Social Readjustment Rating Questionnaire (SRRQ). Hotellings T tests were used to determine whether the groups differed on sources and levels of parenting stress, marital adjustment, and life event stress. The groups differed significantly on the variables of sources and levels of parenting stress but not on marital adjustment or life event stress. The multiple regression technique was used to determine which variable or combination of variables would predict group membership. Parenting stress was found to be the best predictor of group membership. Based on this study, mothers who have a child with behavior problems do have an increased level of parenting stress. This increased level of stress is related to characteristics of their child and to their own personal characteristics. Those mothers who experience increased levels of parenting stress do not experience significantly less satisfaction in their marriages nor do their children experience more stressful life events than other children.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Springer, Verlene

Evolution Incidence and Components of U.S. Police Agency Mental Health Services

Description: Postal survey research was conducted between September and November, 1986, to gather information concerning the evolution, existence and extent of mental health services available to police personnel. Questionnaires were mailed to all 366 municipal, county, and state police agencies in the United States that employed 200 or more workers. Usable data were obtained from 76.8% of the agencies surveyed. Of the 281 respondents who returned usable data, 65.1% reported the existence of mental health services available to their police personnel. The majority of respondents (58.6%) perceived their mental health programs as being equally reactive and preventive in orientation. The most frequently reported existing components were outside agency counseling, stress management seminars, and testing of potential police recruits. Over half (54.8%) of the responding police agencies reported having between 10 and 19 components in their respective mental health programs. The implementation dates and evolution of twenty-five (25) components were examined, and specific components of various police agencies were also revealed. The majority of respondents (70.7%) reported their mental health programs were available to sworn and nonsworn personnel and their families. Almost all respondents (98.3%) viewed their programs as being cost effective. Also, most agencies were satisfied with the four treatment resources listed, which included in-house counseling, outside agency counseling, hospital in-patient programs, and alcohol/drug rehabilitation centers. Slightly over half (50.8%) of the respondents stated their service programs were entitled "Employee Assistance Program." Of the 300 staff workers holding mental health degrees, 101 were reported to have doctoral degrees in psychology. The most frequently reported personality theory utilized by staff members was eclecticism (48.5%). The prevailing high interest in police mental health services is discussed as well as possible reasons why some police managers may be apathetic towards the implementation of such services. Ways of educating police managers as to the benefits ...
Date: May 1987
Creator: White, John H. (John Hubert)

Effects of Control Theory Training Upon Self-Concept and Locus of Control Among Selected University Freshmen

Description: This study examined the effects of Control Theory training upon self-concept and locus of control among students enrolled in the Provisional Admission Program (PAP) at the University of Texas at Arlington. Twenty-nine students randomly assigned to treatment or placebo control groups took the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSSEI-A) and the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (ANSIE) as pre- and posttests. Participants in the placebo control group attended their regular educational program for the same amount of time given to the treatment group. No significant differences were found on the Analysis of Covariance for CSSEI—A or ANSIE scores following the training period. CSSEI-A and ANSIE scores were elevated, indicating that PAP students think of themselves internally as do other college students, regardless of their SAT scores. The results of this study indicate that Control Theory training is insignificantly effective in producing changes in the self-concept and locus of control among PAP students. Control Theory research may need to be carried out with a smaller group size, use larger samples, provide more time to address the issues specific to PAP student needs, include a stronger counseling emphasis to meet their needs, use more sensitive instruments to detect such changes, and allow more time for the learning to occur before the administration of the posttest.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Smadi, Ahmad Abdel-Majid

Single and Married Mothers: A Comparison of Parenting Stress, Parenting Skills, and Self-Esteem

Description: This study compared divorced custodial mothers and mothers married to the biological fathers of their children on parenting stress, parenting skills, and self-esteem. The relationship between parenting stress, parenting skills, self-esteem, marital status, and life satisfaction was also examined. A total of 63 subjects, including 31 married mothers and 32 single mothers, was administered the Parenting Stress Index, the Parenting Skills Inventory, and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Subjects also completed a Demographic Data Sheet that included a Likert-type scale designed by the researcher to measure current life satisfaction. All subjects either attended church or lived in a geographic area of North Central Texas that is generally recognized as being somewhat affluent. No significant differences were found on the t-tests comparing the mean total scores of the married and divorced mothers on levels of parenting stress, parenting skills, and self-esteem. A post hoc t-test revealed, however, that the group of married mothers had significantly higher mean total scores on the life satisfaction measure than the group of divorced mothers. Additionally, life satisfaction was found to be associated with parenting stress, parenting skills, self-esteem, and marital status. Specificallly, (a) as parenting stress increases, life satisfaction decreases, (b) as parenting skills increase, life satisfaction increases, (c) as self-esteem increases, life satisfaction increases, and (d) being married is associated with increased life satisfaction. The results of this study would seem to indicate that single mothers have no more difficulty in overall coping than their married counterparts although they are less satisfied with their current life circumstances than the group of married mothers. Additional comparisons of the data suggested that neither group of mothers regarded their children as interfering with their social lives in a major way. Like most previous research, the data also indicated that the single mothers worked longer hours and had less ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Nichols, Linda Adams

An Ethnographic Study of an Adlerian Play Therapy Training Program

Description: This study utilized ethnomethodology to provide a description of the process and the effect of training counselors to incorporate the concepts and techniques of Individual Psychology into play therapy. Transcripts of the training program and of three individual interviews with the nine counselors who participated in the training were made. These transcripts and the journals in which the subjects were asked to chronicle their personal experiences and reactions to the training were qualitatively analyzed. This analysis indicated that most of the subjects reported that their attitudes toward play therapy, toward themselves as play therapists, and toward their play therapy clients had changed after their participation in the Adlerian play therapy training. The majority of subjects also reported that they perceived that their behavior in their play therapy sessions had changed, frequently in the direction of including more creative and active techniques. Qualitative analysis of the transcripts made from videotaped play therapy sessions by the researcher and an outside evaluator indicated that, while some of the counselors' behaviors seemed to have changed after the training, many of the counselors' behaviors did not appear to have been affected by their participation in the training. Possible explanations of the discrepancy between the counselors' perceptions of their behavior and the researcher's and outside evaluator's perceptions of the counselors' behaviors were discussed. Other areas considered as worthy of in-depth examination were: (a) possible influences on the changes in the counselors' attitudes toward play therapy, toward themselves as play therapists, and toward their play therapy clients; (b) several factors involved in training counselor education students; (c) elements which may have affected the counselors' receptivity to learning a new method of conducting play therapy; (d) implications for the future adaptation of the Adlerian play therapy training program; and (f) potential avenues for future research.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Kottman, Terry

Parental Stress, Parental Attitude, and Preschoolers' Academic, Social and Emotional Maturity

Description: This study investigated the relationships among the variables of parental stress, parental attitude, and preschoolers' academic, social and emotional maturity. The purposes of the investigation were to measure the relationship between parental stress and parental attitude, and to determine whether parental attitude and parental stress differed in their ability to predict preschoolers' behavioral maturity.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Hwang, Ching-Hui

Personality Strengths and Perceived Levels of Autonomy and Intimacy in the Family of Origin of Adult Children from Alcoholic Families

Description: The problem of this study was to assess the impact of growing up in an alcoholic family on adult personality strengths and to determine the perceived levels of autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin. The sample consisted of 115 volunteers, 84 women and 31 men, ages 22 years and older, who had at least one alcoholic parent. The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaires (16 PF) and the Family of Origin Scale (FOS) were administered. A 1 X 3 Chi Square Goodness of Fit analysis was used on each of the 16 personality factors to determine the personality strengths of adult children of alcoholics (ACA). A simple discriminate function analysis was used to determine the degree to which assessed strengths on the 16 PF discriminated self-reported levels of autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine which 16 PF were more closely related to perceived autonomy and intimacy in the family of origin as measured by the FOS.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Bachner-Schnorr, Harriet

The Relationship of Temperament and Extraversion-Introversion to Selected Group counseling Outcome Measures

Description: The problem of this study was the determination of the relationship between Myers-Briggs personality temperament and extraversion-introversion, and group counseling norms, as reflected by the group counseling outcome measures: Survey of Attraction to Group, self and leader-report Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale (IRRS), and Sociometric Choice Status Survey. The Mvers-Briggs Temperament Indicator (MBTI) and the four outcome measures were administered to a sample population of 103 graduate and undergraduate counselor education students after completion of a semester-long group counseling experience. Fifteen groups of five to nine members were surveyed. It was expected that group members whose temperaments were compatible with group counseling norms would be more likely to receive confirmation, support, and acceptance in the group, be attracted to the group, receive higher leader and self-report ratings of interpersonal skills, and be more highly valued by other members than would members whose temperaments were incompatible with group norms. It was also thought that extraverts were more likely to be attracted to the group, receive higher self and leader ratings of interpersonal skills, and to be more highly valued by other members than were introverts. No significant relationship was found between temperament and the four outcome measures. Possible explanations for this finding were discussed. However, mean scores for extraverts were significantly higher than mean scores for introverts on the Survey of Attraction to Group and leader-report interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale instruments. A related finding was that the NF temperament was overrepresented in the sample population of counselor education students by a factor of four. The INFP type was overrepresented by a factor of 16.5, and the ENFP type had the highest frequency of occurrence. Together, INFPs and ENFPs constituted 34 percent of the sample. In the general population, INFPs and ENFPs would be expected to account for only six percent of the ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Hays, Donald G.

The Analysis of Patient Status Following Substance Abuse Treatment and Utilization of Medical Care

Description: Subjects were 2,950 patients who had previously received inpatient treatment for substance abuse at 40 treatment centers in 13 states and were followed up by the Chemical Abuse/Addiction Treatment Outcome Registry (CATOR) via telephone during the 2 years immediately following their treatment. All subjects were contacted every 6 months and asked a series of questions regarding their relapse status, medical utilization, illnesses, injuries, and arrests. Patient status was based on 3 categories: (1) abstinence from any abuse of a chemical, (2) brief relapse of less than 3 months abuse of any chemical, or (3) total relapse of longer than 3 months of any chemical. Findings showed that abstainers had fewer days in the hospital for emotional problems and detoxification. Abstainers also had fewer visits to the hospital for emergency reasons. Males in the brief relapse category had a greater number of injuries than abstainers or total relapsers. Regarding arrests and automobile accidents, no difference was discovered. However, regarding Drunk While Driving (DWI) arrests, abstainers had fewer arrests.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Jones, French Allan

Love Attitudes and Marital Adjustment Through Five Stages of the Marital Life-Cycle in Protestant Nigerian Society

Description: This study examined the relationship between love attitude and marital adjustment across five stages of the marital life-cycle in Nigerian society. The subjects for this study were 202 volunteers from six protestant churches representing six cities in the southern part of Nigeria. An average of 20 couples were representatives of each of the five marital life-cycles. Each of the subjects completed the Love Attitude Inventory (LAI), and the Marital Adjustment Test (short form) (MAT). Wilk's multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences between husbands' and wives' love attitude and marital adjustment across the five stages of the marital life cycle. Multivariate analysis split-plot 5.2 with repeated measures revealed no significant difference for the total sample among the groups, but indicated a significant difference between love attitude and marital adjustment for the total sample using sex as a factor. A univariate test of the MAT and LAI indicated that the MAT accounted for the difference. A canonical correlation indicated a significant positive relationship between husbands1 and wives' marital adjustment and love attitude within each of the five groups. The findings suggest that husbands and wives included in this study have a good understanding of their roles in the marriage relationship and that the partners have general agreement regarding those roles. The marriage partners apparently have strong influences on each other's perceptions of love attitude and marital adjustment.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Acho, Onyebuchi S. (Onyebuchi Sunday)

An Historical Analysis of the Published Works of Fritz Perls

Description: This study presents a topical and chronological analysis of the published works of Fritz Perls with particular attention to specified theoretical continua. The theoretical continua specified are: 1. Determinism vs. Free Will, 2. Unconscious vs. Conscious, 3. Monism vs. Dualism, A. Physical vs. Mental, 5. Nativism vs. Environmental ism, 6. Elementalism vs. Holism, 7. Reactive vs. Proactive, 8. Subjective vs. Objective, 9. Responsibility vs. Helplessness, 10. Thinking vs. Feeling, and 11. Heterostasis vs. Homeostasis. Each continuum is analyzed in reference to Perls' published thought and his stated beliefs are described and reported. Large sections of the dissertation are devoted to the intellectual, philosophical, and emotional influences that led Perls to write the theory of Gestalt therapy. The dissertation concludes with the report of Perls' position on each defined continuum, with discussion of empirical studies, Gestalt therapy and other major theories of counseling that hold parallel theoretical positions, concluding with a discussion of the limitations of the theory of Gestalt therapy and of this dissertation.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Spillman, Craig W. (Craig Warren)

Family Environment. Lifestyle, and Control Factors of Depressed Adolescents and Their Parents

Description: The problem of this study was to identify variables in the family environment that may describe depressed adolescents' families. This study was based on Adlerian theory. The Family Environment Scale (FES) was used to measure the family atmosphere. The Lifestyle Scale (LS) was used to examine the adolescent's unique system of beliefs, values, and attitudes. The Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (IE) was used to measure the extent of external control exhibited by the adolescents and their parents. The subjects of this study were 31 depressed adolescents from 2 suburban psychiatric hospitals and one of each of the adolescent's parents. The subjects were from a homogeneous socioeconomic population showing no significant variation in the demographic categories of sex, race, chronological birth order, or marital status of the parents. Scores were compared with normative data. Product moment correlations were calculated between the results of the subscales on the 3 instruments. A principal components factor analysis was performed to determine if any patterns existed.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Warlick, Jayne

Adolescent Discouragement: Development of an Assessment Instrument

Description: The Adolescent Discouragement Indicator (ADI) was developed to assess the Adlerian construct of discouragement. The 75-item ADI contains five subscales corresponding to the five life tasks specified in Individual Psychology and is specifically designed to pinpoint the area and degree of adolescent discouragement. Item selection was based on ratings by five prominent Adlerians and item correlation with subscale scores. Age and sex norms for the ADI were established on 225 females and 299 males 12 to 18 years of age. Findings indicate that female adolescents are less discouraged than male adolescents on all scales except the love scale and both sexes reported the least amount of discouragment on the love scale. The only significant difference among the age groups is between the 13-year-olds and the 15, 16, and 17-year-olds on the love scale. An internal consistency coefficient of .95, a 2-week test-retest coefficient of .89, and a 4-week test-retest coefficient of .92 indicates that the ADI is a reliable instrument. Negative and significant (p < .001) correlations between the ADI and Social Interest Index (Greever, Tseng, & Friedland, 1973) and between the ADI and the Social Interest Scale (Crandall, 1975) contribute to construct validity and support Adler's belief that discouragement and social interest are inversely related. Results of behavioral and academic comparisons on a sample of adolescent males (N=57) seem to indicate a link between behavior, academic performance, and levels of discouragement. Results of factor analysis and interscale correlations are presented. Implications for further research include continued validation using behavioral criteria associated with discouragement, refinement of the subscales and establishment of score ranges to indicate when an adolescent is considered discouraged.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Lingg, MaryAnn

The Everyday Experience of Satisfaction, Conflict, Anger, and Violence for Women in Love Relationships

Description: The problem of this study addressed how women experience the conflict variables of beliefs about conflict, anger arousal, conflict styles, and received and expressed violence as partners in love relationships and how these factors affect their reported satisfaction. Graduate women (M = 186) from University of North Texas completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a subscale of Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Interpersonal Conflict Tactics and Strategies Scale (ICTAS), and the Severity of Violence Against Women scale (SVAW). Data were analyzed using MANOVAs with ANOVAs to examine significant differences. Multiple regression procedures were used for the exploratory questions. Women reporting less satisfied relationships were expected to believe that disagreement was more destructive and to report higher anger arousal than those who were more satisfied. The hypotheses were supported. Women who were less satisfied also reported using less constructive conflict tactics and more destructive and avoidant tactics as well as receiving some forms of violence. Expressed violence was not significantly related to low satisfaction. Results suggested that these conflict variables are highly interrelated. Strong feedback loops may develop. Strongly held conflict beliefs may affect the use of destructive and avoidant conflict strategies and increase anger which may reinforce the conflict beliefs. Women who have received violence may use both destructive and avoidant tactics. Use of tactics that escalate then de-escalate conflict suggests that conflict strategies may not be mutually exclusive. However, when a woman is low in anger and has previously received violence from a partner, she may use more avoidant tactics. In contrast women who express violence to their partners may use all three conflict tactics including constructive tactics. This finding suggested that women may express violence as a last resort to get a reaction from their partners.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Smith, R. Lee

Assessment of the Effects of Communication Training on the Adult Elderly and the Assisting Adult Child

Description: This study examined the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on affection, communication, and relationship between elderly parents and their assisting adult children. Twenty-eight pairs of parents and children were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Subjects took Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire as pre-, post-, and follow-up tests. Parents and children in the treatment groups attended a four-session STEP workshop. No significant differences were found on the 2 x 2 analysis of variance for repeated measures for the parents or adult children. Quinn's affection and relationship variables approached significance for the parents over time. His variable affection approached significance for the children over time, irrespective of group. Agreement approached significance for children in the treatment group. The results for the parents regarding affection suggest that the study may have emphasized their feelings of trust. Although the data for relationship approached significance, it was negative, indicating that parents in the treatment group may have reduced their interaction with their assisting children perhaps because they were learning new communication skills. The data for the children regarding affection approached significance, but it was negative, suggesting they felt free to question their feelings about themselves and their parents. The results for children in the treatment group regarding agreement may suggest that the study increased their awareness of areas of agreement with their parents. When the data for parents and children were compared, communication approached significance for the parents; that is, they felt more comfortable with their communication with their children than did their children. The variables affection and perception showed significance. The elderly parents perceived their relationship with their children more positively than did their children. Absence of statistically significant data may be explained because Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire was not sensitive enough. Analysis of covariance might have identified significant findings. ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Goldstein, Roberta Eisman

A Descriptive Study of a Native African Mental Health Problem Known in Zimbabwe as zvirwere zvechivanhu

Description: This is a study conducted in Zimbabwe which compared a group of 50 zvirvere zvechivanhu patients and a group of 50 non-patients in age, sex, marital status, level of education and claims of spirit possession. Claims of spirit possessions and types of spirits, as pointed out by Bennel (1982), were used as symptoms of zvirwere zvechivanhu. The two groups were also compared in symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R used in the study. The SCL-90-R, developed by Derogatis (1975), is a 90-item symptom check list used to screen people for psychological problems reflected in the nine symptom dimensions of somatization, obsessive/ compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and in the three global scores of Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Distress Index and Positive Symptom Total. The subjects were chosen from two different sites, using a systematic sampling method. Three statistical methods were used to analyze the data. The Chi-square was used to analyze data on descriptive variables. The T-test and 2 x 2 analysis of variance were used to analyze the data on symptom dimensions and global scores. The study had one main hypothesis and nine subhypotheses. The main hypothesis was that zvirwere zvechivanhu patients were significantly different from the non-patients on the overall global scores. The nine subhypotheses stated that the patient and non-patient groups were significantly different in the nine separate symptom dimensions. The study concluded that the zvirwere zvechivanhu patients were significantly different from the non-patients in the overall global scores. In the nine separate symptom dimensions, it was concluded that the two groups were the same in all except the somatization and obsessive/compulsive system dimensions.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Mungadze, Jerry Jesphat

An Ethnographic Study of the Use of Puppetry with a Children's Group

Description: This study utilized an ethnographic methodology to examine and describe the various aspects and processes occurring in a children's group as the members created their own puppets and accompanying puppet plays. Individual and interactive behavior patterns were isolated and analyzed as a means of gaining an in depth understanding of the puppetry process. The puppetry process, in turn, was viewed in terms of information it provided regarding the individual members and the group process. The facilitative and non-facilitative aspects of the procedure were delineated. The adult leader met with a group of six boys, in grades four and five, for 12 one-hour sessions in which they made puppets and then created puppet plays around issues that they had articulated as problems. The group sessions were videotaped and transcribed. The transcriptions were coded in an effort to extensively analyze the puppetry process and the group process, and the ways in which the two processes interacted. An independent observer/rater was utilized in order to provide some validity for the researcher's reported results. The puppet-making task appeared to offer an opportunity for individuals to begin to come together in a common, but individual task. Characteristic styles and individual personality dynamics were evidenced. General response to the task was enthusiastic, with varying degrees of satisfaction expressed regarding their finished products. The play-creating and performing process met with less success than the puppet-making. While the group members appeared to be generally amenable to contributing ideas for the puppet plays, the process met with far more resistance in the cooperative task of putting their ideas into a finished product. The group discussion and interaction that occurred around these tasks provided a vehicle by which to view levels of interpersonal skills and the group's overall stage of development. The puppets the children created appeared to act as ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Deniger, Marcy M. (Marcy Marble)

A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children From Non-Alcoholic Families on Depression, Self-Esteem, and Anxiety

Description: The problem of this study was to test the differences between adult children from alcoholic families with adult children from non-alcoholic families on levels of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety. The sample consisted of 203 volunteers, all from the Counselor Education Department, 150 females and 53 males, ages 19 and older. Volunteers who were noted as being adult children of alcoholic families numbered 60. Measures used were the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to test for differences between groups. In addition, a secondary analysis using a one-way MANOVA was used to test for differences between dysfunctional and functional family of origin status on the dependent variables of depression, self-esteem, and anxiety.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Dodd, David T. (David Tennyson), 1957-

The Effects of Raising Grandchildren on the Marital Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Parenting Stress of Grandparents

Description: This study examined the relationship among the variables of marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, and parenting stress of grandparents raising grandchildren and whether the sources and levels of marital satisfaction, life satisfaction, and parenting stress differed among grandparents raising grandchildren and grandparents not raising grandchildren.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Aaron, Larry M. (Larry Marion)

The Development of a Management Training Program Using Adlerian Theoretical Principles

Description: This study was designed to determine whether participation in an eight hour training program based on Adlerian theoretical principles would influence managerial attitudes. The effects of the training curriculum on three attitudinal dimensions were investigated: leadership style, acceptance of self and others and level of dogmatism. It was hypothesized that Adlerian training would increase the development of managerial human relations competence. Eighty-one managers participated in the study. The experimental group, comprised of 40 line managers, received eight hours of Adlerian training conducted in two one-half day sessions. The training was both didactic and experiential in content and contained modules on lifestyles/management styles, conflict resolution, effective communication strategies and understanding personality dynamics. The control group, comprised of 41 managers, did not receive training but participated in the pre-testing and post-testing process. Managers completed The Leadership Opinion Questionnaire, The Acceptance of Self and Others Questionnaire, and The Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, prior to the first training session and again two weeks after the final training session. A one-way analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups on both the Consideration and Structure dimensions of the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire. This suggests that managers in the experimental group demonstrated a more participative and less authoritarian management style two weeks after training was completed. No significant differences were found between the two groups on managers' level of dogmatism or acceptance of self and others.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Preiss, Amy E.

Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse : Characteristics of the Mother-child Relationship

Description: This qualitative study examined the characteristics of the mother-child relationship of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at the time of the abuse. The study consisted of data from the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Family of Origin Scale (FOS), and a set of structured interview questions designed by the researcher. Autonomy/intimacy concepts from the FOS examined constructs of clarity of expression, responsibility, respect, openness, acceptance of loss and separation, expression of a wide range of feelings, conflict resolution, mood and tone, and empathy.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Motley, Rebecca Roper

A Content Analysis of Case Studies in Childhood Selective Mutism

Description: The problem of this study was to provide a more comprehensive and accurate profile of various aspects of selective mutism—family atmosphere/dynamics, aetiology and manifestations of mutism, usages and outcomes of therapeutic approaches, and a profile of the affected child—and to provide a more comprehensive and consistent basis to guide effective treatment strategies and facilitate additional research. A content analysis of case studies of selective mute children completed from 1929-1994 was used to educe this data.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Van der Smissen, Gayle L. (Gayle Lynn)