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A Comparison of Focused Feedback Techniques in Individual Counseling

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is a comparison of the effects of three methods of focused feedback upon selected client behaviors in individual counseling. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to examine which of three methods of focused feedback (videotape, audiotape, or verbal) is most effective in producing selected behavioral changes in clients seen in individual counseling. The second is to compare the effects of the three methods of focused feedback on individual clients with the effects of a traditional individual counseling approach that did not utilize focused feedback.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Bucur, Raymond Roy

A Comparison of the Effects of Various Methods of Practicum Experiences upon Subsequent Behavior and Skill of Counselor Trainees

Description: The present study was undertaker, to examine the effects of various methods of training during the practicum experience upon subsequent counselor trainees' behavior and skill. This study has a two-fold purpose. The first is to examine which of two methods of training was most effective in producing behavioral changes in counselor trainees during a five month practicum situation. The second is to compare the effects of these forms of training with a control group which did not utilize the training procedures.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Hafner, Bruce William

Operant Conditioning of Counselor Verbal Responses Through Radio Communication

Description: The problem of this study was to determine whether using radio communication can facilitate learning in counseling practicums. This study had four purposes: 1. To determine whether the use of radio communication would be effective in providing positive reinforcement to the counselor during counseling sessions. 2. To determine whether the use of radio communication would be effective in enhancing the learning of facilitative responses by counselors in practicum situations. 3. To determine the effect of positive reinforcement on the student counselors' performance. 4. To provide information that might be beneficial with regard to future research involving the use of radio communication in counselor training.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Tentoni, Stuart Charles

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Preservice Human Relations Training for Teachers

Description: This study was an investigation of the different effects of three procedures of human relations training in changing the personality characteristics and attitudes of preservice teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between a structured group laboratory experience, a non-structured group counseling experience, and a regular classroom lecture experience on the development of interpersonal attitudes of preservice teachers, and to ascertain the extent to which attitudinal and personality changes take place.
Date: August 1974
Creator: McWilliams, J. Hudson

A Survey Study of a Human Relations Training Program for a Select Group of Airport Public Safety Officers

Description: The problem of this study was to survey the perceived effectiveness of a human relations training program for a select group of Public Safety Officers at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. In relation to this select group of Public Safety Officers, the purposes of the study were as follows: (1) to describe the selection procedures, (2) to provide a general overview of the procedures involved in a thirteen-week police training program, (3) to describe the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program, (4) to describe the public safety officer trainees in terms of their performance on various criteria measurements, (5) to assess and describe the personality characteristics of the Public Safety Officer trainees, and (6) to determine the Public Safety Officers' perceptions of, and reactions to, the human relations training aspects of the thirteen-week police training program.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Hutto, Emmette R.

The Student Service Related Problems of International and English as a Second Language Students in a Selected Community College

Description: The study focused on the student service related problems of culturally distinct groups of students attending a community college. The groups selected for the study were sixty international students and sixty English as a Second Language students. The researcher administered the Michigan International Student Problem Inventory, an instrument which has been widely used to indicate foreign students' problems. Combining the use of naturalistic research methodology, the researcher utilized an indepth interview to document the problems they were facing. Patterns and trends among the problems were analyzed and reported. The results indicated that many international students experienced concerns in the area of financial aid, had difficulties with some of the immigration regulations and work restrictions, and experienced forms of racial and social discrimination. The English as a Second Language students tended to experience most difficulties in the area of English language functioning but also experienced problems related to academic functioning and making friends. The student service areas most closely related to the international students' concerns were Financial Aids, Admissions, Placement, Counseling, and English Language Services. English as a Second Language students' problems were most closely related to the areas of English Language Services, Admissions, Counseling, and Academic Advisement. Recommendations generated by the study include the development of a new instrument to include topics generated by the students in the open-ended section of the questionnaire, a translation of the instrument into the major languages of the English as a Second Language population, and the need for future research on subgroups of the populations who indicated a greater number of problems than the others. Institutional recommendations are included which focus on how the college could address the problems which the students identified.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Paez, Georgia Somerville

Parents as Therapeutic Agents: A Study of the Effect of Filial Therapy

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of the use of parents as therapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was twofold. The first was to determine the effect of filial therapy on parental acceptance, self-esteem, parent-child relationship, and family environment. A second was to analyze the results and make recommendations concerning the effectiveness of filial therapy as a treatment modality for parents and their children. The experimental design of the study was a nonrandomized, pretest-posttest, control group design.The sample (N=47) consisted of the experimental group (parents N=15, children N=9) who received filial therapy and the control group (parents N=12, children N=ll) who did not. The treatment included ten, two hour weekly parent training sessions. During these sessions the parents were taught the principles of client-centered play therapy and were instructed to conduct weekly one-half hour play sessions at home with their own children. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) Filial therapy does significantly increase the parents' feeling of unconditional love for their children and 2) Filial therapy does significantly increase the parents' perception of expressed conflict in their family. In addition to the statistically significant results, there were some important trends which were mentioned as directional conclusions. These qualitative judgments include: 1) Filial therapy may be an effective treatment for increasing parents' acceptance of their children, especially parents' feelings of unconditional love; 2) Filial therapy may be a somewhat effective treatment for increasing self-esteem, yet more effective in increasing parents' self-esteem than children's self-esteem; 3) Filial therapy may be an effective treatment for increasing the closeness of the parent-child relationship without altering the authority hierarchy; 4) Filial therapy may influence the family environment, especially in the areas of expressiveness, conflict, independence, intellectual-cultural orientation, and control; and 5) Filial therapy ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Glass, Nancy, 1949

Elder Abuse: A Multi-Case Study

Description: This descriptive study with quantitative aspects examined the phenomenon of elder abuse through the systematic review of 60 cases of elder abuse. Cases were randomly selected from the files of an Adult Protective Services agency in the North Central Texas area. Research questions examined the characteristics of the victims and abusers, types and duration of abuse, descriptions of abusive situations, the reporting and verification of abuse, case management strategies utilized by caseworkers, and the consequences of those strategies. The results of this study point to the probability of the elderly abuse victim being 75 years of age or older, female, white, and widowed. There did appear to be some connection between race and type of abuse with white victims more likely to experience physical and financial abuse. Approximately half of the elderly abuse victims had severe limitations in physical and/or mental functioning leading to some degree of dependence upon their abusers. However, eighty percent of the elderly victims resided in their own homes and half of these individuals were functionally independent. This study provided descriptions of the various types of abuse that were observed: physical, financial, emotional, passive neglect, and active neglect. Financial abuse was noted most frequently, and multiple types of abuse were noted in most cases with the combination of physical, financial, and emotional abuse being observed most frequently. Fifteen different categories of case management strategies were examined, averaging four different assistance strategies per case. Legal services appeared to be the most often refused form of assistance. This study also found no evidence that those who abuse the elderly are being prosecuted.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Powell, Sharon L. (Sharon Leigh)

Pretherapy Religious Value Information its Influence on Stated Perceptions of and Willingness to See a Counselor

Description: This study sought to determine the influence of pretherapy religious value information upon potential clients' (a) perceptions of a counselor, (b) willingness to see a counselor and (c) confidence of counselor helpfulness. Two hundred and ten undergraduate college students volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups and given varying amounts and types of written information about a counselor. Group 1 received just the counselor's credentials. Group 2 received the same information plus statements about the counselor's beliefs about counseling and his therapeutic approach. Group 3 received the same information as group 2 plus a statement of the counselor's religious values. Subjects then viewed a short video tape of the counselor in a counseling session. Results of statistical treatment of dependent variables indicated that subjects' perceptions of the counselor, willingness to see the counselor, and confidence of counselor helpfulness were not influenced by the written information, including the statement of religious values that the subjects received before viewing the video tape of the counselor. Implications and recommendations for further research are discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Burnett, William A. (William Albert)

The Impact of a Nursing Program on Stress, Physical Illness, Anxiety, and Self-Concept of Participants in a Community College Nursing Program

Description: This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between participation in a nursing education program and the factors of stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept experienced by the participants. Also, the study examined the relationship between age of participants and these same factors. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if beginning and ending nursing students differ in stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (2) to examine the relationship between age of nursing students and stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (3) to provide information that may help develop a theoretical base concerning stressful life events and illness in nursing students, and (4) to provide information that may be beneficial with regard to future research involving stress, physical illness, anxiety, self-concept, and age in nursing students.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Gray, Sylvia Jane

A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

Description: The problem of this study was to isolate predictors of academic success in both self-paced classes and lecture classes in Introductory Accounting. The purposes of the study were to determine if learning style, locus of control, reading ability, age, sex, accounting work experience, and prior accounting academic experience are predictors of success in Introductory Accounting classes taught using self-paced methods of instruction and lecture methods of instruction. Another purpose was to determine if there is a difference in the set of predictors of success in the two instructional methods and to provide some direction as to determinants of success which may be addressed by counselors in advising students. The data were collected from 463 students at a suburban community college in the Southwest. Each of the variables was analyzed by a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a backward elimination regression for students grouped according to instructional method. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine whether the distribution of scores on the potential predictor variables were equivalent for students in the two teaching methods and for successful completers of the course and noncompleters. Consideration of the data findings of this study permitted the following conclusions: 1. Age and reading ability have a positive relationship to academic success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a lecture format. 2. Concrete learning style, as measured by the Learning Style Inventory, age, reading ability, and accounting work experience have a positive relationship to success in an Introductory Accounting course taught in a self-paced format. 3. Age, reading ability, accounting work experience, and a concrete learning style have a positive relationship to academic success in Accounting courses taught using either method. 4. There is a difference in the set of predictors of success for Accounting classes taught using the two instructional methods. ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Williams, John David, 1948-

Effects of Group Counseling and Group Discussion on Selected Personality Variables of First-Year Theology Students

Description: This study examined the use of group counseling and group discussion as a method of demonstrating changes on selected personality variables of first-year theology students. It was hypothesized that the subjects would become less dogmatic (more open-minded), motivated from a more internal locus of control, feel less anxious, and demonstrate greater creativity and self-concept following their participation in either group counseling or group discussion. Group counseling was hypothesized to be the best method for effecting changes. The subjects were first-year theology students at a southwestern theological seminary. These participants planned to work in some phase of ministry; several planning to be ordained as priests or to enter the deaconate. This study was based upon the premise that ministers often assume a counseling role and they therefore, need training in counseling skills and an opportunity to enhance their personal development. Group counseling and group discussion were explored as possible means to achieve these ends. Each of the five personality variables was measured on a pretest-posttest design. The subjects were tested prior to meeting in one of the two formats and tested again after fifteen hours of participation in one of the groups. A control group was also tested at these same times to allow for a comparison to be made as to which method was most effective. Chapter I presents a review of related literature on the five variables and the need for training of ministers in counseling skills and for providing an opportunity for self-growth. Chapter II states the procedures and includes definitions, the method of the study and a discussion of the instrumentation. Chapter III presents the results of the study and a discussion of the implications. Although the findings indicated some changes in the variables as predicted by the hypotheses, none of the changes was statistically significant. Therefore, ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Qualia, Linda R. (Linda Raffel)

Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types

Description: This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Barlow, Karen Haun

Goals of Behavior, Social Interest and Parent Attitudes in an Alternative School

Description: This study investigated whether students in an Alternative School differed significantly from students who remain on a regular high school campus on measures of goals of misbehavior which included the factors of attention, power, revenge, inadequacy, and on measures of social interest. This study also investigated whether the attitudes of parents of Alternative School students differed significantly from the attitudes of parents of regular campus students on the factors of confidence, causation, acceptance, understanding and trust.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Downing, Rebecca

A Meta-Analysis of Studies on Self-Concept Between the Years of 1976 and 1986

Description: This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of counseling to favorably change self-concept; the effectiveness of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) in measuring self-concept change; and whether the TSCS is consistent with other self-concept instruments in measuring self-concept change when used in the same research study. The meta-analysis inclusion criteria were: one or more psychotherapy or counseling treatments administered to the subjects; comparison of two groups, including an alternate treatment or control condition; investigated self-concept change; pre-post-test measurements of self-concept dependent variable were reported; sample was randomized and/or matched for equivalence; and sufficient information was reported to calculate or reconstruct an effect size.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Cook, Peggy Jo

Therapeutic Effects of Group Counseling with Visually-Impaired Elderly Adults

Description: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of group counseling with visually-impaired elderly adults, and (b) to provide information concerning the effectiveness of group counseling to practitioners in the field. The study reviewed the literature regarding aging and vision, psychosocial reactions to vision loss, and group counseling with the visually-impaired and the elderly. Twenty subjects, who were above age 65 and had recently experienced a severe loss of vision, were selected to participate in the study. Ten subjects were assigned to an experimental counseling group and 10 subjects were assigned to a no-treatment control group. The experimental group participated in 1-1/2 hour group sessions once a week for 10 weeks. Both the experimental group and the control subjects were administered pre- and post-tests. The tests measured depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Schor, Mark Melvin

Aggression and Social Interest in Behavior Disordered Students

Description: This study investigated whether behavior disordered children would decrease aggressive behavior if their social interest were developed. Three hypotheses that were tested predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on adjusted mean scores on aggressive behavior on post test scores. The measuring instruments used were the Child Behavior Checklist Parent Report Form, the Child Behavior Checklist Teacher Report Form, and the Child Behavior Checklist Director Observation Form. It was also predicted that there would be a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group on post test adjusted mean scores as measured on the Social Interest Scale. An analysis of covariance was employed to test the data. Behavior disordered students in the experimental group participated in three activities designed to develop their social interest. They participated in peer tutoring, socialization with nursing home residents, and group discussions. Data were collected from parents, teachers, and observers of behavior disordered students in an elementary school in Northwest Louisiana during the summer term of 1987. Teachers did report a statistically significant difference between the experimental and the control groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. These results are in accord with predictions generated by Adlerian theory and with naturalistic data. Parents and observers did not report a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the decrease of aggressive behavior. Significant differences were not found between the experimental and control groups in the development of social interest. Since the teachers did report statistically significant results in this study, it is recommended that these same activities to develop social interest be repeated, that counseling sessions be designed to be more therapeutic, and that additional modeling and role playing be included. It is further recommended that an instrument be developed to measure social interest ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Brown, Deborah D. (Deborah Dairy)

Bulimia: a Phenomenological Approach

Description: This study used a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to examine the perspective of five bulimic subjects about their lives in order to understand the bulimic individual's point of view and develop a clearer picture of the world of the bulimic. This approach involved three interviews for each of the five subjects totalling 22 1/2 hours. The three interviews dealt with the subjects' past and present experiences and their ideas about the future. The qualitative/phenomenological methodology created an in-depth view of each subject's relationship to the beginning of her bulimia and its subsequent development. During the period when the interviews were being transcribed, patterns and concepts emerged and were examined. Nine categories were developed from this data reflecting some of the characteristics of a bulimic's personality. Six research questions were formulated and then answered by evaluating them in the light of the nine categories as well as data and descriptions from the interviews. No one single category was found to be uniquely dominant, but rather the categories tended to appear in a cluster-like fashion depending on the individual personality of the bulimic. The data of this study revealed a distinction between the personality and the behavior of the bulimic. A form with a Likert-like response was developed by the researcher and given out to 11 raters in order to evaluate the presence or non-presence of the categories in selected passages. On the basis of the findings of this study, with its limited subject pool, certain recommendations are presented for the reader that might perhaps be of some use in understanding bulimia.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Schachtel, Bernard, 1943-

Relationship Adjustment in Marriage as Influenced by Psychological Temperament and Family-of-Origin Socialization Experiences

Description: This research examined the influence of psychological temperament and family-of-origin socialization influences on relationship adjustment in marriage. The major goals were to determine: (a) if there was a relationship between the temperament of one mate in the marriage and the temperament of his or her spouse, and (b) if there was a relationship between the marital adjustment scores of a mate relative to either personal temperament or that of his or her spouse. A secondary purpose was to determine if certain family-of-origin socialization experiences influenced adjustment in marriage. One hundred seventy-nine couples (H = 358) completed three test instruments including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1962), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976), and the Socialization Background Questionnaire (Church, unpublished), along with a demographic questionnaire. The subjects, volunteers from 12 churches in a large metropolitan area, had mean ages of 35.3 and 33.6 years for husbands and wives, respectively, and had been married for an average of 10.1 years. Five hypotheses and two research questions were tested at the .05 level of significance. The results gathered did not support the hypothesis that there was a relationship between temperament type and mate selection. Similarly, no support was evidenced for any specific relationship between temperament and marital adjustment. On the Socialization Background Questionnaire, one relationship at the prescribed level of significance was present between husbands' self-concept and their marital adjustment scores. At the .10 significance level, there was also indication that husbands' marital adjustment was related to the acceptance they did or did not receive as children., regardless of the expectations held for them. Neither of these relationships was present with regard to wives' marital adjustment scores. The overall conclusions are that couples do not choose mates based on temperaments, that no relationship exists between temperament combinations and marital adjustment, and that socialization experiences ...
Date: May 1988
Creator: Germann, Heinrich Peter

History of Counseling Services in Hong Kong

Description: The purpose of this study was to trace the development of the counseling movement in Hong Kong from its beginning to the present and to examine future directions confronting those who work in the counseling field in Hong Kong. Originating from social unrest in 1966 and 1967, the counseling movement began as an attempt to meet the society's developmental needs of self-expression and direction. Although not a formal program, the first known counseling service in Hong Kong was offered by Ben Fong in 1967 at the Yang Memorial Social Service Center. In 1969 the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups established the first formal counseling service in Hong Kong. Institutions of higher education and foreigners played a major role in the development of early counseling services in Hong Kong. In 197 0, Peter Whyte, an Australian, organized a counseling service at the University Hong Kong. In 1971, Ken Locke, an American, established a counseling service at the Hong Kong Baptist College. Counseling services grew rapidly in the early 1970s, and a 1975 survey identified fifty-five agencies which reported providing counseling services. In the mid-1970s, helping professionals were struggling with the issue of "What is counseling?" A significant developmental step was the establishment of a master's degree program in counseling at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1977. The first professional counseling organization, the Association of Psychological and Educational Counselors of Asia-Hong Kong Branch, was organized in 1979 and the first counseling journal was published in 1980. In 1984, the Education Department of the Hong Kong Government established guidance services in secondary schools. The challenge for the counselors of Hong Kong in the 1990s relates to two foreseeable changes in the Hong Kong community, the Chinese recovery of the sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997 and the aging of the ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Leung, Timothy Tin-ming

Play Therapy Behavior of Maladjusted and Adjusted Children

Description: The diagnostic value of children's play was investigated. The question explored was "Can maladjusted children be discriminated from adjusted children through observation of their play therapy behavior?" The play of 15 maladjusted and 15 adjusted children 5 to 10 years of age was compared during an initial 36-minute play therapy session. Three scales of the Play Therapy Observational Instrument (PTOI)—emotional discomfort, social inadequacy, and use of fantasy-- were used to rate the children's play. The children in the maladjusted group were referred by their parents for counseling and their teachers reported the children had exhibited one or more problem behaviors indicative of emotional disturbance. The children in the adjusted group were recommended by their teachers as exhibiting none of the problem behaviors and their parents did not believe their children needed counseling. Discriminant function equations predicted correct group membership for 23 of the 30 children during the second 12-minute time segment and for the entire play session. The analysis showed the play behaviors on the emotional discomfort scale of the PTOI items discriminated maladjusted and adjusted children. During the second and third 12-minute time segments and when all three time segments were combined, maladjusted children's play expressed significantly more dysphoric feelings, conflictual themes, play disruptions, and negative self-disclosing statements than were expressed by the adjusted children (p < .01, .03, .01, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups on play behaviors measured by the social inadequacy play and use of fantasy play scales of the PTOI. Positive correlations were found between the children's age and social inadequacy play behaviors and between the social status of the parents' occupations and social inadequacy play behaviors. The results also suggested a negative correlation between the social status of parents' occupations and the use of fantasy play scores. A negative correlation ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Perry, Lessie Harnisch

Group Counseling as an Intervention in Anger Expression and Depression in Older Adults

Description: Depression is believed to be the most prevalent mental dysfunction among older adults, and depression and anger are frequently linked in theory and in therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether participation in group counseling sessions would increase awareness and expression of anger and decrease depression levels in women aged 65 and older. Treatment group members were compared to a matching control group. Both groups completed the Anger Self Report Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison of the ASR subscale scores, Awareness of Anger, Expression of Anger, Guilt, Condemnation of Anger, and Mistrust, revealed no significant differences between the treatment and control groups. However, the treatment group scored significantly higher on the BDI than did the control group. Analysis of variance of the ASR and the BDI, and the variables upon which the treatment and control groups were matched revealed some significant differences, and comparison of the women in this study with the two groups upon whom the ASR was validated showed this study's older women scored significantly lower than the validation groups on the ASR. The author concluded that six sessions is not long enough to effect change in either anger awareness or expression in older women, and more time is needed to establish group cohesiveness in older populations than that generally thought to be needed for younger populations. Replication of the study with men and women, and replication of Khe study using a longitudinal design is recommended in order to determine whether awareness and expression of anger change with age, or whether differences between older and younger populations are due to historical and environmental influences.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Johnson, Wanda Y. (Wanda Yates)