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Reframing Loneliness in Adult Females Who Vary in Dependency and Locus of Control

Description: Reframing in counseling offers the client a different framework for symptoms, thereby allowing the client a perspective that leads to change or no need for change. Using a loneliness measure as the dependent variable, 58 females underwent one of three treatments: positive reframing, self-control statements, or a waiting list control procedure. Two two-way analyses of covariance used an independent measure of dependency for the first analysis and a measure of perceived control for the second. Treatment type was the second dimension for each analysis. A significant interaction resulted for control by treatment F (2, 51) = 3.24; p < .05). A Newman-Keuls revealed significant differences for those who perceived themselves as in control, where reframing was more effective than either the control procedure (q_r = 3.56; p < .05) or those who perceived others as in control (q_r = 3.21; p < .05).
Date: May 1974
Creator: Jarvis, Mary Ann O'Loughlin

Personality Variables Relating to Facet Denervation Response

Description: The disabling conditions of chronic low-back pain continue to cost patient, family, and society. The intricate mechanisms which perpetuate this medical condition often consist of both organic and functional factors. This study evaluated personality and psychosocial variables which may control individual responses to facet denervation, a treatment for chronic lumbar distress. The subjects were 47 chronic pain patients whose symptoms conformed to the facet syndrome. Patient responses to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were reviewed in an effort to predict statistically symptomatic relief. Also, the patients' involvement in litigation and their accuracy in determining their pain level were studied as possible influencing variables. Results show the litigation factor and two scalesof the MMPI to be most useful in predicting patient response from facet denervation treatment.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Spruance, Gilbert Owen

Orgasm Consistency, Causal Attribution, and Inhibitory Control

Description: A group of 44 high-orgasm-consistency and 34 low-orgasmconsistency women were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, and the Fall Back Task. Excitatory and inhibitory controlling attitudes as manifested in hypnotic susceptibility, reported control of thinking and movement during coitus, causal attributions, and attitude toward alcoholic beverages were related to orgasm consistency. Women experiencing expectancy disconfirmation for coital outcomes attributed outcomes to unstable factors, supporting the application of Weiner's achievement model to the domain of coital orgasm. High and low consistency women showed different patterns of causal attribution for coital outcomes. High consistency women's attributions fit their reported sexual experiences, while low consistency women's attributions suggested the presence of self-esteem enhancing cognitive distortions.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Bridges, Charles Frederick

Rational Behavior Therapy in a Retirement Community

Description: The objectives of this investigation were to develop, implement, and determine the effects of rational behavior therapy for residents in a retirement community. The question addressed was, "Will rational behavior therapy, relative to a discussion group and control group, exhibit significant changes in level of rational thinking and depression?" Drawing upon a cognitive theory of depression relevant to the aged population and upon rational behavior therapy literature, it was hypothesized that short-term rational behavior therapy intervention would be significantly related to a modification of belief systems and a decrease in depression. The participants were residents of two retirement communities. There were 25 subjects who completed the study through posttest assessment. These subjects were randomly assigned to three groups and assessed at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The experimental group did not experience the hypothesized significant increase in level of rational thinking and decrease in level of depression. Possible explanations are given for lack of expected effects. Overall, the discussion group had more significant increases in rational thinking than the experimental and control groups.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Caraway, Marsha Lynn

An Investigation of Black Stepmother Stress

Description: Much research conducted on stepmothers has not been racially representative. This includes Janice Nadler's (1976) research on three psychological stresses (anxiety, depression, and anger) of stepmotherhood. To investigate the stress of black stepmotherhood, this study replicated a portion of Nadler's investigation on a black sample. It was hypothesized that 1) black stepmothers would report more stress than black natural mothers; and that 2) black stepmothers would report more stress than the white stepmothers in Nadler's study. The data indicated no significant difference in the levels of stress experienced by black stepmothers and black natural mothers. Overall, white stepmothers reported more stress than black stepmothers. The former may be attributable to black stepmothers and natural mothers having the same support system, the black extended family.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Rodgers, Jacquelyn

Standardization of a Memory Test with an Elderly Population

Description: The Aronson Shopping List is a short-term memory test which integrates current knowledge of brain-behavior relationships in assessment. The test was designed to detect deficiency in fluid intelligence. The goal of this study was to standardize the test on an elderly population. The sample was composed of 67 males and females whose ages ranged from 62 to 89 years. It was found that recent stressful events did not account for variation of performance on the ASL. The reliability of the test, established by means of a test and alternate form retest procedure, was found to be .70 after an average of eleven months. Percentiles are presented indicating performance comparisons. Further experimentation would be needed to establish whether the test would be useful to designate organic brain pathology.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Tsang, Michael Hing-pui

Personality Characteristics of Pediatric Leukemia Patients: Their Mothers' Perceptions

Description: The improving prognosis for pediatric leukemia patients requires that involved professionals increase attention to the emotional adjustment of these children. This study was designed to determine (a) how mothers of leukemia patients perceived their children's personalities in order to identify any specific emotional difficulties which these children may experience and (b) if their perceptions differed from either mothers of cystic fibrosis and diabetes patients or mothers of healthy children. Subjects included 24 mothers in each of three groups: leukemia, other illness, and healthy. Children in both illness groups received higher scores than healthy children on Adjustment, Achievement, Somatic Concern, Depression, Psychosis, and Social Skills scales as measured by the Personality Inventory for Children; however, only the leukemic children were rated higher in areas of Anxiety and Withdrawal. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Hughes, Sandra A.

The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

Description: This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the fourth session. As anticipated, reduction in negative attributions did not precede or coincide with reduction in depression. It was not possible to determine the change in the attributional style of subject during the time period of this study. The results were discussed in terms of Bower's Associative Network Theory in which activation of mood facilitates the access to memories, behaviors, and interpretation of events which are congruent with the mood state.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Swenson, Carol

Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy

Description: This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with previous reports of disturbed mother-daughter relationships among this population. Discriminant analysis revealed that subjects choosing adoption were more likely to be older and to be white than those choosing to keep the child. They also tended to perceive higher levels of expressiveness and independence in their families. Comparisons between the present sample and "normal" families revealed differences which were statistically significant, but quite small in terms of raw score units. Indeed, these groups may be more similar than has often been assumed. The implications of these findings for the delivery of services and for future research efforts in this area ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Warren, Keith Clements

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille

An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

Description: This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective in creating a significant change in performance on the dependent measure. The results are discussed as support for the hypothesized differences between depressives and normals. Differences between the measures used in the present study and that of Crawford and Allen suggest that hypnosis may mediate imagery at a conceptual level but not at the level of the primary visual-perceptual system.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wilson, Lucy Erma

The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

Description: This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while injured, use of a stopwatch during training, or effort exerted in races. Overall, these findings suggest that an ability to perform under split-attention (dual task) conditions is positively related to aerobic fitness, a low-fat diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. In addition, Type A Runners differ from B Runners in some, but not all, aspects related to the Type A pattern, suggesting that aerobic exercise may modify to a limited extent the Type A behavior pattern. The failure to find A-B differences in attentional style consistent with prior research (Matthews & Brunson, 1979) or interaction of type and exercise ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Morton, Anne Aldredge

Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus

Description: The hypothesis was tested that meditation using an audible word-sound would be superior to silent repetition of the same word in producing decrements in autonomic arousal and improvements in anxiety, mood, and the ability to cope with stress. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility upon improvement was also evaluated. Thirty subjects, assigned to one of three groups: audible meditation, silent meditation, and relaxation control, met one hour weekly for six weeks to practice their respective technique and discuss their progress. All subjects were evaluated using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a medical symptom checklist, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, a self-rating of state anxiety, and factors C and Q4 of the 16PF. Finger temperature was taken as a measure of physiological arousal. Confidence ratings of the respective strategies were taken pre- and post-treatment.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Shaw, Patricia (Patricia Hyman)

Attribution of Blame Toward the Rape Victim

Description: This study investigated the impact of victim provocativeness and rape history upon male and female subjects' perceptions of attribution of blame toward the rape victim. One hundred and forty-four subjects (a) read one of 12 fictional case reports of a rape incident from a sexual abuse center which systematically varied level of victim provocativeness and rape history and (b) completed a nine-item Rape Questionnaire (RQ). Data were analyzed by a 2 (subject's sex) x 3 (level of provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) analysis of variance on the Rape Questionnaire total score. An ancillary multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was also performed on the nine Rape Questionnaire items to check for potential masking of individual item differences from the Rape Questionnaire score. In addition, the data were reanalyzed in the 2 x 3 x 2 design by substituting high versus low scorers on the Attitudes Towards Women Scale (AWS) based upon median splits of the AWS for subject sex. The 2 (subject sex) x 3 (provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) MANOVA resulted in a sex by provocativeness interaction with males, relative to females, attributing more blame as the victim's level of provocativeness increased. In addition, significant differences emerged for provocativeness, rape history, and sex of subject. In general, subjects attributed more blame as the victim's provocativeness increased. Similarly, victims with rape histories were assigned more blame than victims without rape histories. The 2 (AWS) x 3 (provocativeness) x 2 (rape history) MANOVA resulted in a main effect for all three independent variables. In general subjects attributed more blame as the victim's provocativeness increased. Also victims with rape histories were assigned more blame than victims without rape histories. Finally, profeminist individuals attributed less blame to the victim than did traditional individuals. Implications for training of professional counselors and other service-providers are discussed. ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Schult, Deborah Gail

Training and Practice Effects on Performance Attributions Among Non-Depressed and Depressed Older Persons

Description: Previous research examining the impact of training and practice effects on modifying performance of fluid intelligence tasks (Gf) and crystallized intelligence tasks (Gc) were extended to include self-rated performance attributions among non-depressed and depressed older persons. The following general questions were addressed. How does level of depression affect performance on Gf and Gc measures and performance attributions? How does level of depression and degree of benefit from either training or practice relate to changes in attributional styles? The framework used for predicting shifts in attributional styles was the reformulated learned helplessness model. Three hundred twenty-five community-dwelling older persons completed the Gf/Gc Sampler, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attributions for Success/Failure Questionnaire at pretest, posttest (one week), and follow-up (one month). Between the pretest and posttest sessions, subjects participated in one of three experimental conditions; (a) cognitive (induction) training, (b) stress inoculation training, and (c) no-contact control groups. The results from univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance procedures provided partial support for the hypotheses. At pretest, both non-depressed and depressed older persons had internal attributional styles, although based on differential performance outcomes. The depressed persons were found to have more failure experiences as a result of their significantly poorer performance on Gf tasks, versus the non-depressed. Specific Gf training effects were documented regarding attributional shifts for the non-depressed, while there were no changes on their attributional style due to practice on either Gf or Gc tasks. In contrast, only differential practice effects were documented for depressed subjects across Gf and Gc tasks. The importance of assessing personality dimensions in older persons and their xelationship to training and practice effects were discussed, in addition to limitations of the study and suggestions for future research.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Segal, Carolyn

Childhood Fears and the Impact of Divorce and Remarriage

Description: Different family structures and levels of parental and financial stress were investigated in relation to children's overtly expressed fears, and secondarily, covertly measured fears and concerns. The family structures consisted of divorced and remarried families divided into those divorced less than two years and those divorced greater than two years. Intact families were used as the control group. One-hundred-twenty-one children from six to eleven years of age and their biological mothers from a semirural, southwestern town comprised the sample. The children were administered five instruments assessing overt fears, covert fears/concerns, and positiveness in family relationships. Mothers were given eight self-report measures which included a questionnaire, a report of their child's overt fears, and an indication of the positiveness in family relationships. Results indicated that the children of divorced, single mothers tended to report greater overt fears than remarried and intact families. Indications of covert fears of death and separation were also suggested. This was especially true for those single mothers divorced less than two years. Children of intact families did not generally differ from remarried groups although there were implications that remarriage too soon after divorce may impact covert fears as well as positive feelings toward the stepfather. Children of mothers reporting high levels of stress reported greater levels of overt fears than children of low stress mothers. Financial stress for mothers appeared to have greater implications for children's overt and covert fears than did parental stress. In contrast to the children of mothers reporting high levels of stress, mothers who reported low levels of stress tended to have children who reported fewer overt fears but greater covert fears and concerns. Recommendations for future research including adding parental measures to assess the coping styles as well as the effectiveness of such coping with divorce and remarriage, using different measures of ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Pickard, David C.

Type A Behavior Pattern: Its Relationship to the Holland Types and the Career Choice Process

Description: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the Type A behavior pattern to Holland's occupational types and the career choice process. The Type A behavior pattern is characterized by high levels of achievement striving, time urgency, chronic activation and hostility, and is an independent risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. It was hypothesized that Type A college students would be more attracted than Type B individuals to aspects of a future work environment which would reinforce their Type A behaviors. Previous research had suggested a relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and Holland's Enterprising and Investigative types (Martin, 1986). This study sought to replicate those findings, and further examine the nature of the Type A/B-Holland types relationship. Data were collected from undergraduate students in a variety of academic fields of study. Subjects completed a questionnaire packet consisting of the student version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (Jenkins, Rosenman, and Zyzanski, 1965; Glass, 1977), the Vocational Preference Inventory (Holland, 1985b), and a modified version of the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (Rosen, et al., 1972) . The findings demonstrated that the Type A/B pattern is a significant factor in the career choice process. Type A's and Type B's had different levels of attraction to several aspects of a work environment in anticipating a career choice. The study also revealed that Type A/B pattern and the Holland types play separate roles in the career choice process. Implications of the study and future research directions are discussed.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Martin, Kyle Thomas

The Prediction of Homophobic Attitudes among College Students

Description: A review of the literature on homophobia indicates that negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality have been empirically related to numerous socio-demographic and attitudinal variables. Research to this date has focused on the relationship between individual variables and homophobia rather than examining multiple variables simultaneously. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the factors which are predictive of homophobia. One hundred and ninety-four female and 115 male participants completed a biographical information questionnaire requesting socio-demographic information, self-proclaimed religiosity, frequency of church attendance, self-proclaimed political orientation, and political party identification. Participants also completed measures of attitudes toward male homosexuality, attitudes toward lesbianism, attitudes toward women, authoritarianism, sex anxiety, sexual attitudes, and socio-economic status. Statistical treatment of the data through principal components analysis indicated that homophobic attitudes are best predicted by a factor identified as "conservatism". Other factors were identified which predicted homophobia to a lesser extent. Male participant gender was determined to predict homophobia toward male homosexuals, but gender was not found to predict homophobic attitudes toward lesbians.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Schatman, Michael E. (Michael Edward)

Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Description: In an effort to determine whether job satisfaction and expectations in a group of workers undergoing major change in the workplace differ from groups of workers not undergoing major change, data were collected from three groups of workers at the operator level in a major U.S. electronics manufacturing company. Two of the groups were not undergoing a major work redesign and served as control groups. A group undergoing the early stages of a major work redesign, characterized primarily by their formation into a self-managed work team, served as the experimental group. The experimental group and one control group were located at the same manufacturing plant, while the other control group was located at another plant. It was hypothesized that the group of workers undergoing change would differ in job satisfaction and that over time, the difference would grow. It was also hypothesized that the group undergoing change would have different expectations about the nature of their jobs in the future. Data were collected from members of the three groups using a modified version of Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey, with two administrations of the survey seven months apart. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Groups) X 2 (Perception: "Now" versus "Near Future") x 2 (Administration) factorial design, with repeated measures Oil the Perception variable. Results revealed a difference in job satisfaction between the groups, as hypothesized. Results also revealed that members of the experimental group did have a few expectations for the future not held by members of the control groups; otherwise, expectations differed very little between the groups. Explanations for these findings are offered. This study suggests that those charged with implementing major change in the workplace should keep in mind that they may not see dramatic reactions from workers asked to make major changes, at least ...
Date: May 1990
Creator: Cheney, Alan B. (Alan Bruce)

An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

Description: Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not self-reflective), and person-oriented. They are more oriented toward relationship with their children and had felt dissatisfied with how their wives had cared for their children. Several overlapping characteristics of the Type I/II typology with Mendes1 seeker/assenter continuum are discussed. Limitations of the longitudinal adjustment data restrict the conclusions that can be drawn about differential adjustment of Types I and II. Comparisons with adjustment of other typologies suggest that extremes on the typology continuum are most at risk for problems in adjustment to the single custodial role. Implications for helping professions and future research are discussed.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Theurer, Gregory W. (Gregory Wayne)

A Model for Predicting Bereavement Outcome in Widowhood

Description: The present longitudinal study examined the effects and interactions of several variables thought to affect adjustment to conjugal bereavement. Questionnaires were administered to 147 conjugally bereaved subjects and to 46 persons bereaved of close relatives other than spouse. Independent variables included experienced competence (self-esteem, locus of control, coping self-efficacy, and prior coping strategies), impact of loss (anticipation and preventabillty of loss, centrality of relationship and life change), and perceived resources. All of the independent variables were found to be important predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement. However, hypothesized interactions among variables were generally not found. Experimental variables were better predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement than were demographic variables. Contrary to prediction, widowed subjects tended to become more lonely and showed increased bereavement adjustment difficulties over a six month period of time. However, post hoc analysis suggested that levels of adjustment do not decline over the long term in widowhood. The present study supports a view of widowhood as a multidimensional event, characterized by seemingly contradictory feelings, experiences, and behaviors.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Allen, Susan Elise

Interpersonal Reactions to Bereaved Parents: An Exploration of Attachment and Interpersonal Theories

Description: The experiment examined negative social reactions to bereaved parents from unrelated others. Both the behavior displayed by the parent and attachment style of the perceiver were expected to influence reactions to bereaved parents. Undergraduates at a southern university (N = 239) completed both attachment measures and measures of reactions to videotapes of bereaved parents. Results indicated that bereaved parents do indeed receive negative evaluations from unrelated others, in the form of decreased willingness to interact in various roles. However, a nonbereaved parent displaying depressive symptoms also received negative evaluations. Depressed targets in the present study did receive negative evaluations, supporting the predictions of Coyne's interpersonal-process theory of reactions to depressed individuals. Contrary to the predictions of interpersonal-process theory, a bereaved parent displaying loss content without depressive symptoms also elicited negative evaluations. Coyne's hypothesis that the amount of induced negative affect in the perceiver leads to negative evaluations was not supported by the data. Subjects appear to react to a complex set of factors when forming these evaluations, including both personal and situational information. Two factors may have undermined the present study s ability to adequately test this theory. Subjects may have perceived depressive symptoms in loss content in the present study. Further, subjects may not have identified with the parent in the present study as anticipated. Research is necessary to identify the amount and focus of subjects' identifications with depressed and bereaved targets. Only minor support was found for the prediction that attachment style would be related to reactions to bereaved parents. Continuous measures of attachment style were related to amount of induced negative affect. However, grouping subjects by attachment patterns was not related to either induced negative affect or evaluations. The present study and previous research suggest the possibility that conceptually attachment may contain several components which relate to ...
Date: June 1990
Creator: Wilhite, Thomas R. (Thomas Ray)

Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Description: The rationale for this study was based on the application of the cycle of domestic violence theory to elder abuse. It examined the effect of history of experienced childhood violence on tolerance, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors of elder abuse toward general and specific elderly targets. The effectiveness of educational interventions for altering tolerance and behavioral intentions of elder abuse was examined. Two hundred and twenty-five undergraduates were assessed for aging knowledge, general aging attitudes, aging anxiety, elder abuse attitudes, and elder abuse intentions and past behaviors. Participants were assigned to a High or Low Experienced Violence group and participated in an educational group or control group. Posttest and one-month followup measures were obtained. No differences were found at pretest between High and Low Violence. Level of Violence did not impact intervention efficacy. Elder abuse education altered attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of elder abuse at posttest significantly more than did aging education or control groups (p < .001), but these effects were no longer significant at followup. Elder abuse attitudes had higher relationships with elder abuse intentions and reported past behaviors than did global aging attitudes or aging anxiety (p < .05). General elderly targets yielded more tolerance, intentions, and reported past behaviors of elder abuse than did specific elderly targets (p < .001). Experienced childhood abuse was unrelated to elder abuse expression yielding no support for the role of cycle of violence in elder abuse. Specificity of target mediated elder abuse attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Primary prevention interventions which aim to reduce tolerance and intentions of elder abuse should include specific information on elder abuse; aging education is ineffective for this goal.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Reinberg, Julie A. (Julie Ann)

Female Adolescent Runaways: Personality Patterns in Response to Physical or Sexual Abuse

Description: Personality patterns of sexually abused female adolescent runaways are compared to personality patterns of physically abused female adolescent runaways. Eighty-six female adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age completed a self report inventory to determine personality traits. To test the hypotheses of the study, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted, followed with univariate tests to find differences on separate dependent measures. Results indicated that on the Jesness Inventory there may be a common personality pattern associated with abuse. Univariate tests yielded data which indicated that although there may be a general personality pattern for abused adolescents, there were significant differences between the physically and sexually abused adolescents on some personality variables. Results were evaluated taking into account the selective sample from which the population was drawn. Recommendations for future research included the use of projectives, a more comprehensive personality inventory, and selected demographics.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Keefe, Carmen Kay