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Characteristics and Predictors of Success at Two Coed Halfway Houses

Description: The present study evaluated offender characteristics associated with completion of halfway house placement by the inclusion of additional offender characteristics for analysis in addition to those studied in previous research, the analysis of a large number of representative cases, and the use of statistics allowing clear conclusions upon which to base decision making. Data analysis was done in three steps. The first Step was to identify offender characteristics which were associated with completion in halfway house placement. The second step was to see how accurate the offender characteristics identified were in predicting completion of an offender's halfway house stay. The third step was to identify any possible factors which underlie the offender characteristics identified. Discriminant analyses identified ten offender characteristics which were associated with completion of halfway house placement for 521 male offenders and four offender characteristics which were associated with halfway house completion for the group of 33 female offenders studied. These offender characteristics resulted in 75.38 percent correctly classified cases for the male offender group and 96.9 7 percent correctly classified cases for the group of female offenders. Factor analyses resulted in the identification of four factors for the group of male offenders and two factors for the female offender group. Suggestions for future research included replications of the present study leading to the identification of offender groups based on probabilities of successful halfway house completion, and the establishment of halfway house programs tailored to offenders identified as having high or low probabilities of completion.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Sperry, Robert M., 1953-

Life Stress and Adjustment Effects of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Organization

Description: Individual differences of cognitive organization and content were investigated as they relate to adaptation to remote, recent, and immediate life stress. Outside the field of stress, prior researchers have implicated cognitive organization with adjustment and cognitive content with specific psychopathology. As for behavioral adaptation to life stress, cognitive organization was viewed as a major factor in emotional vulnerability and adjustment, and cognitive content as a major factor in the mood disturbance of depression. Behavioral adaptation was defined in terms of current emotional vulnerability, adjustment and negative changes in the immediate (last six months), recent (over six months), and remote (over one year) past.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Hickox, Sherrie Danene

Perceived Parental Nurturance, Parent Identification and Sex-Role Orientation for Female Victims of Sexual Abuse

Description: This study examined the perception of parental nurturance, the parental identification, and the sex-role orientation of women who had been sexually abused as children. Its purpose was to explore these aspects of a woman's relationship with her parents and the subsequent sex role development, as it relates to the presence or absence of sexual abuse in the relationship. Eighty women averaging 31 years of age volunteered to participate in the study. The women represented three distinct populations with respect to the question of sexual abuse. The first group reported never having been sexually abused (Nonabused). The second group reported having been sexually abused by their father or stepfather (Father Abused). The third group reported having been sexually abused by someone other than their father or stepfather (Other Abused). As predicted, perceived parental nurturance was significantly lower for members of the Father Abused group than for the remaining two groups. In addition, the Nonabused group reported the highest nurturance scores of the three groups. Contrary to expectation, there was no difference between the parent identification patterns of the three groups. Support was provided for the prediction that women who had been sexually abused by their fathers were more likely to express undifferentiated sex roles than androgynous ones. Women not abused by their fathers were more likely to express androgynous sex roles than undifferentiated ones. Limitations of the study and implications of the results were discussed.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Heath, Robert Steven

Cognitive Organization, Interpersonal Flexibility and Psychological Maladjustment

Description: Recent research on the contribution of cognitive and social factors to psychopathology has been narrowly focused on isolated cognitive-social aspects of adjustment. This study takes a broader perspective by examining a) cognitive structure in addition to cognitive content and b) general aspects of interpersonal style rather than isolated social behaviors. Maladjustment was. examined with respect to premorbid history as well as current adjustment. The hypotheses were that cognitive integration interacts with cognitive complexity to influence psychological disturbance; that a positive relationship exists between interpersonal flexibility and psychopathology; and that a positive relationship exists between the proportion of ambiguous constructs which they employ and a person's level of psychopathology.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Nicholson, Stephen David

The Effect of Hypnotically-Induced Mood Elevation as an Adjunct to Cognitive Treatment of Depression

Description: Cognitive therapy for the treatment of depression has generated substantial research indicating its effectiveness and it is currently considered among the most viable conceptualizations of depression. However, it has remained controversial because its methods do not directly address emotional symptoms in depressed persons. Treatment of depressed emotions is a primary focus of hypnotic mood elevating techniques. These techniques enable depressed persons to experience positive emotions during hypnosis sessions and to re-experience them daily concurrent with performance of certain specified behaviors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multicomponent treatment which combines the techniques of cognitive therapy and hypnotic mood elevation in the treatment of depressed persons. The three treatment conditions constructed for this investigation were cognitive therapy plus hypnotic mood elevation, cognitive therapy plus pseudo-biofeedback, and no treatment waiting list.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Lucas, Scott Gordon

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre

Mexican Americans: Systematic Desensitization of Racial Emotional Responses

Description: To determine whether or not systematic desensitization treatment would produce a significant reduction in negative affect evoked by racial discrimination, 60 Mexican-American college students who scored above average on the Terrell Racial Discrimination Index were selected and assigned randomly to one of three treatment conditions: systematic desensitization (DS), therapist contact (TC), and no-treatment control (NTC). Before undergoing treatment, subjects completed the Background Information Questionnaire (BIQ), and three measures of negative affect: the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL); the Profile of Mood States (POMS); and the Treatment Rating Scales (TRS). After concluding treatment, subjects completed the three measures of negative affect only. Results were nonsignificant with respect to two of the affect measures—the POMS and the MAACL. However, significant differentia1 treatment effects were observed for the TRS measure. Relative to the TC and NTC conditions, subjects in the DS condition evidenced significantly less anger, depression, and anxiety. No other group differences attained the level of statistical significance (p < .05). Several explanations are offered for the negative findings of the MAACL and POMS. These explanations include the possibility that the measures themselves are insensitive to treatment effects. Nevertheless, due to the significant findings of the TRS, it is concluded that systematic desensitization proves effective in alleviating the negative emotional responses of Mexican Americans to racial discrimination. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Fernandez, Peter, 1961-

Mother-Infant Interaction with Facially Deformed Infants

Description: This study investigated the interactions of facially deformed infants (FD) with their mothers compared to a facially nondeformed control group (FND). All mother-infant dyads were videotaped for 10 minutes during a free play period. Mothers were instructed to spend time with their baby as they normally would. The videotaped interactions of 14 FD dyads and 14 FND dyads were rated by five raters for quality of interactions, amount of vocalization, touch, and face-to-face gaze. The infants were rated on their level of attractiveness from polaroid pictures and videotapes. Mothers also completed a questionnaire which assessed their infants' temperament. Three of the studies' four hypotheses were confirmed. First, the more attractive an infant was, the better his/her interactions with the mother were judged to be. Second, FD infant dyads were rated as significantly poorer in quality of interaction than FND dyads, although FD* dyads did not spend significantly less time vocalizing, touching, or in face-to-face gaze as predicted. A significantly higher percentage of FD infants were judged as having difficult temperament relative to FND infants. Finally, as predicted it was found that infants with difficult temperaments were more likely to exhibit poorer quality interactions than infants with less difficult temperaments. These results have important implications for providing anticipatory guidance to caregivers of FD infants. Without intervention, FD infants appear at risk for subsequent developmental problems stemming from disrupted early mother-infant interactions. Future research should focus on these interactions soon after the infant's birth, attempt to determine if FD infants' emotions can be reliably understood from their facial expressions (as has been found in normal infants) and extend the current research paradigm to include fathers of FD infants.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Sterling, John W. (John Wilson)

Communication and Conflict in Marital Dyads: A Personal Construct Approach

Description: A typology of marital dyads derived from Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Psychology was used to investigate the communicative behaviors of married companions. Four groups based on Kelly's Commonality (dyadic similarity) and Sociality (dyadic understanding) corollaries were contrasted: similar-understanding, dissimilar-understanding, similar-misunderstanding, and dissimilar-misunderstanding couples. It was expected that dyadic understanding would contribute more to self-disclosure, cooperative involvement, and marital satisfaction than dyadic similarity. Furthermore, it was anticipated that couples high in understanding and low in similarity would represent optimally functioning couples, as evidenced by disclosure, satisfaction, and involvement with each other. Sixty-three married couples who had known each other at least two years completed questionnaire items assessing demographic variables, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and self-reported communication behaviors (Partner Communication Inventory, Dyadic Disclosure Inventory). Each spouse also completed an 8 X 8 Repertory Grid and predicted the mate's responses on the Rep Grid. Subjects then participated in three different audio-taped discussion tasks (an informal conversation, a consensus decision-making task, and a role-played conflict-resolution scene) which were rated for avoidant, competitive, and cooperative responses, as well as overall self-disclosure. Although understanding facilitated disclosure in conflict situations and similarity fostered marital satisfaction, communicative behaviors generally reflected the joint influence of both similarity and understanding. Dissimilar-understanding couples were intensely involved with each other and freely disclosed, but were not highly satisfied. Similar-understanding couples were the most content and had the greatest sense of validation as a couple. Similar-misunderstanding couples restricted their relationship by attempting to avoid expected confrontations. Dissimilar-misunderstanding couples viewed themselves in a socially desirable light, tried to maintain congenial, nonintimate interactions, and were moderately contented. Implications for therapeutic programs, for Kelly's theory, and for future research were discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Loos, Victor Eugene

The Effect of Stress, Anxiety-Proneness and Previous Exposure to Familial Abuse on Violence in Later Relationships

Description: Abuse in adult relationships as affected by stress, anxiety-proneness, and exposure to abuse as a child was examined using 579 North Texas State University undergraduates, Frequency and levels of abuse observed or received as a child and received or expressed as an adult were measured using a modification of Straus' Conflicts Tactics Scale (1979). Anxiety-proneness was determined by scores received on Spielberger's (1970) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Current levels of stress for the past two years were measured using the Life Experiences Survey (Sarason, 1978). Overall frequencies for received and expressed abuse (including physical and verbal abuse) in adult relationships were quite high (62.9 percent and 73.8 percent respectively). Females reported expressing significantly more abuse than did males. No gender differences were found for the receipt of abuse. Gender differences in types of violence were also examined. In addition, multiple regression was used to determine predictor variables for the expression and receipt of abuse. For males, receiving abuse as a child, positive stress scores, higher levels of anxiety-proneness, and observing father's abuse of mother significantly predicted expressing abuse as an adult. Observing mother's abuse of father and positive stress scores significantly predicted receiving abuse as an adult. For females, having received abuse as a child and trait anxiety were significant predictors for the expression of adult abuse. Receiving abuse as a child was the only significant predictor for the receipt of adult abuse. The greater impact of observing abuse between parents on males was discussed. In addition, difficulties confronting researchers in this area and the possible explanations for more frequent reports of female expression of abuse were examined.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Rose, Patricia Riddle

When Patients Threaten to Kill: A Texas View of Tarasoff

Description: A serious problem confronts the psychologist whose patient threatens, within the privacy of a therapy session, to inflict violent harm upon some third person. Therapists in Texas face a risk of unjust legal liability because of a lack of widely accepted, clearly and fully articulated standards. A questionnaire was submitted to Texas psychologists and Texas judges of mental illness courts. It involved a hypothetical case of a patient who threatened to kill his girlfriend. The hypothesis that no consensus exists at present among psychologists or judges appears to be supported by the data. Comparisons are made of the attitudes of psychologists and judges. Correlations between psychologist attitudes and certain demographic and practice variables are reported. The need for new legislation in Texas concerning legal liability of therapists for the violent behavior of patients is discussed. Proposed legislation for Texas is set out. Among its important features are (1) recognition that continued therapy is itself a protective strategy and (2) establishment of good faith as the standard by which the behavior of the therapist is to be judged.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Morgan, Minor Latham

Depressed and Nondepressed Students: Judgment of Control, Defensiveness, and Cognitive Functioning

Description: Ninety-six undergraduates were given four tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 20 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light come on. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for all tasks and on accuracy of judgment of control for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th tasks. Cognitive processing was comprehensively assessed for each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, perception of environmental stimuli, evaluation of performance, attribution, and reinforcement value. Results showed that subjects were more accurate in moderate than in low control and in low than moderate frequency. Females were more accurate in perceiving environmental stimuli and had lower self-esteem, lower efficacy expectancies, and higher self-rated reinforcement values for monetary incentives than males. Low defensives were accurate in expectancy of control, judgment of control in punishment, and estimation of environmental stimuli. Subjects in reward were more accurate in perceiving reinforcing events and they gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performance. Those in punishment had more stable and external attributions and were more anxious, depressed, and hostile. Depressives and nondepressives reacted differently to the monetary contingency on accuracy of judgment of control. Depressives showed overestimation of control immediately after initiation of this contingency, then gradually decreased their estimation until they were relatively accurate on the last task. Nondepressives showed more accurate judgment of control immediately after monetary contingency on accuracy, but returned to overestimation on subsequent tasks. These findings gave partial support to Alloy and Abramson (1979) in that mild depressives became increasingly accurate in judgment of control across tasks. Female depressives, compared to female nondepressives, were less accurate in perceiving environmental stimuli and gave themselves less credit in reward. Although depressives did not set a particularly high criterion for ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Tang, So-kum Catherine

Imaginative Involvement and Hypnotic Susceptibility

Description: J. Hilgard (1970, 1972, 1974, 1979), utilizing an interview format, asserted that a personality variable, namely, an individual's capacity to become imaginatively involved in experiences outside of hypnosis, was significantly correlated with his or her hypnotic susceptibility. Tellegen and Atkinson (1974) operationalized the imaginative involvement variable in a 37-item questionnaire, the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) that correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility (e.g., Crawford, 1982). However, Council, Kirsch, and Hafner (1986) suggested that the relationship between the TAS and hypnotic susceptibility is a context-mediated artifact in that the two correlate only when the TAS is administered within a context clearly identified as involving hypnosis. As the interviews conducted by J. Hilgard (1970, 1972, 1974, 1979) were done within a context clearly identified as involving hypnosis, the possibility exists that the relationship between imaginative involvement and hypnotic susceptibility is also a context-mediated artifact. In a test of this possibility, 86 subjects were interviewed concerning their imaginative involvements. Forty-three subjects were interviewed within a context defined as "research investigating hypnosis" and 43 subjects were interviewed within a context defined as "research investigating imagination." Hypnotic susceptibility was assessed in sessions separate from the interviews. In the present study, an individual's hypnotic susceptibility was not found to be significantly related to his or her imaginative involvement. It appears J. Hilgard's original finding may have been due to chance correlations compounded by subsequent experimenter expectancy effects. It is recommended that J. Hilgard's work be clarified through more extensive replications in which experimenter blindness is assured.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Drake, Stephen Douglas

Interpersonal Needs and Vocational Interest: Is There a Relationship?

Description: Several theories have developed in an attempt to understand how personality characteristics impact on occupational behavior. In contemplating occupational choice some theorists have utilized a psychoanalytic approach in viewing occupational choice as an appropriate way of blending the pleasure and reality principles. Other theorists have interpreted occupational choice as a means of fulfilling certain needs. The present study focused on the interpersonal needs of Inclusion, Control and Affection. It was proposed that these interpersonal needs play an integral role in one's choice of occupation. The study focused on three vocational interest categories—Realistic, Enterprising and Conventional. The subjects were male applicants for one of the following occupations (each representative of one of the three previously mentioned vocational interest areas), project manager at a construction site, restaurant manager and accountant. The total number of subjects was 288. Specifically, the present study investigated the presence of an orientation towards persons and an orientation away from persons and the impact of this on occupational choice. The study also attempted to extract three factors representing Inclusion, Control and Affection from an array of personality scales. The results supported the presence of a towards person orientation; however, an away from person orientation was not clearly differentiated. Similarly, a factor representing Inclusion was derived but the results failed to find factors representing Control and Affection. Results indicated a positive relationship between a subject's overt choice of an Enterprising occupation and measured interest. It was hypothesized that subjects with Enterprising vocational interest would have greater overall interpersonal needs than subjects with Conventional or Realistic interests. This hypothesis was not supported. However, further analyses revealed that subjects with an application choice for a restaurant manager's job had a higher need to exert Control than did the other subjects. Support was not found for the hypothesis that subjects with a ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Rose, Grace (Grace Elizabeth)

Object Relations Correlates on the MMPI

Description: This study was undertaken to help determine the usefulness of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for providing information regarding a person's object relations. Subjects were 136 college students (56 males, 80 females) ranging in age from 18 to 48. Subjects were administered the Rorschach, the Self Object Scale (SOS), and the MMPI. The Rorschach was scored using Blatt, Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick's (1976a) manual for scoring the level of object relations (Developmental Analysis of the Concept of the Object Scale-DACOS), the SOS scored as Blatt, Chevron, Quinlan, and Wein's manual (1981) directs, and the MMPI scored in the standardized manner using college-age norms. MANOVA's on the SOS and the DACOS resulted in significant effects for sex on MMPI scales 6, 7, and 8. Sex differences on MMPI scales 6 and 4 were obtained for high/low level of object relations on the DACOS. Pearson correlations showed positive correlations for males between level of object relations on the SOS and MMPI scale 5, and negative correlations on MMPI scale 5 for females. For males positive correlations between the DACOS and MMPI scale 4 and negative correlations on MMPI scale 10 were noted. These results were discussed as pertaining to the socialization of males and females. The most puzzling finding was the lack of correlation between the DACOS and the SOS. This was discussed as possibly being a result of the effect of the Rorschach, which measures psychopathology, whereas the SOS may be a purer measure of object relations. The paucity and weakness of the results was attributed to the restricted variance of the population. Implications for future research included obtaining a larger sample from a normal population, establishing clear norms for object eolations measures, obtaining correlations between a measure of current functioning and the object relations measures as a step toward ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Rebillet, Susan Bates

Factors of Depression in the Elderly: Assessment and Implications for Diagnosis

Description: The problem of assessment and diagnosis of depression in the elderly begins with the definition of depression being indefinite. In this study, the theory of learned helplessness was chosen because of its value in organizing research within a learning theory framework. The Beck Depression Inventory, measures of fluid and crystallized intellectual ability, locus of control, and attribution of success and failure were chosen as variables for an exploratory factor analysis. The purpose of selecting these variables was to assess the cognitive, motivational, and affective components of learned helplessness as they affected the responses of elderly subjects to depression items. Self report measures of income, education, and health, were included to assess the relationship of these variables to depression. A somatic factor was predicted to correlate with an affective factor of depression.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Kunsak, Nancy Elizabeth

First Impressions of Therapists: the Effect of Therapist Gender, Gaze, Smiling and Subject Gender

Description: Conceptualization psychotherapy as an interpersonal influence process emphasizes how a therapist is perceived by a client. Factors affecting a client's early impressions of a therapist could influence therapeutic interactions since first impressions are relatively stable. The study investigated effects of nonverbal behavior and gender during a simulated initial meeting between a therapist and client. Undergraduates (N = 466) viewed a male or female therapist interviewing with a new female client. Therapist gaze .(100%, 80%, 40%) and smiling (high, low) were manipulated. After subjects viewed one of 12 videotapes, they completed questionnaires rating therapist expertness, trustworthiness, attractiveness, masculinity and femininity. A comparison of the therapist with subjects' expectations of a therapist in general was obtained by pre- and post-testing utilizing a measure of client expectations. MANOVAs were performed on all ratings except expectation scores, where an ANCOVA was utilized. Main effects for therapist gender indicated the female therapist was rated as significantly more expert, attractive, trustworthy and feminine than the male (ps < .81). For ratings of masculinity, subject gender interacted with therapist gender (p < .001). Wain effects showed that high smiling was rated as more attractive and more feminine (ps < .01). Smiling and level of gaze interacted on ratings of trustworthiness, expertness and masculinity (ps < .04). The 100 per cent and 80 per cent gaze levels increased expertness, trustworthiness and masculinity ratings. Smiling affected expertness at the 80 per cent level, and trustworthiness and masculinity at the 40 per cent level. Analysis of the expectation scores resulted in a three-way interaction between subject gender, smiling and gaze (p < .02). The results suggested that female subjects expected more responsive therapist behavior. The results suggested that the ratings of the male and female therapist reflected both the use of sex stereotypes and the influence of the therapist role. ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Ziegler Kratz, Nancy Ann

The Effects of Voluntary Lateral Orienting on Positive Manifold for Lateralized Cognitive Tasks

Description: As an extension of previous studies (Urbanczyk, Angel, & Kennelly, 1988) examining the effects of unimanual finger tapping on lateralized cognitive tasks, lateral body orienting was added to an established dual task paradigm to generate differential hemispheric activation and shifts of attention. One hundred twenty university students retained sequences of digits or spatial locations for 20 seconds either alone or during finger tapping. By turning both head and eyes left or right, the hemisphere congruent with the sequences (LH for digits, RH for locations) or incongruent (vice versa) was activated. Activation had little effect on retention means but greatly affected resource composition supporting task performance. Congruent orientation produced significantly higher positive correlations between digit and location tasks than incongruent orientation. Females showed higher sequence retention correlations than males across both orienting groups. For females, congruent activation enhanced tapping rates and retention-tapping correlations. For males, activation affected neither of these. Discussed in light of neuroanatomical research, these results suggest that congruent attentional orienting may integrate regions of the less activated hemisphere into networks of the more activated hemisphere. This unification may occur more readily across the female corpus callosum, producing a greater dependence upon a general attentional resource than for males, who appear to depend more upon hemispheric resources.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann

The Reduction of Tension Headache Using EMG Biofeedback and Locus of Control as Predictors

Description: This study investigates the status of biofeedback treatment and locus of control (LOC) affiliation on the reduction of tension headache. Three LOC groups designated as internals, powerful-other externals and chance externals (using Wallston and Wallston's, 1978, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale) were administered an eight week electromyogram (EMG) frontalis muscle biofeedback training program using an Autogen 1700 biofeedback unit. Subjects were 12 female and four male undergraduate students who had a history of tension headache. Results indicated no significant difference in frontalis muscle tension between the beginning and end of sessions in either a biofeedback or self-control condition for any of the LOC groups. Further, there was no significant difference among LOC groups in ability to reduce muscle tension in either the training or self-control condition. Finally, neither biofeedback training nor LOC groups were significant predictors of headache reduction. Extreme within-group variability and small sample size affected study findings and these and other implications for future research are discussed.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Grier, Finlay

Siblings of Incest Victims: Sibling-Victim Relationships and Adjustment

Description: The non-victimized siblings in incestuous families have often been ignored in research, literature, and treatment. This study explored these siblings' 1) relationship to the victim, 2) attribution of blame, and 3) adjustment. Participants were 30 non-victimized siblings of incest victims, between the ages of 8 and 14. They completed the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the Self-perception Profile for Children, the Children's Depression Inventory, and a questionnaire developed for this research. Participants' scores were compared with the normative sample scores on several measures. Siblings perceived little warmth and closeness in their relationships to their victimized sisters. Rivalry and conflict were within normal limits. Siblings blamed victims and other family members less than expected, with the greatest amount of blame attributed to perpetrators. Adjustment was impaired. Males demonstrated less athletic competence, less global self-worth, more worry and oversensitivity than normative samples. Females showed a tendency toward less global self-worth and heightened general anxiety. Siblings' overall level of emotional distress was higher than most of the normative samples.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Adler, Jeffrey Steven

Judgment of Contingency and the Cognitive Functioning of Clinical Depressives

Description: Twenty-four psychiatric staff, 24 clinically depressed inpatients, and 24 nondepresssed schizophrenic patients at a state psychiatric facility completed five tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 30 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light appear. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for the final ten trials of each task. Cash incentives for judgment of control accuracy were added for Tasks 3, 4, and 5. Cognitive functioning was evaluated on each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, evaluation of performance, and attribution. Mood and self- esteem were measured before and after the procedure. No significant differences were observed across mood groups for expectancy of control or judgment of control accuracy. Subject groups also did not differ in the attributions they made or in how successful they judged their performances to be. They set realistic, attainable criteria for success which were consistent with relevant conditional probabilities. Subjects in reward gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performances. Punishment subjects demonstrated more stable, external attributions than those in reward. Across tasks, subjects overestimated when actual control was low and underestimated when actual control was high. Contrary to the "depressive realism" effect described by Alloy and Abramson (1979), clinical depressives did not display more accurate judgments of control than did nondepressives. All subjects appeared to base their control estimates on reinforcement frequency rather than actual control. Subjects showed a type of illusion of control for high frequency, low control tasks. Presumably, success in turning the light on led them to assume that their actions controlled light onset. Comparison to previous subclinical studies suggests a possible curvilinear relationship between judgment of control accuracy and level of psychopathology, with mild depressives displaying relatively greater accuracy than ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee

Narcissism: Reality Testing and the Effect of Negative Feedback

Description: A number of clinicians have reported that narcissists show grandiosity in self-concept, and rage after receiving disconfirming feedback. This is the first empirical study to test these claims. Subjects with differing levels of narcissism and self-esteem were compared on distortion in self-perception and emotional reaction to negative feedback. Ninety-six college students predicted their levels of intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding (empathy) as compared to their peers. Objective measures of these characteristics were obtained, and subjects' predictions, with their actual scores held constant, provided measures of reality distortion in selfperception. Subjects were given feedback comparing their predictions to objective measures at the end of the experiment, and reaction to feedback was assessed by comparing subjects' pre- and post-feedback scores on the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985). Narcissists were expected to react to negative feedback with greater hostility than nonnarcissists. Narcissists evidenced significant distortion in perceptions of their own intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding. This finding provided empirical evidence supporting the clinical phenomenon of grandiosity. Narcissists did not react with greater hostility after negative feedback, but as compared to nonnarcissists, they did react with less depression following negative feedback. This supported Kernberg's (1980) assertion that narcissists do not react to loss with depression. In contrast to the inflated self-image associated with narcissism, self-esteem was associated with a comparatively accurate view of self.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Gabriel, Marsha T. (Marsha Thompson)

Parental Cultural Mistrust, Background Variables, and Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services for Their Children

Description: Attitudes toward mental illness and the willingness to seek psychological treatment for their children among ethnic minority group parents were investigated. Participants consisted of black, Hispanic, Native American and Asian parents. All parents were given the Terrell and Terrell Cultural Mistrust Inventory, Cohen and Struening Opinions About Mental Illness Scale, Reid-Gundlach Social Services Satisfaction Scale, Fischer-Turner Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale, and Ahluwalia Parents' Psychological Help-Seeking Inventory. A multiple regression model was used to explore the purpose of this study. Parental mistrust level, ethnicity, education, income level, and opinions about mental illness served as predictor variables. The criterion variables consisted of scores on the Social Services Satisfaction Scale and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. The results indicated that the most significant predictor of psychological help-seeking was parental cultural mistrust level. Parents with higher cultural mistrust levels were less likely to seek help. Education was also predictive of black and Native American parents' help-seeking attitude and willingness to seek psychological help for their children. Black and Native Americans with lower levels of education were less willing to seek treatment for their children than members of those ethnic groups with higher levels of education. Ethnicity was also related to parental willingness to seek help for their children. Hispanic and black parents expressed more willingness to seek help than Native American and Asian parents. Finally, parents' opinions about mental illness were found to be significantly related to help-seeking attitude. Parents with positive opinions about mental illness were more likely to utilize professional psychological help than those parents with negative opinions about mental illness. Some clinical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Ahluwalia, Ekta