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Structural Correlates of Community Innovation

Description: Structural differences between communities which exhibit a tendency toward innovation and communities which fail to exhibit this tendency are studied. The Model Cities program is used as a test case for the tendency toward innovation, and two samples (applicants and non-applicants) are matched on the basis of population size. Four structural elements are examined as related to applicant status: community differentiation, community poverty, community social-human resource commitment, and the centralization of local governmental structure. Each of the structural elements is further refined by operationally defining specific measures. Community differentiation is measured by occupational and racial/ethnic differentiation. Community poverty is reflected by economic and educational poverty. The variable of community social-human resource commitment is developed using the following measures: per capita community fund goals, per capita amounts raised, per cent of goal raised, and the number of private social agencies in a community that are devoted to social-human resource needs. The centralization of local governmental structure is measured by the presence or absence of the city manager form of government, the presence or absence of non-partisan election, the size of city councils, and the per cent of the city council elected at-large.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Hartling, Sally Caldwell

Selected Structural Characteristics of Community Innovativeness: An Analysis of the Urban Development Action Grant Program

Description: This study is an investigation of the relationship between selected structural characteristics of the community and innovation among cities. Four major Structural characteristics were chosen to serve as independent variables. These independent variables were community differentiation, community poverty, community maturity and type of local government. Innovation, as measured by applicant status to the federal Urban Development Action Grant Program, served as the dependent variable. Analysis of the data indicated support for several of the postulated hypotheses. The structural characteristic community differentiation was found to be significantly related to applicant status. For the structural characteristic community poverty no significant relationship to applicant status was observed. Community maturity revealed a significant relationship to applicant status. Finally, for the structural characteristic local form of government a significant relationship with applicant status was observed. Based on the interpretation of the findings, an original typology of innovation was developed. This typology included planned revitalizing innovation, social enhancing innovation, entrepreneurial stimulating innovation, and needs inducing innovation.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Williams, Frank R. (Frank Robinson)

Systematic Statement of Mahatma Gandhi's Theory of Social Stratification

Description: This study presents the major ideas of Mahatma Gandhi on social stratification and social inequality. The methodology consists of systematically reading and analyzing the literature through which the theoretical components of social stratification in Gandhi's writings become more explicit, and evaluating these theoretical components. A systematic statement of Gandhi's theory of social stratification included the following five components. First, social differentiation is inherent in human nature. Gandhi believed in the universality of social differentiations and was convinced that societies were organized into the divisions on the basis of vocations. Second, relations among strata imply that a division of labor is essential for the stability and organization of society. Gandhi also implied that this division of labor is necessary and functional. Third, normative patterns establish traditions of heredity. To Gandhi, the four divisions in society defined a person's "calling" which is essential for social organization. Fourth, the system of stratification is the universal law that everyone is obliged to follow. Gandhi tried to legitimize social stratification through moral and religious values of the society. Fifth, social stratification system defines duties only and does not confer any privileges. To Gandhi, the divisions of people into strata was the best possible adjustment of social stability and progress. While accepting some form of social stratification for the benefit of total funcioning of the society, Gandhi refused to accept that social inequality necessarily grows out of the process of social stratification. To maintain the hereditary law of social stratification and reduce the inequality, Gandhi suggested the abolition of the present caste system and the revival of four orders of social organization, the removal of the concept of untouchability, the regulation of trusteeship, decentralization of power, the increase of women's status, and vocational education for all.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Vyas, Ashwin G.

Toward a Program Evaluation of the Community Mental Health Center Selected Application of the Parsonian Model

Description: The purpose of this study is to test the utility of Talcott Parsons' AGIL Model, i.e., Adaptation, Goal Attainment, Integration, and Latency (Pattern Maintenance) in evaluating the program effectiveness of a community mental health center (CMHC). The model provided a conceptual framework for the selection of appropriate variables. The dependent variable in this study is the overall evaluation of the CMHC as measured through the perception of community leaders. Fourteen hypotheses were constructed to identify and test the relationship among the AGIL criteria and the use of a selected set of independent variables. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Secondary data were obtained from the Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation in Austin and the CMHC center in Eton. Primary data were collected through personal interviews of general community leaders and influential persons in health-related activities in the community. The selected independent variables included the scope of leadership, the attitude towards this community, socio-economic status, knowledge of the CMHC, and the commitment and involvement in the CMHC. Data indicated that Parsons' criteria for evaluating the CMHC's program were comprehensive and related to each other both positively and negatively. Among the selected independent variables, the type of leader was found to be the best predictor of program evaluation of this CMHC. Overall, generalized community leaders were more defensive and favorable to the CMHC's program compared with the specialinterest leaders. The leaders also differed in their emphasis of the AGIL criteria. The generalized community leaders were conservative in emphasizeing the evaluative criteria of adaptation, integration, and pattern maintenance; the special-interest leaders gave more emphasis to the goal attainment function of CMHC. It was concluded that Parsons' AGIL model was useful for evaluating a CMHC. The variant direction of relationship among AGIL criteria indicated differences in ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Moodley, Bobby

The Change of Individual Opinions Through Gender-Related Group Influence: An Empirical Study of College Students

Description: The opinions of individuals may be influenced by groups of different gender configurations. This influence was studied by asking college students to respond to a series of statements in pretest and post-test settings. Post-test settings included the use of manipulatively constructed confederate groups to influence the subjects' responses. A pretest was administered in an anonymous nonthreatening environment. Within a week, the subjects were post-tested in a setting with four "confederates" who had previously been instructed to unanimously voice opposite answers to the subjects' initial responses to pretest questions. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of opinions that were changed when confronted with opposing views. Change of opinions between pretest and post-test were considered to be operational definitions of "conformity."
Date: December 1986
Creator: Blodgett, Billy P. (Billy Paul)

On Parent-Child Relations: Toward the Construction of a Theory of Filial Exchange

Description: This investigation represents an initial attempt toward the construction of a general life cycle theory of parent-child relations. Emphasis was placed on the parent-adult child relationship with the onset of a filial crisis, e.g., due to illness. After the theory was described, two of the five propositions comprising this orientation (i.e., propositions four and five) were analyzed through a series of twenty-five hypotheses. The objectives of these hypotheses were (a) to analyze the relationship between the length of time involved in various patterns of filial responsibility and the likelihood that these patterns will become institutionalized as obligatory roles and (b) to determine how factors associated with these emergnt role obligations contribute to the cost of caregiving. A probability sample of 180 caregivers was obtained from within the Dallas/Ft. Worth area. Multiple and partial correlation analyses and the use of Student's t revealed that the length of time involved as a caregiver was significantly related to the number of informal caregiving roles performed by adult children. In addition, results indicated that the length of involvement in each caregiving role examined (i.e., household care, transportation service, personal care, medical attention, meal preparation, financial management and mobility assistance) was significantly related to (a) the frequency of providing these services to an aged parent and (b) the level of responsibility in each service area except financial management (which tended to remain constant over time)• An adult child s level of obligation to ensure that caregiving services were provided was also significantly associated with the length of caregiving involvement. Furthermore, this study found tentative support for the contention that the social-psychological cost of providing care for a dependent parent was associated with (a) the frequency of providing transportation services and medical attention, (b) the number of informal caregiving activities performed and (c) the length of ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Ziner, Andrew Scott

Sources of Support and Parental Performances a Descriptive Study of Mexican-American Female Single Parents

Description: This is a descriptive study of the statistical association between the amounts of financial—emotional supports available and their impact on the degree of difficulty in the performance of the parental roles of a nonrandom sample of eighty-six Mexican-American female single parents from McAllen, Texas. The sample was divided into four socioeconomic status categories. A total of twenty-nine variables were correlated: twenty independent, financial-emotional and nine dependent parental performance variables. The twenty variables were defined in terms of socioeconomic resources: child-care availability and satisfaction, nature of personal/children problems, and frequency of interaction with significant others defined emotional supports. Parental role performances were defined in terms of having children with medical, learning or emotional problems, and the degree of difficulty in caring for sick children, spending time with them, yelling and screaming, use of corporal punishment and feeling overwhelmed by parental demands. Analyses indicated that these families functioned in a stable and viable manner, with little evidence of disintegration or "pathology." The parents had extensive social networks comprised of kin# coworkers, and friends, and they interacted with these support people on a regular basis, usually several times per week, but at the same time the parents rarely interacted with the ex-husbands or ex-in-laws, The majority of ex—husbands had never made any support payments and rarely saw their children. The single parents did not evidence unmanageable problems in caring for their children, or in asserting control and authority over them. Corporal punishment, yelling and screaming, and other discipline problems were minimal issues, and were not more severe or serious than before the divorce. The mothers were satisfied with the available child-care and the general growth of their children, but felt they continuously carried a tremendous burden, and all indications are that, even with sources of different kinds and levels of support. Finally, a ...
Date: August 1987
Creator: Maldonado, Alfred C.

The Value Systems of Incarcerated Embezzlers: The Implications for Sociological Practice and Value Clarification Programs for Correctional Institutions

Description: An empirical investigation at a southwestern minimum security federal correctional institution was designed to assess the value systems of incarcerated embezzlers (N = 31) as they compared to a matched offender control group (N = 31). Based on their responses on the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). no statistically significant differences between these groups were found. Therefore, this finding suggested that these embezzlers possessed similar value systems held by those inmates convicted of other crimes. When the responses of the embezzler sample were combined with their matched offender control group, a few differences were revealed between the combined inmate group and the general population norms (National Opinion Research Center [NORC]; Rokeach, 1968, 1973). Simple comparisons of the composite medians of the male inmate group and the NORC showed differences on the following survey items: "a world at peace," "equality," and "national security." Among the items which demonstrated differences between the female prison group and the NORC were "an exciting life," "wisdom," "independent," "intellectual," "logical," "a world at peace," and "national security." The findings provided partial support for Cochrane's (1971) conclusions that prisoners are self-centered, and place low importance on those values which do not have immediate or personal relevance. However, because many of the inmates' responses emulated the NORC data, it was concluded that their value systems resembled the general population more than other prison populations. In addition to the empirical analyses, this project addressed the practical implications of value systems research by proposing value clarification programs for correctional institutions. The selection of value clarification programs was inspired by the implications of the emerging perspective of sociological practice. Sociological practice was described as it relates to these programs as well as to sociology in the larger context.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Welch, Michael (Michael Francis)

Dispute Resolution Studies in the Institutions of Higher Learning: an Initial Investigative Study of Professors' Attitudes

Description: Conflict is present in all human relationships and societies. Throughout history, fighting has been more notable than peacemaking. Only recently have conflict resolution studies entered the mainstream of academia. Since peace is no longer an option, but a necessity, educators must become actively engaged in promoting the importance of peacemaking skills among their students. In 1986, the National Institute for Dispute Resolution funded a study of conflict resolution in higher education. Results disclosed a proliferation of courses but little about their quality. The present study evaluates the status of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the curricula of three major universities in North Texas and compares it with results from four other universities which were reported to have the heaviest concentration of ADR courses. A questionnaire was constructed to collect data in the following areas: place, significance of ADR in contemporary curricula, important factors determining attitudes toward ADR, and expectations/aspirations of faculty concerning teaching of ADR. Using a Likert scale, attitudes toward ADR were measured through regression analysis. Four of seven independent variables (age, sex, political orientation, and ADR training) were significant at jd = .05. Forty ADR-related courses were identified in seven universities. The concentration of ADR courses was management (35%), law (28%), sociology (23%), business (8%), and political science (8%). No courses were identified by anthropology departments. Results also reveal that the older, liberal, female, and ADR-ski lied individuals exhibit more favorable attitudes towards ADR. The study concludes that (a) concentrated efforts should be increased to teach and train educators in ADR, (b) mediation centers should be created on university campuses, and (c) an ADR communications network and data bank should be established among universities in order to allow faculty, students, practitioners, and administrators to share information. A partial list of organizations involved in peace issues and resources for ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Ghadrshenass, Delavar

Gender and Earnings: Examining the Earnings Gap Between Men and Women Across Metropolitan Labor Markets

Description: The earnings gap between men and women, an apt indicator of women's status relative to men's, was roughly constant for the thirty-five years between 1950 and 1985. During this period women earned about 60 to 65 cents for every dollar earned by men. The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of this wage gap. Because much existing research suggests that a large portion of the gender gap in pay results from the segregation of women into low-paying jobs, the present study focuses on the role of gender segregation in the workplace. Other potential contributors to the earnings gap are also examined (women's domestic obligations, educational attainment, women's labor force participation rates, and the industrial mix in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas). The position of women as a group in the labor market is of primary interest in this research. Accordingly, the analysis was conducted on an aggregate level across labor markets. The data were drawn from the Bureau of the Census Census of the Population: 1980—Detailed Population Characteristics. The project uses a cross-sectional research design, the primary statistical technique used being multiple regression analysis. Findings reveal that workplace segregation and the industrial characteristics of SMSA labor markets have the strongest effect on the size of the gender-based earnings gap. Specifically, workplace segregation is positively related to the size of the earnings gap between men and women. The presence of above average levels of manufacturing activity in an SMSA is associated with a larger earnings gap while the presence of above average levels of service sector and government employment opportunities in an SMSA is associated with smaller earnings differentials between men and women. This study enhances the understanding of the effects of structural variables on the earnings determination process for men and women and provides insight into the collective ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Dunn, Dana

The Effects of Cognitive Style and Socialization Background on Patterns of Behavior: Integrating Individual Differences (Using the MBTI) with Meadian Socialization Theory

Description: The general purpose of this study is to examine the effects of socialization background and cognitive style on individuals' patterns of behavior. The more specific purpose is to integrate the individual differences factor using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator with Meadian Theory of Socialization in order to explore the ways in which a group of incarcerated individuals with prior felony and misdemeanor convictions and a group of college students are different regarding their different socialization background and cognitive styles. Data for this study were collected from a university and a county jail in Texas. During the process of data collection, two questionnaires consisting of 117 items were used to measure individual characteristics and elements of socialization background. This study is organized into four different chapters. Chapter I involves a detailed review of related literature, the purpose of the study, stated hypotheses, significance of the study, and limitations. Chapter II discusses methodological procedures and Chapter III presents the findings of the study. The last chapter includes a detailed conclusion and practical implications of the study. The findings in this study indicated that the group of incarcerated individuals and the group of college students are significantly different in terms of their different individual characteristics and socialization backgrounds. However, it was found that socialization background has the most significant effects on patterns of behavior among the two groups under study. It was concluded that while accepting the crucial importance of socialization factors, specific psychological characteristics of people also need to be integrated into sociological studies concerning human behavior for the better understanding of different groups and individuals in society.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Nazempooran, Ali

Alcohol Use among the Elderly in Edmonton, Alberta: a Multivariate Analysis

Description: A model of social stressor variables, social integration variables and demographic control variables was tested to assess their impact on alcohol use among the elderly. A secondary analysis of a survey on alcohol use among the elderly in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, was conducted to test the major hypotheses of the study. Contingency table analysis, using gamma and partial gamma as correlation coefficients, was utilized in the data analysis. The first hypothesis, in regard to the positive relationship of social stressors with alcohol use, was confirmed. The best predictors of alcohol use among the social stressor variables were usual occupation, length of retirement, annual income, and subjective health status. The second hypothesis, that the social integration variables would be negatively related to alcohol use, received only moderate support. The results of the analysis indicated that six of the ten social integration variables were negatively related to alcohol use. Only three of these variables, retirement status, religious participation, and marital status, were statistically significant. Hypothesis three also was not confirmed. The introduction of the social integration variables did not substantially decrease the strength of the relationship between social stressors and alcohol use. Gender and age were also introduced as control variables for the relationship between social stressors and alcohol use. Age had only a limited impact on the zero-order relationships. Gender demonstrated a strong relationship with alcohol use. Statistical analyses indicated that gender was the strongest predictor of alcohol use of all the variables in the analysis. The nature of the zero-order relationships of four of the six stressor variables changed when gender was controlled, and the partial relationships decreased in strength. It was suggested that future research on alcohol use among the elderly should focus on gender differences.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Watson, Jack Borden

Grandparent Satisfaction and Family Structure: a Descriptive Study of Multigenerational Families in Denton County, Texas

Description: This descriptive study of 45 multi-generational families contributes empirical knowledge about grandparent-grandchild relationships. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 74 subjects who were part of a randomly selected sample taken from a tax roll of homeowners over age 65 in Denton County, Texas. The responses provide information which expands the existing data base in the area of grandparenting. The study pinpoints areas in the grandparenting literature which need refinement and contributes data to those areas, rather than producing a set of conclusions. Areas as yet undocumented or inadequately documented in the literature are identified as the following: (a) family structural composition; (b) grandparents' personal characteristics; (c) selected aspects of grandparent-grandchild contact; and (d) satisfaction with the grandparent role. Data for these areas should help reveal factors having an impact on grandparent-grandchild relationships. A base for further investigation in these areas is established, and data are also analyzed to determine satisfaction or lack of satisfaction with grandparenting. The seventy-four subjects, from 45 households, included 44 grandmothers and 30 grandfathers. The number of generations per family was used as the base to report the findings. The study substantiates other research on grandparenting, particularly in the area of timing of grand-parenthood. Data collected in this study support the view that the grandparent's chronological age and the time in his or her life cycle when grandchildren appear (role entry), religious affiliation, lineage, and frequency of contact all contribute to satisfaction with the role of grandparent. Almost all of the respondents described themselves as satisfied grandparents and indicated their pride in and pleasure derived from their grandchildren. A strong relationship between satisfaction and any one variable studied is not identified. The major contribution of the study lies in the descriptive detail and in ruling out any one characteristic as "the one variable" that really ...
Date: May 1989
Creator: Hettinger, Barbara J. (Barbara Jane)

Organizational Identity, Health Identity, and Motivation: a Symbolic Interactionist Approach to the Understanding of Heath Behaviors in Work Settings

Description: Identity is an important determinant of behavior. This paper proposed an identity model as one way of understanding those factors related to the perceived probability or willingness of a worker to participate in health promotion programming at the worksite. Part of a larger study on employee wellness, this study took place in the municipal complex of a small city in the southeastern United States. A stratified cross sectional sample of 150 employees was selected utilizing a systematic random sampling methodology. Structured interviews were conducted with 129 participants resulting in a response rate of 92% after adjusting for those people no longer employed by the city. In order to test the identity model developed by this author, descriptive analysis, simple multiple regression analysis and path analysis were utilized. The dependent variable, perceived willingness to participate in health promotion programming, was examined in relationship to commitment to one's health identity, commitment to one's organizational identity, tendency to comply with health initiatives, and the forms of supervisory power utilized to enact employee compliance. The descriptive analysis revealed that subjective health status is moderately and positively associated with commitment to one's health identity, that individuals can be strongly committed to a negative/destructive health identity, and that both the family and physician play important roles as health advice givers. The path analysis revealed that commitment to one's organizational identity, commitment to one's health identity, and tendency to comply with health initiatives are significantly and positively associated with willingness to participate in health promotion programming, accounting for 25% of the variance in the dependent variable. In contrast, the forms of supervisory power were not shown to be related to the dependent variable. In conclusion, the identity model appears to be a useful tool for the understanding of health attitudes and behaviors within a work setting.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Weber, Linda R. (Linda Roberta)

Family and Peer Effects upon Adolescent Chemical Use and Abstinence

Description: Using questionnaire survey generated data from a single school district, this study investigated the effects of family factors, peer factors, school problem behaviors, and psychosocial factors on adolescents' use of or abstinence from alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs. Following a review of literature, a theoretical framework incorporating family socialization theory was use to operationalize variables, develop indices, and generate hypotheses to be tested, as well as develop a general model of adolescent alcohol and other drug use and abstinence, incorporating the predictor variables. Using SPSSx procedures, factor analysis was used to develop the indices; the hypotheses were tested using Oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and F-ratio tests associated with regression analysis. The path analysis models were developed using multiple regression analysis and bivariate decomposition tables. For both junior high school students and high school students, users of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs were found to score higher on the Family Factors index, the Peer Factors index, School Problems index, and the Psychosocial Factors index. The model differed between alcohol and marijuana users, defining the conditions under which an adolescent is more likely to use or abstain from marijuana. While both family and peer factors effected the adolescents' choices of use or abstinence, the strongest predictor of use/abstinence was the peer use and attitudes factor. Family factors tended to be stronger in the younger age/grade levels than in the higher age/grade levels, as predicted from the theoretical framework.
Date: August 1989
Creator: McBroom, James Randy, 1951-

The Impact Of Peer, School, Family, and Religion Factors Upon Adolescent Drug Use

Description: The contribution of this research is in the area of adolescent decision making. The specific decision examined is the decision to use or not use drugs. Several factors were expected to have significant impacts on this crucial adolescent decision. These factors included peer, school, family, and religion influences. The source of the data was a sample of ninth through twelfth grade students in a north Texas city. The students responded to a survey questionnaire in the spring semester of 1989. A total of 632 students responded to the questions about alcohol- and drug-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Four major hypotheses were tested, and each one was supported by the research findings. In the first hypothesis, it was expected that family drug use factors would have a positive effect on adolescent drug use. Family factors included the following: parental use of alcohol, problems for family members due to parental drinking, and problems for the respondent due to parental drinking. Family factors had a statistically significant effect on alcohol use and any drug use.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Stanley, Gregory A. (Gregory Amos)

Four Types of Day Care and their Effects on the Well-Being of Children

Description: Data gathered from Tyler, Texas, the University of North Texas, and the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) were used to compare children from commercial, home, church, and university based day care with children not attending day care. The research group, comprised of children attending day care (N=142), were located using non-probability sampling; those not in day care (the control group) came from the NSFH (N=1775). Data from the research group were weighted to match the control group. The independent and control variables included the child's age, length of time in day care, intellectual functioning; the parent's marital status and social class; the day care's staff to child ratio and the staff's training. All data, except that pertaining to the facility itself, were gathered from the children's parents using a self-report questionnaire. The remaining data were gathered through personal interview by the researcher. The dependent variable was an index of emotional and behavioral problems reported for the child. Overall, children who attended day care had only slightly more problems reported than those who did had not attended day care. When each center was examined separately, the children in home centers had the greatest number of problems, followed by the commercial centers and university center, with children from the church centers scoring the lowest. In contrast to earlier research, intellectual functioning was not enhanced by the day care experience. While the staff's training had a statistically significant relationship to the children's well-being, no relationship was found for the staff to child ratio. Further research on the impact of other characteristics of each type of day care is recommended.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Davis, David C. (David Carlton)

Bureaucracy and the Mexican American Elderly: Utilization of Formal and Informal Social Services

Description: Using the National Survey of Hispanic Elderly People, 1988, this study examines the support system of the Mexican American elderly and their utilization of formal social services. Two major research questions were addressed: 1) How does the Mexican American family provide assistance to their elderly family members? and 2) How does the bureaucratic structure affect the Mexican American elderly's access and utilization of formal social services?
Date: December 1995
Creator: Dietz, Tracy L. (Tracy Lynn)

Testing a Model of Internalized Anomie

Description: A new theoretical model of human behavior was presented and tested in this research. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used to test the notion that living in an anomic family system would produce an internalized sense of normlessness or "egonomie" that precedes the development of problematic behavior for the individual.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Glass, John E. (John Edward)

The Effects of Socio-Structural, Economic, and Race Considerations on Rates of Property Crime in the United States, 1958-1993

Description: This study investigates changes in rates of property crime in the United States from 1958 to 1993. Predictor variables include changes in rates of economic factors (inflation, technological/cyclical/frictional unemployment), arrest rates for property crimes disaggregated by race (ARPCDR), interaction of ARPCDR and technological unemployment, alcohol offenses, interaction of alcohol offenses and poverty, drug abuse violations, and interaction of drug abuse violations and poverty. Changes in poverty, population growth, and police presence are employed as control variables. The Beach-McKinnon Full Maximum- Likelihood EGLS AR1 Method (accompanied by residual analysis) is used to test seven hypotheses. Significant positive effects upon changes in aggregate property crime rates are found for five predictors: (a) inflation, (b) cyclical unemployment, (c) frictional unemployment, (d) the interaction of white arrest rates and technological unemployment, and (e) the interaction of rates of alcohol offenses and poverty. To explain changes in property crime rates, further research should decompose aggregate rates particularly those pertaining to the economy. Also, the relationship between the interaction of poverty and drug abuse violations, at the aggregate level, and changes in property crime rates should be clarified. This research has important policy implications related to the impact of social, economic, and educational issues on mainstream society and its criminal elements. Law makers should consider this type of research in all macro and micro-oriented policies.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Ralston, Roy W.

The Influence of Spousal Expectations, Interaction, and Bonding on Marital Quality: a Study of Selected Factors Affecting Individuals' Self-Reported Evaluation of their Marriage

Description: This investigation explored the relationship between married individuals' self-reports of their expectations, interaction, spousal bonding, and marital quality. From two universities, two hundred and thirty-seven currently enrolled and married students volunteered to provide the information on these factors via a semistructured self-administered questionnaire. The typical respondent was a female between 31 and 35 years old who had been married 8 years to her first spouse, had one child at home; and was a senior in college. Of the ten independent variables examined three variables contributed the most to individuals' self-reported evaluation of their marital quality. These were the time spent each week with their spouse, satisfaction with the quality of time spent with their spouse, and when the greatest level of bonding experiences occurred. Five significant findings emerged from the study. First, respondents' greater satisfaction with the quality of time spent with their spouse was consistently the strongest predictor of higher marital quality. Second, respondents who bonded more with their spouse after marriage or equally before and after marriage reported higher marital quality than those who bonded more before marriage. Third, the amount of time spouses spent together influenced respondents' reported marital quality. Fourth, spousal bonding has a very strong influence on individuals' self-reported marital quality. The influence of spousal bonding upon marital quality has been neglected by marriage and family researchers. Finally, joint activities such as talking, eating and cooking at home, sex, activities shared with children, and church related activities were identified by respondents as consistently promoting both a higher quality level for the time spent with their spouse and with their spousal bonding. Future research on marital quality should use larger and more representative samples, involve personal interviews, use longitudinal data collection, and perform time series or path analysis.
Date: May 10, 1996
Creator: Kettlitz, Robert E. (Robert Edward)

The Affects of Religiosity on Anomie

Description: This study explores the relationship between religion and anomie. The theoretical framework of Durkheim and Merton was used to suggest the hypothetical relationship between the two variables: as religiosity increases, anomie decreases. A secondary analysis was conducted using the 1991 General Social Survey (GSS). The GSS is one of the largest annual surveys conducted by the National Opinion Research Center. There were 1517 adult respondents composing the 1991 cross-national sample. Questions measuring both the belief and action dimensions of religion were used to measure respondents' level of religiosity. Questions from the Srole Scale of Anomia were used to measure respondents' level of anomia. Durkheim's theory that religion functions to integrate individuals into the larger society and therefore diminish levels of anomie was not supported with this data. While the lack of significant findings did not support the theory, neither did it disprove it. The hypothetical inverse relationship between class and anomie was supported with this data. Another hypothetical relationship, that of the most religious, women experience less anomie than men, was also not supported due to the lack of a significant relationship among the primary variables. Continued use of comprehensive and large scale surveys such as the General Social Survey is crucial. This research suggests the need for further testing of these hypotheses using more elaborate measures.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Wilson, Dwain R.

International Economic Dependency and Human Development in Third World Countries

Description: This study empirically tested the two competing development theories--modernization and dependency/world-system. Theoretical and methodological approaches suggested by these two paradigms offer opposing interpretations of the incorporation of the Third World countries into the world capitalist system. Therefore, they provide conflicting and, at times, confusing guidelines on the ways available to enhance the well-being of the general populations in these countries. To shed light on the subject matter, this study uses a few specific indicators of economic growth and human development by comparing the outcomes based on the two conflicting paradigms. The comparative process allows us to confirm the one theoretical approach that best explains human conditions in Third World settings. The study focuses on specific aspects of foreign domination--foreign investment, foreign trade, foreign debt, and the resulting disarticulated national economies. The main arguement, here, conveys the idea that as far as Third World countries are tied in an inescapable and unilaterally benefitial (to the core countries of course) economic and political relations, there will be no hope for any form of sustainable economic growth. Human well-being in Third World countries might very well depend on their ability to develop self-reliant economies with the least possible ties to the world capitalist system.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Javidan Darugar, Mohammad Reza

Old Age Support and the Well-Being of the Elderly in the People's Republic of China

Description: One of the major issues concerning old age security is the adequacy of support systems for the aged population. Population aging and economic development in the People's Republic of China have raised the question about the ability of the family to take care of the elderly. Using the latest data collected by the Research Center on Aging in China of a national representative sample of the aged population, this study develops a model to examine the effectiveness of family support for the elderly during the current socio-economic transition of the society. The model also examines the adequacy and effectiveness of state welfare systems on the aged population and the effect of select socio-demographic factors on the well-being of the elderly in China. The investigation into the social, economic, and health aspects of the life of the elderly provides the background knowledge for understanding the support systems for the elderly in China. The multivariate analyses of the effects of the elderly support systems within the framework of shared functions of the primary groups, and the bureaucracy in achieving social goals, identify the important effects of the economic conditions of the family and the state income maintenance programs on the sense of well-being of the elderly. The findings lead to the conclusion that the cooperation of the family and the state is necessary to provide a secure life for an aged population. The patterns and trends of old age support in China are found to be constrained by the interplay of various social forces, among which the effect of politicalization of the social and economic conditions of the elderly is crucial. Policy recommendations include public assistance to the family, encouragement of the local effort, and national legislation on old age security.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Pei, Xiaomei