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Handedness, Perceptual and Short Term Memory Asymmetries, and Personality

Description: A large body of research has depicted relative arousal of the left and right cerebral hemispheres as related to utilization of particular defensive coping styles, level of anxiety, and perceptual styles. The right and left hemispheres are also presented in the literature as differing in visual-spatial and verbal-auditory short term memory abilities. The present research studied 127 right handed undergraduates' relative performance on forward spatial and digits memory spans in relation to hemispheric lateralization and other perceptual and personality variables hypothesized in the literature to be related to hemispheric arousal. It was hypothesized that the forward spatial and digit memory spans would display asymmetrical sensitivity to hemispheric arousal. That is, in a series of successive factor analyses, a hemispheric balance factor, a trait anxiety factor, and a short term memory factor would emerge. The three factors were hypothesized to be unrelated to each other. During an initial group pretesting, subjects were given pencil and paper measures of handedness, trait anxiety, and several defensive coping styles. During a second individual testing, subjects were administered measures of short term memory, field independence, and a computerized presentation of geometric designs which measured the subjects ability to detect differences which occurred at either the global or analytic level (Navon task). The factor analyses revealed only the hypothesized trait anxiety factor. The hypothesized short term memory and hemispheric balance of arousal factors did not emerge. Instead, a. defensive coping style factor and separate verbal—auditory and visual-spatial short term memory factors emerged. Several methodological difficulties of the present study which possibly contributed to the failure of the two hypothesized factors to emerge were discussed. Several additional findings, including sex differences in hemispheric lateralization, were presented. Also, signal detection analysis revealed a pattern such that trait anxious subjects were biased toward over-reporting differences on the Navon task. ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Wilcox, Gary A. (Gary Alden)

Mirthful Laughter and Directed Relaxation: a Comparison of Physiological Response

Description: The differences among certain physiological changes occurring in response to mirthful laughter, directed relaxation, and verbal speech were investigated. These changes included amount of muscle tension, as measured with surface electromyography, in the forehead and in the upper body as recorded from the forearms bilaterally, peripheral surface skin temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate. The study sought to determine whether the net effect of laughter, as measured on these five variables after a three-minute refractory period, is a more relaxed state than existed before the laughter. Determination of the similarity between the changes following laughter and the changes following directed relaxation was made in comparison with the changes following verbal speech. Factors of prior anxiety, pre- and post-self-esteem levels, humor level, and laughter intensity were examined. Historical and theoretical perspectives were reviewed, as well as the known information on physiological responses to laughter.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Woods, Barbara Jane Simmons

An Osmoreceptive Zone Around the Nucleus Circularis

Description: The nucleus circularis has been linked to a role in regulating osmotic thirst but evidence has also shown that full bilateral destruction of the nucleus circularis was not necessary to achieve a deficit in drinking behavior after an osmotic challenge. The present study attempted to answer two primary research questions. The first question was whether osmoreceptive cells existed around the nucleus circularis in a homogeneous fashion or if these cells existed in a structured fashion stretching from the nucleus circularis forward. The second question was whether animals with lesions of the nucleus circularis and the surrounding areas were different in normal daily water intake than animals with no lesions. The first question was approached by lesioning the nucleus circularis, the area one millimeter anterior to the nucleus circularis, one millimeter posterior to the nucleus circularis, one half of a millimeter medial to the nucleus circularis and using a sham group which had the electrode passed through the brain to a spot one millimeter above the nucleus circularis but passing no current. All animals were then given an osmotic challenge which consisted of half of each group with an injection of hypertonic saline while the other half of each group was given isotonic saline. After a five-day recovery period, the injection procedure was reversed. Water consumption on each test day was measured at ten-minute intervals for one hour. Difference scores were then computed by subtracting the amount of water consumed after hypertonic saline injection from the amount of water consumed after isotonic saline injection. The difference scores were then used in an analysis of variance which revealed a significant difference between groups. A subsequent post hoc test showed that the nucleus circularis group was different from all other groups except for the anterior lesion group which showed a trend in the ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Wallace, Forrest Layne

The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

Description: This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the fourth session. As anticipated, reduction in negative attributions did not precede or coincide with reduction in depression. It was not possible to determine the change in the attributional style of subject during the time period of this study. The results were discussed in terms of Bower's Associative Network Theory in which activation of mood facilitates the access to memories, behaviors, and interpretation of events which are congruent with the mood state.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Swenson, Carol

Assessment of Brain Damage: Discriminant Validity of a Neuropsychological Key Approach with the McCarron-Dial System

Description: The present study investigates the predictive accuracy of a key approach to interpretation of the verbal-spatialcognitive (VSC) and sensorimotor (SM) factors of the McCarron-Dial System (MDS). The subjects include 99 brain damaged and 30 normal adults. The following research questions are addressed: (a) Does the neuropsychological key classify brain damaged and non-brain damaged subjects at a level significantly above chance? (b) Among the brain damaged subjects, does the neuropsychological key identify right brain damage, left brain damage and diffuse brain damage at an accuracy level significantly above chance? (c) Is the neuropsychological key approach superior to the empirical model derived from discriminant function analysis in predictive accuracy? The neuropsychological key correctly classifies 90% of the cases as brain damaged and 90% of the cases as non-brain damaged, for a total of 89.9% predictive accuracy. The obtained Kappa coefficient of .74 is statistically significant. The key accurately classifies 71.4% of the brain damaged group as right damage, 70% as left damage, and 93.8% as diffuse damage, for a total predictive accuracy of 7 9.5%. The Kappa coefficient of .68 is statistically significant. Chi square analysis of the difference between the key approach and multiple discriminant function analysis reveals that no significant difference is present between the accuracy of the two approaches in differentiating between brain damaged and non-brain damaged, or in differentiating among left, right and diffuse brain damage. The results support the validity of a neuropsychological key approach to interpretation of the McCarron-Dial System, although cross-validation is indicated to confirm the stability of these results. Differences in sex, educational level and racial composition of the comparison groups may have affected the results obtained. Refinement of the key in future research and the addition of test instruments assessing memory, auditory processing, attention and emotional/behavioral variables are recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Norton, Carole Lynn

Cognitive Coping Strategies with Chronic Back Pain Patients

Description: Low back pain has long been estimated to be the most prevalent and debilitating source of chronic pain. The present study first reviews the literature addressing the various theories of pain, the physiological and psychological variables important in pain research, and the psychotherapeutic approaches that have been used to date to reduce pain. Thirty-seven hospitalized chronic back pain patients were administered the cold-pressor test and a medical pain stimulus procedure which was medically relevant to their back pathology. A card-sort method was utilized in order to assess the coping strategies employed by the patients during these two pain stimulus tasks. These procedures were repeated following treatment. Coping strategies used by patients during the two pain tasks were compared. Results demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the manner in which patients coped with the two types of pain. Cold-pressor measures of pain threshold and tolerance were not significantly different between pretreatment and post-treatment. These measures were also not positively correlated with treatment outcome. A multiple regression approach demonstrated that particular coping strategies were significantly predictive of treatment outcome. The medical pain stimulus procedure was found to provide more significant pedictor variables than the cold-pressor test. At pre-treatment assessment, patients who relied on dramatized coping strategies were less likely to be successful in treatment. Breathing activity and pain acknowledgement were positive coping techniques highly predictive of successful outcome in this study. The use of computers for assessment and other recommendations for future research were discussed.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinnant, Donald Wayne

Cognitive Organization, Interpersonal Flexibility and Psychological Maladjustment

Description: Recent research on the contribution of cognitive and social factors to psychopathology has been narrowly focused on isolated cognitive-social aspects of adjustment. This study takes a broader perspective by examining a) cognitive structure in addition to cognitive content and b) general aspects of interpersonal style rather than isolated social behaviors. Maladjustment was. examined with respect to premorbid history as well as current adjustment. The hypotheses were that cognitive integration interacts with cognitive complexity to influence psychological disturbance; that a positive relationship exists between interpersonal flexibility and psychopathology; and that a positive relationship exists between the proportion of ambiguous constructs which they employ and a person's level of psychopathology.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Nicholson, Stephen David

The Effect of Hypnotically-Induced Mood Elevation as an Adjunct to Cognitive Treatment of Depression

Description: Cognitive therapy for the treatment of depression has generated substantial research indicating its effectiveness and it is currently considered among the most viable conceptualizations of depression. However, it has remained controversial because its methods do not directly address emotional symptoms in depressed persons. Treatment of depressed emotions is a primary focus of hypnotic mood elevating techniques. These techniques enable depressed persons to experience positive emotions during hypnosis sessions and to re-experience them daily concurrent with performance of certain specified behaviors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multicomponent treatment which combines the techniques of cognitive therapy and hypnotic mood elevation in the treatment of depressed persons. The three treatment conditions constructed for this investigation were cognitive therapy plus hypnotic mood elevation, cognitive therapy plus pseudo-biofeedback, and no treatment waiting list.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Lucas, Scott Gordon

Effects of a Psychotherapy Presentation on Asians' Therapy Expectations and Help-Seeking Attitudes

Description: The effectiveness of an educational psychotherapy presentation on Asians' therapy expectations and help-seeking attitudes was investigated. Subjects were foreign-born Asian university students. Compared to a non-Asian American normative sample, the Asian group demonstrated significantly less accurate expectations about therapy and less positive attitudes about seeking help for psychological problems. A psychotherapy presentation was used to modify expectations and attitudes. It consisted of an audiotaped lecture on therapist and client roles and the types of problems discussed in therapy. It also included a written transcript of therapist-client dialogues for subjects to read. The experimental group, which received the presentation, was compared to placebo control and delayed-treatment control groups. The psychotherapy presentation did not modify Asians' expectations or attitudes more than the control groups. Instead, all three groups showed improvement at posttest. Because there is a clear need to assess further the therapy expectations and attitudes of Asians, future research was recommended.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Plotkin, Rosette Curcuruto

The Effects of Imaging Ability, Guided Imagery, and Source of Themes on Interview Verbal Behavior

Description: Eighty four female undergraduate students participated in a psychotherapy analog study to determine the effects of imagery ability, guided imagery therapy treatments, and personal versus supplied constructs upon self-disclosure variables in a 2 x 3 x 2 Anova design, with repeated measures on the final factor. Dependent variables were measured by reaction time, total talk time, speech duration, silence quotient, and Doster's (1971) Self-Disclosure Rating Scale. Subjects were divided into two imagery ability levels on the basis of local mean scores on Sheehan's (1967) modification of Betts' (1909) Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery. Three treatment procedures were employed: a guided focal imagery treatment, which encouraged imagery involving the interpersonal topics to be discussed, a guided relaxation imagery treatment which used standard sensory relaxation scenes, and a treatment which imparted ambiguous instructions. The final factor was repeated measures of the eight negative topics the subjects were asked to discuss. Four were chosen from the subjects' Role Construct Repertory Test grid (Kelly, 1955; Landfield, 1971), and four were selected from the Semantic Differential (Snider & Osgood, 1969).
Date: December 1985
Creator: Wixson, Sandra Werre

Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy

Description: This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with previous reports of disturbed mother-daughter relationships among this population. Discriminant analysis revealed that subjects choosing adoption were more likely to be older and to be white than those choosing to keep the child. They also tended to perceive higher levels of expressiveness and independence in their families. Comparisons between the present sample and "normal" families revealed differences which were statistically significant, but quite small in terms of raw score units. Indeed, these groups may be more similar than has often been assumed. The implications of these findings for the delivery of services and for future research efforts in this area ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Warren, Keith Clements

Health Attribution, Client Motivation, and Problem Imagery in the Rehabilitation Applicant: A Study of Rehabilitation Outcome

Description: One hundred persons applying for services with the Texas Rehabilitation Commission with reported disabilities of alcohol/substance abuse or back injury/pain were selected for study. Subjects were assigned to two groups (alcohol or back) according to their reported disability. They were tested within one week of application and after 60 days were checked to see what rehabilitation status they were in to determine success or failure. Alcohol clients were administered the Health Attribution Test (HAT), 16PF, and an Alcohol Imagery questionnaire developed for this study. Back clients were administered the HAT, 16PF, and Pain Drawings. Statistical procedures including Pearson correlation, stepwise discriminant analysis, and discriminant analysis were performed. The HAT Internal Factor showed a significant relationship to rehabilitation success or failure and the 16PF motivation indices approached significance. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that success or failure could be predicted at a significant level using these measures. Issues of practicality in using these instruments (particularly imagery measures) in a rehabilitation counseling practice were noted.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Drake, Roy Vernon

Life Stress and Incidence of Pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia Pain Crises

Description: This study investigated the relationship between stress and pain crisis incidence in pediatric Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA). It was hypothesized that SCA children were exposed to higher levels of stress than healthy children. It was also hypothesized that a significant positive correlation existed between level of stress and pain crisis incidence both within and between years. The sample consisted of 20 Black elementary school children with SCA. There were 12 female and 8 male children. The period of investigation included the calendar years 1983 and 1984. Pain crisis incidence was determined through parent interviews and verified by a review of medical records.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Norsworthy, William Ludy, 1948-

A Measure of Dependency in Patients with Chronic Illness: Clinical Ecology

Description: This study briefly reviews both historical and recent conceptualizations of dependency. In particular, it focuses on this concept's applicability to patients with chronic illnesses, especially those with allergies. Type and degree of dependency were seen as an important factor in the approach to the medical and psychological treatment of clinical ecology patients. The purpose of the study was to develop an objective measure of dependency which could quickly identify patients whose dependency conflicts interfere with the treatment process. The study was divided into three phases. In the first phase test responses by 84 inpatients to the CAQ, MMPI, and the HAT as well as historical and demographic data were analyzed by a series of stepwise discriminant analysis. The 53 resulting items were examined for those which most concisely discriminated between the two identified groups (pathologically dependent and nonpathologically dependent). These 15 items were used to test 120 additional patients in phase II. Fourteen items were retained and the coefficients obtained classified the patients in phase I and II with a 98.81 percent and 94.17 percent degree of accuracy respectively. These classification coefficients were used to classify another 30 patients in phase III with a 96.67 percent rate of accuracy. These results provide exceptionally strong support for the hypothesis that group classification can be obtained through the use of an objective screening instrument. The pathologically dependent patients tend to focus on disease, frequently are unemployed, have histories of childhood illnesses, have limited emotional controls, are depressed, ambivalent, and distrustful. Additionally, they experience difficulty establishing goals or accepting personal responsibility. Those patients identified as nonpathologically dependent exemplify the more positive aspects of these traits. The pathologically dependent patients appear to be caught in a dilemma between wellness and satisfaction of dependency needs. While all patients need an organized approach to treatment, the ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Jones, Frances McManemin

Parkinsonian Personality: Psychometric Description of Intellectual-Motor Functioning

Description: In an attempt to determine the normative levels in health attribution and emotional, intellectual, and neuromuscular functioning in the parkinsonian population, 31 diagnosed parkinsonian volunteers recruited from exercise classes and/or organizations were tested. Health attribution was measured by the Health Attribution Test (HAT), personality factors by the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ), general intellectual level by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Revised (PPVT-R) and the Intellectual Processes subscale of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (Luria- Intelligence), and neuromuscular functioning by the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) and Bender- Gestalt (BVMGT). Controls for comparisons were obtained from the clinical ecology population and normals for personality traits and the nonspecific neurologically impaired, healthy aging populations, and normals for intellectual and neuromuscular functionings. Chi-square and t-tests were computed on the data. Results indicated that the parkinsonians manifest less lower body strength (£ < .01), poorer balance with eyes closed (JD < .01), and slower fine motor speed (p < .05) than normals. The parkinsonians function significantly better in areas involving upper body coordination (p < .01, £ < .05) , slow-controlled movements (g.< .001), BVMGT (p < .05), and PPVT-R (p < .01) than the nonspecific neurologically impaired. On the Luria-Intelligence, 21 percent of the parkinsonians compared to eight percent of the healthy aging were within the limits for brain damage (JD < .01) . Although the parkinsonians are internals for health attribution, their internal orientation is lower and external locus of control higher than the clinical ecology population (j> < .01). The parkinsonians' CAQ profile was significantly different in comparison to the clinical ecology patients on the following CAQ factors: F (impulsivity), H (boldness), N (shrewdness), 0 (insecurity), Q2 (self-sufficiency), D4 (anxious depression), Pp (psychotic deviation), As (psychasthenia), IN (independence), and So (socialization). The parkinsonians' CAQ profile was negative for depression. Their CAQ ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Laverty, Vivian D.

Self-Perception of Health: A Proposed Explanatory Model and a Test of its Clinical Significance

Description: A multivariate model of health self-perceptions was postulated based upon a comprehensive set of health related variables suggested by previous bivariate research. Components of the model included measures of health attitudes, health practices, health locus of control, a measure of stress/ coping, and a physical health measure. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 8 subjects based upon the external measure of physical health which included categories ranging from disability-severe to symptom free-high energy level. All subjects completed a health questionnaire comprised of measures of the model components, two measures of health self-perceptions, and the Health Resource Task, an author designed instrument measuring a subject's ability to generate flexible health alternatives/resources. Bivariate correlational analysis revealed that the physical health, stress/coping, health practices, and locus of control measures and certain of the health attitude subscales were significantly correlated to general health self-ratings. A multivariate model including these variables accounted for almost 50 percent of the variance in one of the general health self-ratings measures and approximately 38 percent of the variance in the Health Resource Task. Suggestions for refining the proposed model were made.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Scherzer, Charles E.

Temperature Biofeedback and Visual Imagery in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches

Description: After an initial four week baseline period, during which headache activity and medication consumption were monitored, 28 migraineurs were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (a) the biofeedback temperature warming group, (b) the visual imagery group, (c) the combined treatment group, or (d) the comparison group. All four groups continued to monitor their headache activity and medication consumption during the eight week treatment period and the eight week follow-up period. A two way analysis of variance computed on groups over time indicated a significant decrease in headache activity and medication consumption. During the follow-up period (a) the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headaches than the biofeedback group or the comparison group and (b) the visual imagery group and the combined treatment group had significantly fewer headache hours than the biofeedback group or the comparison group. These results do not appear to be attributable to differences between groups on the amount of time spent in home practice or subjective ratings of relaxation. There was no consistent relationship between increases in finger temperature and headache activity improvement. Decreases in powerful other scores, as measured by the Health Attribution Test, and increases in subjective ratings of internal control were consistent with a reduction in headache activity and medication consumption.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Clark, Susan Matthews

Mexican Americans: Systematic Desensitization of Racial Emotional Responses

Description: To determine whether or not systematic desensitization treatment would produce a significant reduction in negative affect evoked by racial discrimination, 60 Mexican-American college students who scored above average on the Terrell Racial Discrimination Index were selected and assigned randomly to one of three treatment conditions: systematic desensitization (DS), therapist contact (TC), and no-treatment control (NTC). Before undergoing treatment, subjects completed the Background Information Questionnaire (BIQ), and three measures of negative affect: the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL); the Profile of Mood States (POMS); and the Treatment Rating Scales (TRS). After concluding treatment, subjects completed the three measures of negative affect only. Results were nonsignificant with respect to two of the affect measures—the POMS and the MAACL. However, significant differentia1 treatment effects were observed for the TRS measure. Relative to the TC and NTC conditions, subjects in the DS condition evidenced significantly less anger, depression, and anxiety. No other group differences attained the level of statistical significance (p < .05). Several explanations are offered for the negative findings of the MAACL and POMS. These explanations include the possibility that the measures themselves are insensitive to treatment effects. Nevertheless, due to the significant findings of the TRS, it is concluded that systematic desensitization proves effective in alleviating the negative emotional responses of Mexican Americans to racial discrimination. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Fernandez, Peter, 1961-

Mother-Infant Interaction with Facially Deformed Infants

Description: This study investigated the interactions of facially deformed infants (FD) with their mothers compared to a facially nondeformed control group (FND). All mother-infant dyads were videotaped for 10 minutes during a free play period. Mothers were instructed to spend time with their baby as they normally would. The videotaped interactions of 14 FD dyads and 14 FND dyads were rated by five raters for quality of interactions, amount of vocalization, touch, and face-to-face gaze. The infants were rated on their level of attractiveness from polaroid pictures and videotapes. Mothers also completed a questionnaire which assessed their infants' temperament. Three of the studies' four hypotheses were confirmed. First, the more attractive an infant was, the better his/her interactions with the mother were judged to be. Second, FD infant dyads were rated as significantly poorer in quality of interaction than FND dyads, although FD* dyads did not spend significantly less time vocalizing, touching, or in face-to-face gaze as predicted. A significantly higher percentage of FD infants were judged as having difficult temperament relative to FND infants. Finally, as predicted it was found that infants with difficult temperaments were more likely to exhibit poorer quality interactions than infants with less difficult temperaments. These results have important implications for providing anticipatory guidance to caregivers of FD infants. Without intervention, FD infants appear at risk for subsequent developmental problems stemming from disrupted early mother-infant interactions. Future research should focus on these interactions soon after the infant's birth, attempt to determine if FD infants' emotions can be reliably understood from their facial expressions (as has been found in normal infants) and extend the current research paradigm to include fathers of FD infants.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Sterling, John W. (John Wilson)

Communication and Conflict in Marital Dyads: A Personal Construct Approach

Description: A typology of marital dyads derived from Kelly's (1955) Personal Construct Psychology was used to investigate the communicative behaviors of married companions. Four groups based on Kelly's Commonality (dyadic similarity) and Sociality (dyadic understanding) corollaries were contrasted: similar-understanding, dissimilar-understanding, similar-misunderstanding, and dissimilar-misunderstanding couples. It was expected that dyadic understanding would contribute more to self-disclosure, cooperative involvement, and marital satisfaction than dyadic similarity. Furthermore, it was anticipated that couples high in understanding and low in similarity would represent optimally functioning couples, as evidenced by disclosure, satisfaction, and involvement with each other. Sixty-three married couples who had known each other at least two years completed questionnaire items assessing demographic variables, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale) and self-reported communication behaviors (Partner Communication Inventory, Dyadic Disclosure Inventory). Each spouse also completed an 8 X 8 Repertory Grid and predicted the mate's responses on the Rep Grid. Subjects then participated in three different audio-taped discussion tasks (an informal conversation, a consensus decision-making task, and a role-played conflict-resolution scene) which were rated for avoidant, competitive, and cooperative responses, as well as overall self-disclosure. Although understanding facilitated disclosure in conflict situations and similarity fostered marital satisfaction, communicative behaviors generally reflected the joint influence of both similarity and understanding. Dissimilar-understanding couples were intensely involved with each other and freely disclosed, but were not highly satisfied. Similar-understanding couples were the most content and had the greatest sense of validation as a couple. Similar-misunderstanding couples restricted their relationship by attempting to avoid expected confrontations. Dissimilar-misunderstanding couples viewed themselves in a socially desirable light, tried to maintain congenial, nonintimate interactions, and were moderately contented. Implications for therapeutic programs, for Kelly's theory, and for future research were discussed.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Loos, Victor Eugene

A Comparison of Imagery Relaxation and an Educational Treatment Modality for Dysmenorrhea

Description: This study is a comparison of four treatments involving education and imagery relaxation for the amelioration of dysmenorrhea. Treatment was presented to 76 subjects by videotape during a one-hour session. A six month follow-up was performed using one of the original instruments, the Symptom Severity Scale (Cox & Meyer, 1978) and a questionnaire designed for the study. Analysis of the test instruments indicated a significant treatment effect for the educational group. The second most effective treatment was a combined treatment utilizing imagery relaxation and education, although this group did not produce significant results. The no-treatment control group was more effective in diminishing symptoms than the fourth group, imagery relaxation alone. The lack of effectiveness of the imagery relaxation treatment was hypothesized to be due to lack of reinforcement of the technique. The educational treatment modality offered the individual an opportunity to learn about many different etiological facets of dysmenorrhea, including biological, learning, and cognitive factors. The presentation also introduced the individual to several different treatment modalities in order to provide an armamentarium of effective methods for diminishing or eliminating dysmenorrhea. These results suggest that there is a need for education about dysmenorrhea before menarche, in order to prepare, prevent, treat, and cope with this syndrome.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Skewis, Sally Sweitzer

The Effect of Stress, Anxiety-Proneness and Previous Exposure to Familial Abuse on Violence in Later Relationships

Description: Abuse in adult relationships as affected by stress, anxiety-proneness, and exposure to abuse as a child was examined using 579 North Texas State University undergraduates, Frequency and levels of abuse observed or received as a child and received or expressed as an adult were measured using a modification of Straus' Conflicts Tactics Scale (1979). Anxiety-proneness was determined by scores received on Spielberger's (1970) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Current levels of stress for the past two years were measured using the Life Experiences Survey (Sarason, 1978). Overall frequencies for received and expressed abuse (including physical and verbal abuse) in adult relationships were quite high (62.9 percent and 73.8 percent respectively). Females reported expressing significantly more abuse than did males. No gender differences were found for the receipt of abuse. Gender differences in types of violence were also examined. In addition, multiple regression was used to determine predictor variables for the expression and receipt of abuse. For males, receiving abuse as a child, positive stress scores, higher levels of anxiety-proneness, and observing father's abuse of mother significantly predicted expressing abuse as an adult. Observing mother's abuse of father and positive stress scores significantly predicted receiving abuse as an adult. For females, having received abuse as a child and trait anxiety were significant predictors for the expression of adult abuse. Receiving abuse as a child was the only significant predictor for the receipt of adult abuse. The greater impact of observing abuse between parents on males was discussed. In addition, difficulties confronting researchers in this area and the possible explanations for more frequent reports of female expression of abuse were examined.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Rose, Patricia Riddle

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects or interactions. The analysis of the percentage scores revealed a trend toward differences between the emotions, but in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. Hypnotic susceptibility does not appear to mediate global and analytic responses to the Navon visual information processing task when emotions are being experienced. Results regarding emotions and emotional intensity were discussed in terms of the problems with adequate control and manipulation of mood and intensity level. Difficulties with the Navon measure were also explored with regard to the exposure duration in the Navon task, and its adequacy in measuring shifts in information processing associated with transient ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille

An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

Description: This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective in creating a significant change in performance on the dependent measure. The results are discussed as support for the hypothesized differences between depressives and normals. Differences between the measures used in the present study and that of Crawford and Allen suggest that hypnosis may mediate imagery at a conceptual level but not at the level of the primary visual-perceptual system.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Wilson, Lucy Erma