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Comparison of Group and Individual Methods of Presenting Baldwin's Social Expectations Scale

Description: Forty Ss from introductory psychology classes participated in a study to determine whether or not the investigator's group Social Expectations Scale (SES) was a useful research instrument and to determine whether or not intelligence was a factor determining the fit of a particular cognitive model, the BSE, to the social expectations of Ss as measured by the SES.
Date: May 1971
Creator: Pitts, Emily C.

The Influence of Transcendental Meditation on Anxiety

Description: This study was concerned with the degree to which the practice of transcendental meditation (TM) aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), short form, was given to 16 Ss about to learn the technique of TM and to 16 control Ss. Eighteen weeks later, the TMAS was again administered to both groups. A significant difference was found in TMAS score reduction between the two groups, with the meditation group showing the greater reduction. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that TM aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. It is recommended that further research in this area be undertaken to further validate the results of this study.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Floyd, William T., III

The Effect of Monetary Reward and Knowledge of Results on Complex-Choice Reaction Times

Description: This investigation was designed to determine relative effects of monetary reward and knowledge of results on complex-choice reaction time tasks. Subjects were twenty-five male and thirty-two female undergraduate students. Apparatus consisted of nine stimulus lights and eight response keys. Subjects were required to add the number of lights presented, subtract the sum from a constant, and press the correctly numbered response key. Reward subjects received twenty-five cents for responses faster than a predetermined criterion, and twenty-five cents was deducted for slower responses. Knowledge of results subjects were told their reaction times after each trial. Results indicated (1) no significant differences between any conditions, (2) a significant overall practice effect (.01 level), and (3) that males were significantly faster than females (.01 level).
Date: May 1975
Creator: Davies, Terry Barnett

Learned Helplessness: The Result of the Uncontrollability of Reinforcement or the Result of the Uncontrollability of Aversive Stimuli?

Description: This research demonstrates that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, here defined as continuous non-contingent positive feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, fails to produce the proactive interference phenomenon, learned helplessness, while uncontrollable aversive events, here defined as negative feedback to solution attempts of insoluble problems, produces that phenomenon. These results partially support the "learned helplessness" hypothesis of Seligman (1975) which predicts that experience with uncontrollable reinforcement, the offset of negative events or the onset of positive ones, results in learning that responding is independent of reinforcement and that learning transfers to subsequent situations. This research further demonstrates that experience with controllability, here defined as solubility, results in enhanced competence.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Benson, James S.

Hedonic Versus Predictive Inhibition of Avoidance Responding in Rats

Description: Traditional two-process theory predicts that a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with shock offset on Pavlovian trials will inhibit operant avoidance responding. Two explanations of the inhibitory mechanism involved were compared: contemporaneous pairing of CS with a hedonic relief reaction versus the predictive, discriminative relationship of CS to the non-shock interval. The pattern of avoidance inhibition associated with cessation CSs paired with electric shocks of constant duration was expected to be different from the pattern accompanying cessation CSs paired with shocks of variable duration. Mean rates of responding by the two groups were compared by analysis of covariance using baseline as the covariate. Neither CS displayed any reliably observable effects on avoidance rates. Possible procedural flaws and compatible improvements are discussed.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Lipscomb, Robert Scrivener

Skills Acquisition and Cognitive Restructuring Operations in Training Assertive Behaviors

Description: Behavioral and cognitive skills training for increasing assertive behavior in college students were compared to an equally credible expectancy-control. One significant multivariate function successfully discriminated between the behavioral and control groups, and between the cognitive and control groups. This function was interpreted as showing enhanced behavioral/cognitive construction competencies in the behavioral and cognitive groups. A second function, though not significant, suggested that the cognitive training resulted in more aggressive behavior.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Lefebvre, R. Craig

The Effect of Hypothalamic Stimulation on the Phagocytic Activity of the Reticuloendothelial System

Description: Although research has linked the central nervous system with changes in immunoresponsivity, research on the possible role of the central nervous system in altering reticuloendothelial activity is lacking. This study investigated the possible relationship between hypothalamic structures and changes in responsivity of the reticuloendothelial system. Eight male albino rats received bilateral electrode implants in the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus and, following brain stimulation, reticuloendothelial activity was assessed 3, 6, 12, 24, and 96 hours after stimulation. Brain stimulation decreased phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system. These findings may increase our understanding of a possible neural mechanism underlying relationships between stress and resistance to disease states.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Lambert, Paul Louis

Passive and Active Avoidance Learning in Depressives

Description: In order to aid in the understanding of the personality components that contribute to the symptoms of depression, the learning process of persons labeled as depressed was examined. Twenty female subjects who were either receiving or being evaluated for psychotherapy participated in this study. Based on MMPI and DACL scores, 10 depressed and 10 nondepressed subjects were placed in avoidance learning situations. An active avoidance situation required making the correct button press to avoid a sounding buzzer; the absence of the button-pressing response constituted a passive avoidance situation, There was no significant difference between the two groups in learning across avoidance conditions, Depressives were found 'to be less persistent in responding than were nondepressives. Results were explained as supporting a learned helplessness model of depression.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Weeks, Randall E.

Provocative Versus Neutral Role-Playing Prompts and Assertive Behavior

Description: The behavior role-playing task (BRPT) has become a popular method of assessing assertive behavior. However, current research suggests that situational factors can affect the outcome of such assessments, independently of the subject's level of assertiveness. The present study investigated the effects of one such factor: the type of prompt delivered during the BRPT. It was hypothesized that subjects would respond more assertively to provocatively prompted scenes than to neutral scenes. Twenty nursing students were exposed to BRPTs involving both provocative and neutral role-player prompts. The results revealed that while provocative BRPTs generated significantly greater amounts of self-reported anger and anxiety than did the neutral BRPTs, there were no significant differences in response latency, duration, or assertive content between the two conditions.
Date: December 1979
Creator: General, Dale A.

Attributions for Achievement: Differences as a Function of Sex and Race

Description: The proposed interaction between race and sex on achievement orientation has not been adequately demonstrated when cognitive measures are used. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of sex and race on attributions for achievement., Elementary level students made attributions to ability, effort, task-difficulty, or luck for 16 academic successes or failures described in a questionnaire. Girls made significantly (p < .001) fewer ability and significantly (p < .001) more effort attributions on success items than boys, regardless of their race. Six success items that had been sex-typed (3 girl, 3 boy) provided similar results. Sex-typing data indicated these subjects exhibited strong sex-role stereotypy. Results were discussed in terms of sex-typing of the individual and not the task.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Swick, Rebecca Lund

Patient Behaviors: Development of a Rating System

Description: The patient's failure to cooperate effectively in the patient/physician (patient and physician) interaction has been shown to be a problem of significant magnitude. In the present study, an attempt was made to identify specific, patient behaviors which might be related to physician judgment of a good patient and progress of treatment. A checklist of 37 behaviors was compiled. A series of 100 patients was observed during their interaction with physicians and occurrences of behaviors from the checklist were noted by an experimenter. Physicians also indicated whether the patient was considered to be a good patient and whether treatment was progressing as expected. For every third patient, physicians noted the occurrence of behaviors from the checklist. An association was found between some behaviors from the checklist and the physicians' judgment. There was also shown to be a difference in the ability of the experimenter and the physicians involved to detect these behaviors.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Martin-Cannici, Cynthia Elaine

Peer Counselor Effectiveness in a Study Skills Course

Description: Research has demonstrated the efficacy of attitudinal-motivational counseling in conjunction with study skills training. However, it has not been clear whether group or individual counseling was most beneficial. This research attempted to evaluate the usefulness of peer counselors in group and individual counseling sessions. Using students voluntarily enrolled in a study skills program, it was demonstrated that all students improved in study habit scores. However, only individual-peer counseling was effective in changing academic attitudes (p < . 05), as compared to group-peer counseling, no-counseling, and no-treatment conditions. Grade-point-average change scores were not differentially effected by the treatment conditions.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Till, Steven Michael

Operant Conditioning of the Tongue Flicker Response of Snakes

Description: Sixteen Nerodia rhombifera were used in each of two experiments investigating operant conditioning of the tongue flicker response. A yoked pair design was utilized throughout phases of baseline, continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement, and extinction. During partial reinforcement, one-half of the experimental animals were reinforced FR-4 and the other half were reinforced continuously. Control subjects were treated as were their experimental partners, with the exception of noncontingent reinforcement. Statistical comparisons between means for groups during the CRF phase, partial reinforcement phase, and extinction phase were nonsignificant. However, because some snakes in the experimental groups appeared to show increases in response rate during CRF and FR conditions, the possibility exists that modification of task parameters will produce positive results in future research.
Date: May 1981
Creator: Ward, Rocky

Validity Scale Elevation in Factor Analysis of the MMPI-168

Description: In a statistical comparison of orthogonal normalized varimax factor analytic solutions for the MMPI-168 including and excluding invalid protocols of psychiatric inpatients, at least one factor reflection was observed. Factors identified were Psychotic Distortion (Absence of Distress), Somaticism, Depression, Extroversion, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low Morale. Factors obtained, and representative clinical scales, were consistent with those obtained by others in investigations of both abbreviated and standard MMPI forms. Statistical comparison of factors identified by the two analyses indicated congruence. Possible sources of factor distortion were discussed.
Date: May 1981
Creator: McGraw, Richard Michael

Police Attitudes Toward Rape

Description: Research has demonstrated that the general public accepts many rape myths and that rape attitudes are strongly connected to other deeply held and pervasive attitudes. However, it has not been clear whether police officers reflected similar attitudes. This research attempted to ascertain if police share the same antecedents of rape myth acceptance as the general public. Using officers from two police departments, it was demonstrated that attidudes regarding sex role stereotyping, sexual conservatism, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and adversarial sexual beliefs were significantly correlated with acceptance of rape myths. However, police were more pro-victim (p < .01) in their attitudes as compared to the general public. Officers who received specialized rape-related training were not significantly different in rape attitudes from those officers who had not received training.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Best, Connie Lee

The Interpersonal Communication Inventory: a Measure of Social Skills

Description: The Interpersonal Communication Inventory, a self-report instrument for assessing social skills, was given to undergraduate college students to determine its reliability. Following this administration, other small groups of undergraduates were asked to complete an attraction scale, the Interpersonal Communication Inventory, an assertiveness scale, and a sociometric questionnaire. Results confirmed the Inventory as a reliable instrument, but a stepwise multiple linear regression did not support the hypothesis that the Inventory was a useful predictor of sociometric choice. In addition, Pearson product moment correlations between the Inventory and an assertiveness scale did not confirm the prediction that the two instruments would measure behaviors from different response classes. Definite conclusions could not be stated due to lack of validity data for the Inventory and possible confounding variables.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Armstrong, Betty K.

Effect of Nucleus Circularis and Lateral Preoptic Lesions on Osmotically Induced Drinking

Description: The area most widely associated with osmoreception has been the lateral preoptic nucleus. However, Hatton (1976) proposed that the nucleus circularis could be the actual osmoreceptor in the hypothalamus. The present study supported Hatton by using 30 rats which were randomly assigned to sham, lateral preoptic, and nucleus circularis lesion groups. After a 2-week post-operative period, half of each group was injected with isotonic saline while the other half was injected with hypertonic saline. Water consumption was measured at 10-minute intervals for one hour. Following a 4-day recovery period, the injection procedure was reversed. Analysis of difference scores, computed by subtracting the amount of water consumed after isotonic injection from the amount of water consumed after hypertonic injection, revealed a significant difference between the nucleus circularis group and the other two groups.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Wallace, Forrest Layne

Sex Differences in Performance Expectancies

Description: Previous research demonstrates expectations predict actual performance. These studies evaluated the influence of other variables, specifically task sex orientation, biological gender, and sex-role identification, on performance expectancies. Two studies investigated sex differences in performance expectancies: Study 1 used a task normatively favoring males; Study 2 used a task normatively unbiased by gender. Subjects were 207 undergraduates, approximately equal numbers of males and females. Experimenter sex was controlled. Performance expectancies were influenced by interactions of task sex orientation with biological gender and task sex orientation with sex-role identification, but these variables became secondary to personal experience. These findings were interpreted as having implications on initial choice and consequent involvement in novel activities and situations.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Horne, Amy Beth

Appearance or Function: Factors Related to the Likeability of Handicapped Individuals

Description: Descriptions of obesity, cerebral palsy, and scoliosis were rank-ordered (from one to twenty) and rated on a five-point scale by 75 college students. The descriptions were of two types: with the appearance of an individual on five levels of severity of a disorder and with the appearance and level of functioning of an individual on five levels of severity of a disorder. The ranking data indicated males rank-ordered descriptions of obese individuals different from cerebral palsy (p < 0.01) and scoliosis (p < 0.05) . The ratings of the descriptions were analyzed in two studies with 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 ANOVA's. Three-way interactions of the level of severity, complexity of description, and type of disorder rated were discussed in terms of likeability of handicapped individuals .
Date: May 1983
Creator: Dawson-Black, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann)

Highway Abuse and Violence: Motorists' Experiences as Victims

Description: Only circumscribed aspects of highway aggression have been investigated. The upsurge of abuse and violence transpiring between motorists necessitated a more definitive depiction of the actual events, participants, and relevant contextual features. A questionnaire administered to 120 motorists, aged 18 to 68, solicited a recountal of incidents occurring within 12 months and a description of their most recent encounter. Based on severity of experience, subjects were relegated to distal threat, direct threat, and nonvictim groups. Although most events involved unreported distal threats lasting less than three minutes, men and non-college graduates were more often directly threatened, while non-victims were predominantly women and college graduates. Perpetrators were primarily unknown Caucasian males who generally aggressed in populated areas during afternoon hours.
Date: May 1984
Creator: McAlhany, Deborah A.

Learned Helplessness: Effect on Working Memory and Fluid Intelligence

Description: To determine if learned helplessness treatment debilitates human working memory and fluid intelligence, 60 university students, classified as high or low self-monitors, were assigned to one of three treatments: intermittent (50%) controllable positive feedback, uncontrollable (yoked) negative feedback, and no treatment. Test tasks included backward digit and backward spatial span (representing working memory), matrices (representing fluid intelligence), vocabulary (representing crystallized intelligence), and forward digit and forward spatial span (representing immediate span of apprehension). Results generally were not significant and were discussed as possibly due to ineffective treatment procedure. Further research on this topic is needed.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Fernandez, Peter, 1961-

Handedness, Perceptual and Short Term Memory Asymmetries, and Personality

Description: A large body of research has depicted relative arousal of the left and right cerebral hemispheres as related to utilization of particular defensive coping styles, level of anxiety, and perceptual styles. The right and left hemispheres are also presented in the literature as differing in visual-spatial and verbal-auditory short term memory abilities. The present research studied 127 right handed undergraduates' relative performance on forward spatial and digits memory spans in relation to hemispheric lateralization and other perceptual and personality variables hypothesized in the literature to be related to hemispheric arousal. It was hypothesized that the forward spatial and digit memory spans would display asymmetrical sensitivity to hemispheric arousal. That is, in a series of successive factor analyses, a hemispheric balance factor, a trait anxiety factor, and a short term memory factor would emerge. The three factors were hypothesized to be unrelated to each other. During an initial group pretesting, subjects were given pencil and paper measures of handedness, trait anxiety, and several defensive coping styles. During a second individual testing, subjects were administered measures of short term memory, field independence, and a computerized presentation of geometric designs which measured the subjects ability to detect differences which occurred at either the global or analytic level (Navon task). The factor analyses revealed only the hypothesized trait anxiety factor. The hypothesized short term memory and hemispheric balance of arousal factors did not emerge. Instead, a. defensive coping style factor and separate verbal—auditory and visual-spatial short term memory factors emerged. Several methodological difficulties of the present study which possibly contributed to the failure of the two hypothesized factors to emerge were discussed. Several additional findings, including sex differences in hemispheric lateralization, were presented. Also, signal detection analysis revealed a pattern such that trait anxious subjects were biased toward over-reporting differences on the Navon task. ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Wilcox, Gary A. (Gary Alden)

An Osmoreceptive Zone Around the Nucleus Circularis

Description: The nucleus circularis has been linked to a role in regulating osmotic thirst but evidence has also shown that full bilateral destruction of the nucleus circularis was not necessary to achieve a deficit in drinking behavior after an osmotic challenge. The present study attempted to answer two primary research questions. The first question was whether osmoreceptive cells existed around the nucleus circularis in a homogeneous fashion or if these cells existed in a structured fashion stretching from the nucleus circularis forward. The second question was whether animals with lesions of the nucleus circularis and the surrounding areas were different in normal daily water intake than animals with no lesions. The first question was approached by lesioning the nucleus circularis, the area one millimeter anterior to the nucleus circularis, one millimeter posterior to the nucleus circularis, one half of a millimeter medial to the nucleus circularis and using a sham group which had the electrode passed through the brain to a spot one millimeter above the nucleus circularis but passing no current. All animals were then given an osmotic challenge which consisted of half of each group with an injection of hypertonic saline while the other half of each group was given isotonic saline. After a five-day recovery period, the injection procedure was reversed. Water consumption on each test day was measured at ten-minute intervals for one hour. Difference scores were then computed by subtracting the amount of water consumed after hypertonic saline injection from the amount of water consumed after isotonic saline injection. The difference scores were then used in an analysis of variance which revealed a significant difference between groups. A subsequent post hoc test showed that the nucleus circularis group was different from all other groups except for the anterior lesion group which showed a trend in the ...
Date: August 1985
Creator: Wallace, Forrest Layne