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A Study in Human Resources Utilization: A Critical Examination of the Role of the Self-Concept in the Vocational Choice Process of College Students

Description: The specific problem confronted by this dissertation research is this: Do college students who are quite decided about their vocational choices have more developed and implemented self-concepts than do college students who are quite undecided about their vocational choices? If the decided students have more developed and implemented self-concepts than the undecided students, it can be logically reasoned that the developing and implementing of the self-concept is essential in the vocational choice process of college students. The purpose of this study is to resolve the problem concerning the possible self-conceptual differences between highly decided and highly undecided college students.
Date: December 1971
Creator: Davis, Jefferson Jackson

Impact of the Policies of the National Government on the Organization of Business and Management Styles in India

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to explore the policies of the government of British India and of the independent Republic of India relative to their impact on organizational structure, management practices and styles, and management education in business organizations in India. The British, who were responsible for the growth of some of the organized industries in India, also gave the country, among other things, a modern educational system. They left India, however, with a limited industrial base. There was a serious shortage of professional managers to meet the demands of growing industry. Upon independence, the national government through its policies encouraged the development of business and industries and brought awareness among business managers of the importance of management education.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Khan, Mohamed Afzal

Systems Implementation: a Gaming Approach

Description: The research objective is to demonstrate that a game-implementation process can serve as a means of solving some key implementation problems and for integrating the components associated with developing a quantitative based system. Thus, the study has the following objectives: 1. To demonstrate by means of a case study example that gaming can be successfully employed as a systems implementation tool. 2. To identify a game-implementation approach which would be useful in developing and implementing a quantitative based system.
Date: May 1972
Creator: Davis, Kenneth Roscoe

The Separation of Rehabilitation from Production Costs in the Vocational Rehabilitation Workshop

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is the separation of rehabilitation from production costs in vocational rehabilitation workshops. Within workshops there are those functions and tasks—testing, counseling, and the administration thereof—which clearly are rehabilitative. The costs of these activities, therefore, are solely rehabilitation costs. In the production area of workshop operations, however, where production and rehabilitation efforts are intertwined, two kinds of costs are incurred simultaneously: (l) rehabilitation or training costs and (2) production costs. As yet, no generally accepted procedures exist for separating these joint costs.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Houston, William Stanley, 1936-

A Study to Determine the Significance of Market Penetration in the Consumer Electronic Products Industry

Description: The purposes of this study were to prepare an analysis of the size, growth, structure, and problems of the industry; determine the influence of imports on the general structure of the industry; determine the significance of market penetration to domestic manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and foreign manufacturers and importers; and examine the market penetration reporting mechanism, its accuracy, usefulness, promptness in feedback of data, and the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining secrecy of data.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Thornton, Nelson LeRoy

A System of Selection and Human Resource Development for Small Retailers of Apparel and Accessories

Description: The study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the extent to which organized selection and training practices exist in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments, and the general attitude which small retailers of apparel and accessories express toward the value of selection and training functions. The second is to construct a practical system which can be used in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Burr, Patricia LeMay

Executive Participation in Innovation as a Function of Age and Tenure

Description: This study is designed to investigate the relationship between the age and tenure of the chief executive officer of a corporation and his participation in innovation. The chief executive is assumed to be the key participant in the innovation process. Two questions form the basis of the study, Firsts, are younger chief executives more innovative than older executives? And second, does the tenure of chief executives affect performance in innovation?
Date: August 1973
Creator: Donnelly, Clifford V.

A Model for a Humanized Work Climate, and the Effects of Occupation Choice and Education Level on Students' Attitudes Toward an Operational Definition of Such a Climate

Description: This investigation determines students' attitudes toward a "humanized" work climate. The possibility that attitudes developed before entering the labor force contribute to the lack of such environments is the basis of the research design. A review of motivation theories, relevant research and experiences of some "humanized" firms precedes the development of a model for a humanized climate. The three main elements of the model--team activity, the product, and the self-concept--are interconnected by elements such as self-control, job performance, autonomy, goal definition, and learning. The research questionnaire, a thirty-onestatement, Likert-type instrument, elicits attitudes about the time-task aspect of Kahn's "Work-Module." A Cronbach Alpha Coefficient of 0.74 indicates an acceptable reliability. The subjects, all male, were seventy senior business students at North Texas State University, fifty-six high school senior academic students from the Richardson, Texas ISD, thirty-two high school vocational students from the Garland, Texas ISD, and twenty-nine college vocational students from the El Centro Branch of the Dallas County Community College System. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance revealed a significant difference (P = 0.0038) between attitudes of vocational and non-vocational students. Vocational students apparently value an autonomous work situation. They prefer a job which permits them to develop and use four or five work skills, because that type of job appeals to their self-concept and promises economic and vocational security. However, students in academic programs consider their economic and job security best protected by structured and specialized jobs. Individuals who aspire to own their own business also prefer the structured climate; others prefer the autonomous environment. The difference in attitude between the two education levels was significant at P < 0.20. The education process appears to be associated with preference for a more structured work climate, in the case of both academic and vocational students. Education also appears to ...
Date: 1974
Creator: Graham, John C. (John Campbell), 1930-

The Impact of Non-monetary Performance Measures Upon Budgetary Decision Making in the Public Sector

Description: This study addresses in an exploratory fashion the following questions. 1. Would non-monetary performance measures grouped into a statement of public efforts and accomplishments significantly reduce the uncertainty of decision makers concerning past entity performance? 2. Would knowledge of such data alter their resultant budgetary decisions?
Date: May 1984
Creator: Reed, Sarah Auman

The Association Between the Establishment of Audit Committees Composed of Outside Directors and a Change in the Objectivity of the Management Results-Reporting Function: an Empirical Investigation Into Income Smoothing Patterns

Description: The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the effect of the establishment of outside audit committees on the objectivity of the management results-reporting practices of those companies that established such committees in response to the New York Stock Exchange mandate effective June 30, 1978. Management income smoothing behavior is taken as a measurable surrogate for the objectivity of the management results-reporting practices. This research involved the testing of one research problem. The research question asks, "Will the establishment of outside audit committees by companies that had no such committees prior to the New York Stock Exchange mandate effective June 30, 1978, be associated with a decrease in the degree of smoothing in the net income series for the period after that date relative to the degree of smoothing prior to that date?" The answer to this question required the selection of an experimental and a control group. Each group was composed of fifty New York Stock Exchange listed firms. Linear and semi-log regression models were used to measure each firm's degree of income smoothing (defined as reducing the variability of a net income series about its trend line). The change in mean square errors of the experimental and control groups was compared using the chisquare and median tests. Neither the chi-square or the median test found a statistically significant increase in the objectivity of the management results-reporting function for the firms that established outside audit committees in response to the NYSE mandate effective June 30, 1978.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Roubi, Raafat Ramadan

An Empirical Investigation of the Discriminant and Predictive Ability of the SFAS No. 69 Signals for Business Failure in the Oil and Gas Industry

Description: In 1982, the Financial Accounting Board (FASB) issued Statment of Financial Accounting Standards No. 69 (SFAS No. 69) which required oil and gas producing companies to disclose supplementary information to the basic financial statements. These disclosures include, costs incurred, capitalized costs, reserve quantities, and a standardized measure of discounted cash flows. The FASB considered these disclosures to be necessary to compensate for the deficiencies in historical cost financial statements. The usefulness of the new signals created by SFAS No. 69, however, is an empirical question and research regarding that objective is lacking. The objective of the study is to test the usefulness of SFAS No. 69. The research strategy used to achieve that objective is to compare the discriminant and predictive power of SFAS No. 69 signals or SFAS No. 69 signals combined with financial signals to that of financial signals alone. The research hypothesized that SFAS No. 69 signals by themselves or as supplmentary to financial signals have more discriminant and predictive ability for business failure in oil and gas industry than do financial signals alone. In order to test that hypothesis, the study used the multiple discriminant analysis technique (MDA) to develop three equations. The first is based on SFAS NO. 69 signals, the second on financial statement signals, and the third on joint financial and SFAS No. 69 signals. Data were collected from the 10-K's arid the annual reports of 28 oil and gas companies (14 failed and 14 nonfailed). The analysis was repeated for four time bases, one year before failure, two years before failure, three years before failure, and the average of the three years immediately before failure. After assessing the discriminant and predictive ability of each equation in the four time bases, a t-test was used to determine a significant difference in the discriminant ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Eldahrawy, Kamal

Impact of Query Specification Mode and Problem Complexity on Query Specification Productivity of Novice Users of Database Systems

Description: With the increased demand for the utilization of computerized information systems by business users, the need for investigating the impact of various user interfaces has been well recognized. It is usually assumed that providing the user with assistance in the usage o-f a system would significantly increase the user's productivity. There is, however, a dearth of systematic inquiry into this commonly held notion to verify its validity in a scientific fashion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of system-provided user assistance and complexity level of the problem on novice users' productivity in specifying database queries. The study is theoretical in the sense that it presents an approach adopted from research in deductive database systems to attack problems concerning user interface design. It is empirical in that it conducts an experiment in a controlled laboratory setting to collect primary data for the testing of a series of hypotheses. The two independent variables are system-provided user assistance and problem complexity, while the dependent variable is the user's query specification productivity. Three measures are used as separate indicators of query specification productivity: number of syntactic errors, number of semantic errors, and time required for completing a query task. Due to the lack of a well-defined metric for user assistance, the study first presents a generic classification scheme for relational query specification. Based on this classification scheme, two quantitative metrics for measuring the amount of user assistance in terms of prompts and defaults were developed. The user assistance is operationally defined with these two metrics. Four findings emerge as significant results of the study. First, user assistance has a significant main effect on all of the three dependent measures at the 1 percent significance level. Second, problem complexity also has a significant impact on the three productivity measures at the ...
Date: December 1985
Creator: Jih, Wen-Jang

The Impact of Strategic Management on Organizational Effectiveness in Jesuit Colleges and Universities

Description: The organizational effectiveness and strategic management areas of organizational theory are the general focus of this study. Organizational effectiveness is defined as the extent to which an organization by the use of certain resources fulfills its objectives without depleting its resources and without placing undue strain upon its members and/or society. Strategic management is defined as an array of processes which leads to the development of an effective approach to achieve the organization's objectives. Little agreement appears to exist on how to evaluate organizational effectiveness and to what extent strategic management impacts organizational effectiveness. This is the problem this study addressed. This study presents an extensive review of the literature, formulates some syntheses and utilizes a questionnaire to gather pertinent data. The sample of respondents consisted of a group of key administrators from all the Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States. The questionnaire had a ninety percent response rate. This study was primarily a correlation study which emphasized the perceptions of the respondents regarding the elements and/or processes of strategic management and the concepts of organizational effectiveness. The Chi-Square and Spearman rank order tests were utilized for statistical measures. The analysis of data revealed any significant relationships between (1) the elements and/or processes of strategic management and (2) the concepts related to organizational effectiveness.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Favilla, Edward S.

Machine Tool Spare Parts Provisioning for Manufacturers: A Study and Application for Industries Engaged in Aluminum Cutting and Shaping

Description: This study identifies the concepts of reliability, cost of downtime, cost of spare parts, and procurement lead time as the four key moderators of spare parts availability. These concepts are used to establish a model to manage spare parts inventories. Reliability was assessed in terms of developing failure predictions for major component categories. Cost of downtime was evaluated by identifying various methods for determining costs associated with downtime. Cost of spare parts was examined to find correlations with economic indicators. These correlations were used to predict future price movements. Yearly changes in lead time were identified and correlated with economic indexes to develop movement predictability.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Barker, David W.

The Prediction of Industrial Bond Rating Changes: a Multiple Discriminant Model Versus a Statistical Decomposition Model

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of statistical decomposition measures in the prediction of industrial bond rating changes. Further, the predictive ability of decomposition measures is compared with multiple discriminant analysis on the same sample. The problem of this study is twofold. It stems in general from the statistical problems associated with current techniques employed in the study of bond ratings and in particular from the lack of attention to the study of bond rating changes. Two main hypotheses are tested in this study. The first is that bond rating changes can be predicted through the use of financial statement data. The second is that decomposition analysis can achieve the same performance as multiple discriminant analysis in duplicating and predicting industrial bond rating changes. To explain and predict industrial bond rating changes, statistical decomposition measures were computed for each company in the sample. Based on these decomposition measures, the two types of analyses performed were (a) a univariate analysis where each decomposition measure was compared with an industry average decomposition measure, and (b) a multivariate analysis where decomposition measures were used as independent variables in a probability linear model. In addition to statistical decomposition analysis, multiple discriminant analysis was used in duplicating and predicting bond rating changes. Finally, a comparison was made between the predictive abilities of decomposition analysis and discriminant analysis.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Metawe, Saad Abdel-Hamid

Communication Quality in Information Systems Development: The Effect of Computer-Mediated Communication on Task-Oriented Problem Solving

Description: The problem motivating this research is that ineffective communication may hamper systems development efforts. Specifically germane to this study are development efforts characterized as task-oriented, and which require information-sharing and problem-solving activities. This research problem motivated an analysis of the communication process and lead to the development of a temporal framework that delineates variables associated with task-oriented, end user/systems analyst communication interactions. Several variables within this framework are depicted in two theoretical models. The first model shows the theoretical relationship between an independent variable, communication mode (represented by asynchronous computer conferencing and face-to-face conferencing), and five dependent variables: (1) the amount of information shared, (2) the significance of the information shared, (3) the comprehensiveness of the information shared, (4) the perception of progress toward the goal, and (5) the perception of freedom to participate. The second model depicts the assumed interaction between communication mode, the five variables cited above (now acting as independent variables), and a dependent variable, communication quality. There are two theoretical components of communication quality: (1) deviation from an optimal set of user requirements, and (2) the degree of convergence (unity based on mutual understanding and mutual agreement) emanating from a communication interaction. Using the theoretical models as a guide, an experiment was designed and performed to test the relationships among the variables. The experimental results led to the rejection of all null hypotheses; the results strongly favored face-to-face conferencing for solving task-oriented, information-sharing problems analagous to the case used in the present study. The findings indicate that asynchronous computer conferencing may have a detrimental effect on the thoroughness of information exchange, on the relevance of the information shared in terms of making the correct decision, and on the completeness of the consideration given to all problem dimensions.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Smith, Jill Yvonne

A Comparative Study of Internal and External Auditors' Judgment of Internal Auditor Independence

Description: The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence relevant to perceptions of internal auditor independence. Specifically, this study investigates how the auditor practitioners (both internal and external auditors) perceive the importance of five selected factors that characterize the organizational settings of an internal audit department. Role theory is the frame of reference used to develop the conceptual model for this study in which the judgment of internal auditor independence is viewed as the role perception of internal auditors. A modified version of the Brunswik's lens model was developed to provide "paramorphic" representation of judgment of independence. The research methodology of this study is based upon a laboratory experiment in which a replicated factorial design was used to elicit the subjects' judgments of independence. The data collected from this experiment were analyzed by three statistical methods: conjoint measurement, multiple regression, and cluster analysis. The major findings follow. First, the five selected factors were not perceived as equally important by the subjects. In general, internal auditor's scope of audit. scope o^ service, and reporting level were perceived as more important than adequacy of organizational support. and formalization of audit policies. Second, the two groups of auditors disagree, significantly, on the relative importance of scope of internal audit service. Third, while large individual differences existed on the relative importance of the five selected factors, the degree of judgment consensus, in general, is high within each auditor group. Fourth, the internal auditor's perceived role conflict and role ambiguity were inversely related to his perceived level of professional autonomy. Finally, the internal auditors' judgments were not notably affected by the perceptions of their own organizational environment. However, as evidenced by the different types of experienced role conflict and ambiguity, the nature of these auditors' environment varied considerably, Given the above findings, the following ...
Date: May 1986
Creator: Pei, Ker-Wei

Futures-Forward Price Differences and Efficiency in the Treasury Bill Futures Market

Description: This study addressed two issues. First, it examined the ability of two models, developed by Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (CIR), to explain the differences between futures and implicit forward prices in the thirteen-week T-bill market. The models imply that if future interest rates are stochastic, futures and forward prices differ; the structural difference is due to the daily settlement process required in futures trading. Second, the study determined the efficiency of the thirteen-week T-bill futures market using volatility and regression tests. Volatility tests use variance bounds to examine whether futures prices are excessively volatile for the market to be efficient. Regression tests investigate whether futures prices are unbiased predictors of future spot prices. The study was limited to analysis of the first three futures contracts, using weekly price data as reported in the Wall Street Journal from March, 1976 to December, 1984. Testing of the first CIR model involved determination of whether changes in futures-forward price differences are related to changes in local covariances between T-bill futures and bond prices. The same procedure applied in testing the second model with respect to changes in futures-forward price differences, local covariances between T-bill spot and bond prices, and local variances of bond prices. Volatility tests of market efficiency involved comparison of mean variances on both sides of two inequality equations. Regression tests involved determination of whether slope coefficients are significantly different from zero.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Wong, Alan, 1954-

Budget-Related Prediction Models in the Business Environment with Special Reference to Spot Price Predictions

Description: The purpose of this research is to study and improve decision accuracy in the real world. Spot price prediction of petroleum products, in a budgeting context, is the task chosen to study prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy of executives in a multinational oil company is examined. The Brunswik Lens Model framework is used to evaluate prediction accuracy. Predictions of the individuals, the composite group (mathematical average of the individuals), the interacting group, and the environmental model were compared. Predictions of the individuals were obtained through a laboratory experiment in which experts were used as subjects. The subjects were required to make spot price predictions for two petroleum products. Eight predictor variables that were actually used by the subjects in real-world predictions were elicited through an interview process. Data for a 15 month period were used to construct 31 cases for each of the two products. Prediction accuracy was evaluated by comparing predictions with the actual spot prices. Predictions of the composite group were obtained by averaging the predictions of the individuals. Interacting group predictions were obtained ex post from the company's records. The study found the interacting group to be the least accurate. The implication of this finding is that even though an interacting group may be desirable for information synthesis, evaluation, or working toward group consensus, it is undesirable if prediction accuracy is critical. The accuracy of the environmental model was found to be the highest. This suggests that apart from random error, misweighting of cues by individuals and groups affects prediction accuracy. Another implication of this study is that the environmental model can also be used as an additional input in the prediction process to improve accuracy.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Kumar, Akhil