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Studies on the mechanism of protection by carotenoids against photodynamic killing in Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pathover poinsettiae

Description: The mechanism of protection by carotenoids against photodynamic killing in Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pathover poinsettiae (C. poinsettae)was studied using pigment mutants isolated by treatment with nitrosuguandine and DNA gyrase inhibitors.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Abusada, Gabi M. (Gabi Michael)

Exploratory Analysis of Social E-health Behavior

Description: Extant literature has documented well that people seek health information via the internet as patients and consumers. Much less, however, is known about interaction and creation behaviors in the development of new online health information and knowledge. More specifically, generalizable sociodemographic data on who engages in this online health behavior via social media is lacking in the sociological literature. The term “social e-health” is introduced to emphasize the difference between seeking behaviors and interaction and creation behaviors. A 2010 dataset of a large nationally representative and randomly sampled telephone survey made freely available from the Pew Research Center is used to examine social e-health behavior according to respondents’ sociodemographics. The dependent variable of social e-health behavior is measured by 13 survey questions from the survey. Gender, race, ethnicity, age, education, and income are used as independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of engagement in social e-health behavior based on the sociodemographic predictors. The social determinants of health and digital divide frameworks are used to help explain why socioeconomic variances exist in social e-health behavior. The findings of the current study suggest that predictable sociodemographic patterns along the dimensions of gender, race, age, education, and income exist for those who report engaging in social e-health behavior. This study is important because it underscores the fact that engagement in social e-health behavior is differentially distributed in the general U.S. population according to patterned sociodemographics.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Acadia, Spencer

Cooperative Strategy and Sources of Knowledge Integration Capability and Innovation: A Relational View

Description: Faced with the challenges to addressing the novelties of the changing business environments (e.g., new customer requirement, changes in customers taste and preferences, the introduction of new products or services by competitors), organizations seek to build collaboration among their employees who possess complementary knowledge. Integrating complementary knowledge enhances employees' ability to address environmental challenges and foster innovation. Despite the importance of knowledge integration for innovation, integration of such knowledge becomes difficult when employees lack a shared understanding of knowledge, and when the knowledge is newly generated. Because new knowledge is tacit in nature and highly personal to a particular individual, it is difficult to articulate, making knowledge integration (KI) an arduous task. Lack of shared understanding, the presence of new knowledge, and lack of common interests in employees creates three types of knowledge boundaries – syntactic (information processing) boundaries, semantic (interpretive) boundaries, and pragmatic (political) boundaries. The presence of knowledge boundaries makes it difficult for employees to share and access their knowledge with each other. To overcome the challenges related to the knowledge boundaries, employees use boundary-spanning objects, which are common lexicons, common meaning, and common interests, to share and access their knowledge across the boundaries. Although prior studies have emphasized the importance of knowledge integration of various knowledge sources for innovations, examinations of what enhances KI capability of employees for organizational innovation remain limited. In addition, apart from Carlile, (2004) and Franco (2013), which are both case studies, other studies that examine the role of boundary spanning objects for knowledge integration are missing. The knowledge management literature also fails to measures (the success of common lexicons, common meaning, and common interests for achieving KI capability) boundary spanning objects. Therefore, in this study, new measurement items of boundary spanning objects and novelty are developed to test the hypotheses. A survey-based ...
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Date: August 2016
Creator: Acharya, Chandan

The Meaning of Elder Abuse

Description: Elder abuse first received national attention in 1980, as the subject of a congressional investigation. Now, 20 years later, establishing successful strategies of identification, subsequent intervention, and prevention of abuse is of paramount importance; but progress toward this goal is hindered by lack of consensus as to the definition of elder abuse, and the use of vague, confusing, and sometimes contradictory terms in its discussion. In this paper, both social research and professional approaches and legal approaches to the definition of elder abuse are surveyed, as are definitions formulated for the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study conducted by the National Center on Elder Abuse. The continuing need for a universal or standard definition is emphasized.
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Date: May 2000
Creator: Achilli, Raye

Love Attitudes and Marital Adjustment Through Five Stages of the Marital Life-Cycle in Protestant Nigerian Society

Description: This study examined the relationship between love attitude and marital adjustment across five stages of the marital life-cycle in Nigerian society. The subjects for this study were 202 volunteers from six protestant churches representing six cities in the southern part of Nigeria. An average of 20 couples were representatives of each of the five marital life-cycles. Each of the subjects completed the Love Attitude Inventory (LAI), and the Marital Adjustment Test (short form) (MAT). Wilk's multivariate analysis revealed no significant differences between husbands' and wives' love attitude and marital adjustment across the five stages of the marital life cycle. Multivariate analysis split-plot 5.2 with repeated measures revealed no significant difference for the total sample among the groups, but indicated a significant difference between love attitude and marital adjustment for the total sample using sex as a factor. A univariate test of the MAT and LAI indicated that the MAT accounted for the difference. A canonical correlation indicated a significant positive relationship between husbands1 and wives' marital adjustment and love attitude within each of the five groups. The findings suggest that husbands and wives included in this study have a good understanding of their roles in the marriage relationship and that the partners have general agreement regarding those roles. The marriage partners apparently have strong influences on each other's perceptions of love attitude and marital adjustment.
Date: December 1988
Creator: Acho, Onyebuchi S. (Onyebuchi Sunday)

Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

Description: This descriptive, non-experimental study examines the strength of the relationship between California school library media programs and student achievement, using data from California criterion-referenced state-wide tests, publically available school and community demographic data, and a state survey of school library programs. Results indicate a substantial discrepancy in library staffing levels from the elementary grades through the high schools. Nevertheless, statistically significant correlations were found between certificated staffing levels and student achievement at each grade. Significant correlations persisted at the elementary and middle school when controlling for five of six school and community variables, and at the high school when controlling for all six of those variables. Bivariate correlations between total staffing and student achievement were significant at both the middle school and high school level when controlling for all school and community variables. Generally, the strength of the correlations between both certificated and total staffing tended to increase with grade level; at the high school level, correlations were among the strongest reported in any statewide study to date. There was a significant positive relationship between a majority of the 21 library services regularly provided and student achievement at all levels. Total library services were significantly related to student achievement at all levels when controlling for all school and community variables. In multiple regression analyses, there was an increasingly stronger relationship between total library programs and student achievement by grade level when controlling for all school and community variables. At every level, certificated and total staffing levels were associated with the strength of library program elements. The findings from this study confirm a host of prior research on the relationship between school libraries and student achievement and point to inequitable access to school library services in California. Results from this study might also provide a baseline of data for qualitative research ...
Date: December 2008
Creator: Achterman, Douglas L.

Victorian Ideology and British Children's Literature 1830-1914

Description: This dissertation shows the ideas of Victorian England, 1850-1914, as reflected in Victorian children's literature. To establish the validity of studying children's literature as a guide to the Victorian age, it was necessary first to show that children's literature in those years reflected and promoted adult ideals. Sources used include not only works by established authors but also children's periodicals and transient writings like "penny dreadfuls." There are four background chapters: an introduction, a brief social history, a history of publishing for children, and an examination of Victorian children's authors. Six chapters examine Victorian children's literature in relation to specific historical themes: class structure; the social problems of poverty; temperance; morality, manners, religion, and science; patriotism; and natives, slavery, and missionaries in relation to imperialism. Many findings support accepted historical theories. Attitudes on social class revealed definite class separations, mobility, and obligations. Stories on poverty and child labor show Victorian concern, but suggest few solutions other than charity. Literary items on religion and morality reflect a dominance of evangelical values. There was a morality separate from religion, and it was not threatened by the new developing science; indeed, the materials examined reveal how Victorians tried to reconcile the new science with theology. Religious obligations helped to promote and justify English nationalism and imperialism. Victorian children's literature also shows clearly that English imperialism existed before the late Victorian era, a finding which supports the Robinson and Gallagher thesis. In a survey of selected periodicals from 1861 to 1886, the number of items concerning imperialism followed a continuous growth pattern. Social Darwinism became an element of imperialism later in the Victorian age. Items on religion as distinct from morality declined in number. This survey also showed that the number of literary items about social problems remained almost constant, a demonstration of the ...
Date: December 1984
Creator: Ackerman, Ann Trugman

A Study to Determine the Relationship of Versatile Behavior to Individual Demographics, Job Characteristics, Organizational Climate Performance Feedback and Job Satisfaction

Description: The behavioral characteristics of leaders have been subjects of study for centuries. The scope of these studies has grown to encompass task analysis, follower needs and situational requirements. Current leadership theories consistently recognize the need for a successful leader to adjust behavior to meet the needs of the task, followers and situation. The problem of this research is to define this ability to modify one's behavior, measure it and test its relationship to demographic and job characteristics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation of individuals" ability to modify their behavior to job function, hierarchy, climate, feedback, satisfaction and their demographic characteristics. The hypotheses held that high ability to modify behavior would correlate positively with job characteristics, climate, feedback and satisfaction and show no correlation to individual demographics. Data were collected through the administration of three research instruments to 138 managers of three business firms. The instruments were the Participant Data Form providing job and demographic characteristics, Descriptive Adjective Questionnaire measuring an individual ability to modify behavior, and Climate and Satisfaction Evaluation Index measuring climate, feedback and satisfaction. Perason's correlation coefficients were calculated to identify possible relationship between the manager's ability to modify behavior, called versatility, and all other independent variables, and linear and multiple regressions were utilized to verify the relationship. No significant statistical correlation was found. Conclusions are that the ability of a manager to vary behavior does not influence job climate, feedback or satisfaction, that the versatile behavior is not derived from job or demographic characteristics, and that job satisfaction is directly and positively related to performance feedback and climate.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Ackerman, Raymond L. (Ramond Lorens)

DNA-DNA Hybridization of Methane Oxidizing Bacteria

Description: Bacteria classified in the family Methylomonadaceae must derive their carbon from one-carbon compounds. They are characterized by the possession of internal membranes of two types. Type I membranes are layered and fill the middle of the cells while type II membranes form concentric layers around the periphery of the cells. Also, there are two metabolic pathways by which the methylobacteria assimilate one-carbon compounds. Further evidence of this dichotomy was sought by DNA-DNA saturation hybridization of DNAs from both types of methylobacteria. Very low DNA-DNA homology was seen between types I and II or within the types. It was not possible, therefore, to correlate the degree of genetic relatedness with either the nature of the internal membranes or the pathway of carbon assimilation.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Ackerson, Jill W.

Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico

Description: The native population collapse in 16th century Mexico was a demographic catastrophe with one of the highest death rates in history. Recently developed tree-ring evidence has allowed the levels of precipitation to be reconstructed for north central Mexico, adding to the growing body of epidemiologic evidence and indicating that the 1545 and 1576 epidemics of cocoliztli (Nahuatl for "pest") were indigenous hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by rodent hosts and aggravated by extreme drought conditions.
Date: 2002
Creator: Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K. & Therrell, Matthew D.

A Working Bibliography on the Art of Drawing

Description: This working bibliography of 835 publications on the art of drawing is presented in five categories: Educational and Psychological, Historical, "How-to," Technical, and Techniques of Teaching Drawing. The latter category is annotated, offering a synthesis of the areas of art education and drawing. This bibliography is designed for scholars, artists, and teachers as well as students of the many facets of drawing.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Adair, Rosalind Emily

Vibrational Spectra and Potential Function of Tetrachlorocyclopropene

Description: The laser Raman spectra of tetrachlorocyclopropene in the liquid and solid phases have been recorded and vibrational assignments are presented. These results along with root mean squared vibrational amplitudes from electron diffraction data have been employed in a normal coordinate analysis in which a 19 parameter potential function is refined. This potential function, originally expressed in terms of compliance constants, is then used to derive the corresponding conventional and relaxed force constants.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Adame, I. Ernesto (Ignacio Ernesto)

Online Construction of Android Application Test Suites

Description: Mobile applications play an important role in the dissemination of computing and information resources. They are often used in domains such as mobile banking, e-commerce, and health monitoring. Cost-effective testing techniques in these domains are critical. This dissertation contributes novel techniques for automatic construction of mobile application test suites. In particular, this work provides solutions that focus on the prohibitively large number of possible event sequences that must be sampled in GUI-based mobile applications. This work makes three major contributions: (1) an automated GUI testing tool, Autodroid, that implements a novel online approach to automatic construction of Android application test suites (2) probabilistic and combinatorial-based algorithms that systematically sample the input space of Android applications to generate test suites with GUI/context events and (3) empirical studies to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of our techniques on real-world Android applications. Our experiments show that our techniques achieve better code coverage and event coverage compared to random test generation. We demonstrate that our techniques are useful for automatic construction of Android application test suites in the absence of source code and preexisting abstract models of an Application Under Test (AUT). The insights derived from our empirical studies provide guidance to researchers and practitioners involved in the development of automated GUI testing tools for Android applications.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Adamo Jr., David T

Joint Schemes for Physical Layer Security and Error Correction

Description: The major challenges facing resource constraint wireless devices are error resilience, security and speed. Three joint schemes are presented in this research which could be broadly divided into error correction based and cipher based. The error correction based ciphers take advantage of the properties of LDPC codes and Nordstrom Robinson code. A cipher-based cryptosystem is also presented in this research. The complexity of this scheme is reduced compared to conventional schemes. The securities of the ciphers are analyzed against known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks and are found to be secure. Randomization test was also conducted on these schemes and the results are presented. For the proof of concept, the schemes were implemented in software and hardware and these shows a reduction in hardware usage compared to conventional schemes. As a result, joint schemes for error correction and security provide security to the physical layer of wireless communication systems, a layer in the protocol stack where currently little or no security is implemented. In this physical layer security approach, the properties of powerful error correcting codes are exploited to deliver reliability to the intended parties, high security against eavesdroppers and efficiency in communication system. The notion of a highly secure and reliable physical layer has the potential to significantly change how communication system designers and users think of the physical layer since the error control codes employed in this work will have the dual roles of both reliability and security.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Adamo, Oluwayomi Bamidele

VLSI Architecture and FPGA Prototyping of a Secure Digital Camera for Biometric Application

Description: This thesis presents a secure digital camera (SDC) that inserts biometric data into images found in forms of identification such as the newly proposed electronic passport. However, putting biometric data in passports makes the data vulnerable for theft, causing privacy related issues. An effective solution to combating unauthorized access such as skimming (obtaining data from the passport's owner who did not willingly submit the data) or eavesdropping (intercepting information as it moves from the chip to the reader) could be judicious use of watermarking and encryption at the source end of the biometric process in hardware like digital camera or scanners etc. To address such issues, a novel approach and its architecture in the framework of a digital camera, conceptualized as an SDC is presented. The SDC inserts biometric data into passport image with the aid of watermarking and encryption processes. The VLSI (very large scale integration) architecture of the functional units of the SDC such as watermarking and encryption unit is presented. The result of the hardware implementation of Rijndael advanced encryption standard (AES) and a discrete cosine transform (DCT) based visible and invisible watermarking algorithm is presented. The prototype chip can carry out simultaneous encryption and watermarking, which to our knowledge is the first of its kind. The encryption unit has a throughput of 500 Mbit/s and the visible and invisible watermarking unit has a max frequency of 96.31 MHz and 256 MHz respectively.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Adamo, Oluwayomi Bamidele

Someone to Talk to: Conversations Between Friends in a Junior High Lunch Room

Description: Quantitative studies dominate early adolescence research, a field which also lacks an understanding of communication behaviors between early adolescents. This study uses the qualitative methods of participant observation and informal interviews to observe conversations between girls in a junior high lunch room. Friendship characteristics and group socialization are discussed as they emerged from the field data. First, friendship hierarchies (best friend, close friend, and friend) may be adult-imposed structures. Hierarchies are not prominent in the minds of friends as they relate to each other in daily conversation. Second, friendship groups serve to socialize early adolescent girls.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Adams, Brenda Inglis

An Analysis of Perceptions of Teacher Effectiveness

Description: The study was designed to determine and compare the perceptions of various groups with regard to the most and the last important characteristics and behaviors of effective teachers. The population for the study included (a) four groups of high school graduates selected at five year intervals beginning with 1980, (b) four groups of high school dropouts selected from the same five year intervals, (c) high school teachers, (d) high school principals and central office administrators, and (f) teacher educators. The instrument used to determine perceptions was a 28 item Q-sort. The items of the Q-sort were developed from a review of the literature on teacher effectiveness and from a review of the criteria for the evaluation of teacher effectiveness as used by the school district in which the study was conducted. The Q-sort items were deemed valid by a panel of teacher educators.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Adams, Byrtie Baker